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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457836/deptor-suppresses-lipogenesis-and-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-acute-on-chronic-liver-injury-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
Hanqing Chen, Feng Shen, Alex Sherban, Allison Nocon, Yu Li, Hua Wang, Ming-Jiang Xu, Xianliang Rui, Jinyan Han, Bingbing Jiang, Donghwan Lee, Na Li, Farnaz Keyhani-Nejad, Jian-Gao Fan, Feng Liu, Amrita Kamat, Nicolas Musi, Leonard Guarente, Pal Pacher, Bin Gao, Mengwei Zang
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by lipid accumulation and liver injury. However, how chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic lipid accumulation remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a causal role in alcoholic steatosis, inflammation and liver injury. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to hyperactivation of mTORC1, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream kinase S6K1 in hepatocytes...
February 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456930/review-of-the-evidence-for-the-management-of-co-morbid-tic-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Michael O Ogundele, Hani F Ayyash
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents, with prevalence ranging between 5% and 12% in the developed countries. Tic disorders (TD) are common co-morbidities in paediatric ADHD patients with or without pharmacotherapy treatment. There has been conflicting evidence of the role of psychostimulants in either precipitating or exacerbating TDs in ADHD patients. We carried out a literature review relating to the management of TDs in children and adolescents with ADHD through a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456533/non-hematopoietic-mlkl-protects-against-salmonella-mucosal-infection-by-enhancing-inflammasome-activation
#3
Shui-Xing Yu, Wei Chen, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Feng-Hua Zhou, Shi-Qing Yan, Gui-Qiu Hu, Xiao-Xia Qin, Jie Zhang, Ke Ma, Chong-Tao Du, Jing-Min Gu, Xu-Ming Deng, Wen-Yu Han, Yong-Jun Yang
The intestinal mucosal barrier is critical for host defense against pathogens infection. Here, we demonstrate that the mixed lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL), a necroptosis effector, promotes intestinal epithelial barrier function by enhancing inflammasome activation. MLKL-/- mice were more susceptible to Salmonella infection compared with wild-type counterparts, with higher mortality rates, increased body weight loss, exacerbated intestinal inflammation, more bacterial colonization, and severe epithelial barrier disruption...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455950/sex-differences-in-atrial-fibrillation
#4
REVIEW
Jason G Andrade, Marc W Deyell, Andrea Y K Lee, Laurent Macle
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by exacerbations and remissions. It remains the most common sustained arrhythmia seen in clinical practice, and represents a major burden to health care systems. Similar to other cardiovascular conditions, significant sex-specific differences have been observed in the epidemiology (lower rate of prevalence in women, women present at a later age), pathophysiology (sex-related differences in AF triggers and substrate), clinical presentation (women are more likely symptomatic, with relatively more severe symptoms), and natural history...
December 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455917/respiratory-hazard-assessment-of-combined-exposure-to-complete-gasoline-exhaust-and-respirable-volcanic-ash-in-a-multicellular-human-lung-model-at-the-air-liquid-interface
#5
Ines Tomašek, Claire J Horwell, Christoph Bisig, David E Damby, Pierre Comte, Jan Czerwinski, Alke Petri-Fink, Martin J D Clift, Barbara Drasler, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Communities resident in urban areas located near active volcanoes can experience volcanic ash exposures during, and following, an eruption, in addition to sustained exposures to high concentrations of anthropogenic air pollutants (e.g., vehicle exhaust emissions). Inhalation of anthropogenic pollution is known to cause the onset of, or exacerbate, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. It is further postulated similar exposure to volcanic ash can also affect such disease states. Understanding of the impact of combined exposure of volcanic ash and anthropogenic pollution to human health, however, remains limited...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455823/sequential-melody-valve-insertion-after-repair-of-tetralogy-of-fallot-atrioventricular-septal-defect
#6
Damien Kenny, Terence Prendiville, Kevin P Walsh, Jonathan McGuinness
Repair of tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect may be associated with hemodynamic challenges in the postoperative period particularly as left atrial hypertension secondary to left atrioventricular valve dysfunction may exacerbate pulmonary regurgitation and augment low cardiac output. We present a case describing hybrid strategies to treat severe left atrioventricular and pulmonary valve regurgitation with modified balloon expandable stent valves to counter low cardiac output secondary to valve dysfunction...
March 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455818/mitral-regurgitation-exacerbation-due-to-sutureless-aortic-valve-replacement
#7
Timothy Lee, Alexander J C Mittnacht, Shinobu Itagaki, Allan Stewart
Sutureless aortic valves are increasingly used for aortic valve replacement (AVR) with excellent outcomes. Implantation requires device expansion in a subannular position within the native aortic root. We report a patient with severe aortic stenosis who received a Perceval sutureless AVR (LivaNova, London, United Kingdom), resulting in a competent prosthesis with an absence of paravalvular leak and aortic regurgitation. However, this implantation resulted in the exacerbation of mitral regurgitation. The sutureless valve required explantation, and a traditional sutured valve was subsequently implanted, which returned the mitral regurgitation to baseline...
March 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455675/the-function-and-therapeutic-targeting-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-alk-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#8
REVIEW
Brandon Golding, Anita Luu, Robert Jones, Alicia M Viloria-Petit
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer in North America. A decade ago, genomic rearrangements in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase were identified in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Soon after, crizotinib, a small molecule ATP-competitive ALK inhibitor was proven to be more effective than chemotherapy in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. Crizotinib and two other ATP-competitive ALK inhibitors, ceritinib and alectinib, are approved for use as a first-line therapy in these patients, where ALK rearrangement is currently diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455391/focal-ischaemic-infarcts-expand-faster-in-cerebellar-cortex-than-cerebral-cortex-in-a-mouse-photothrombotic-stroke-model
#9
Nagarajesh Gorlamandala, Jasneet Parmar, Amanda J Craig, John M Power, Andrew J Moorhouse, Arun V Krishnan, Gary D Housley
It is generally accepted that the cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to ischaemic injury, and this may contribute to the high mortality arising from posterior circulation strokes. However, this has not been systematically examined in an animal model. This study compared the development and resolution of matched photothrombotic microvascular infarcts in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices in adult 129/SvEv mice of both sexes. The photothrombotic lesions were made using tail vein injection of Rose Bengal with a 532 nm laser projected onto a 2 mm diameter aperture over the target region of the brain (with skull thinning)...
February 17, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455203/absence-of-nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase-in-c57bl-6j-mice-exacerbates-experimental-atherosclerosis
#10
Aimee E Vozenilek, Matthew Vetkoetter, Jonette M Green, Xinggui Shen, James G Traylor, Ronald L Klein, A Wayne Orr, Matthew D Woolard, David M Krzywanski
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to inflammation and vascular remodeling during atherosclerotic plaque formation. C57BL/6N (6N) and C57BL/6J (6J) mice display distinct mitochondrial redox balance due to the absence of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) in 6J mice. We hypothesize that differential NNT expression between these animals alters plaque development. METHODS: 6N and 6J mice were treated with AAV8-PCSK9 (adeno-associated virus serotype 8/proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) virus leading to hypercholesterolemia, increased low-density lipoprotein, and atherosclerosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454797/alterations-in-intestinal-microbiota-lead-to-production-of-interleukin-17-by-intrahepatic-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-receptor-positive-cells-and-pathogenesis-of-cholestatic-liver-disease
#11
Dana Tedesco, Manoj Thapa, Chui-Yoke Chin, Yong Ge, Minghao Gong, Jing Li, Sanjeev Gumber, Patrick Speck, Elizabeth J Elrod, Eileen M Burd, William H Kitchens, Joseph F Magliocca, Andrew B Adams, David S Weiss, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Arash Grakoui
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Variants at the ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 4 gene (ABCB4 or MDR2) locus, which encodes a biliary transport protein, are associated with a spectrum of cholestatic liver diseases. Exacerbation of liver disease has been linked to increased hepatic levels of interleukin 17 (IL17), yet the mechanisms of this increase are not understood. We studied mice with disruption of Mdr2 to determine how defects in liver and alteration in the microbiota contribute to production of IL17 by intrahepatic γδ T cells...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454753/protein-s-exacerbates-chronic-liver-injury-and-fibrosis
#12
Toshiaki Totoki, Corina N D' Alessandro-Gabazza, Masaaki Toda, Prince Baffour Tonto, Atsuro Takeshita, Taro Yasuma, Kota Nishihama, Motoh Iwasa, Noriyuki Horiki, Yoshiyuki Takei, Esteban C Gabazza
Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein produced mainly in the liver with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Protein S exacerbates acute liver injury by prolonging the survival of liver immune cells. However, the effect of protein S on chronic liver injury and fibrosis is unknown. Here we investigated whether human protein S can affect chronic liver injury and fibrosis. Liver injury/fibrosis was induced by carbon tetrachloride injection in mice overexpressing human protein S and in wild-type mice...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454377/chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-a-case-report
#13
Maria Francesca Gicchino, Mario Diplomatico, Carmela Granato, Daniela Capalbo, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Alma Nunzia Olivieri, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice
BACKGROUND: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), also known as chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis, is a rare, noninfectious inflammatory disorder that causes multifocal bone lesions with swelling and pain. Lytic and sclerotic bone lesions could be found on X-ray. Short tau inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (STIR MRI) shows bone marrow oedema, bone expansion, lytic areas and periosteal reaction. CRMO is characterized by periodic exacerbations and remissions of unclear/unknown pathogenesis...
February 17, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454163/exacerbations-in-adults-with-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-external-validation-of-prediction-models
#14
Rik Jb Loymans, Thomas Pa Debray, Persijn J Honkoop, Evelien H Termeer, Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Tjard Rj Schermer, Willem Jj Assendelft, Merel Timp, Kian Fan Chung, Ana R Sousa, Jaap K Sont, Peter J Sterk, Helen K Reddel, Gerben Ter Riet
BACKGROUND: Several prediction models assessing future risk of exacerbations in adult patients with asthma have been published. Applicability of these models is uncertain because their predictive performance has often not been assessed beyond the population in which they were derived. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and critically appraise prediction models for asthma exacerbations and validate them in two clinically distinct populations. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched to April 2017 for reports describing adult asthma populations in which multivariable models were constructed to predict exacerbations during any time frame...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454162/anxiety-depression-and-asthma-control-changes-after-standardized-treatment
#15
Joaquin Sastre, Astrid Crespo, Toni Fernandez-Sanchez, Manuel Rial, Vicente Plaza
BACKGROUND: It has been documented that anxiety and depression are prevalent in patients with asthma and are associated with greater frequency of exacerbations, increased use of health-care resources, and poor asthma control. OBJECTIVES: Our study examined not only the association of asthma diagnosis with symptoms of depression/anxiety and asthma control at baseline, but also over a 6-month period of specialist supervision. METHODS: We enrolled 3,182 patients with moderate-severe asthma...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454037/melatonin-attenuates-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced-reduction-in-rat-sperm-motility-and-kinematics-in-vitro
#16
Isiaka Abdullateef Alagbonsi, Luqman Aribidesi Olayaki
The use of Cannabis sativa (CS) has been widely demonstrated to have detrimental effect on male reproductive functions. Despite the well-known existence of endocannabinoid and melatonergic systems in semen, the physiological significance of their interaction is not understood. We recently showed that melatonin exacerbates the CS-induced gonadotoxicity in-vivo. To overcome the limitations associated with our in-vivo studies and further understand the role of cannabinoid-melatonin relationship in sperm functions, this study investigated the in-vitro effect of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or melatonin on motility and kinematics of capacitating rat sperms...
February 14, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454023/interaction-between-hypothermia-and-delayed-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#17
Josephine Herz, Christian Köster, Barbara S Reinboth, Mark Dzietko, Wiebke Hansen, Hemmen Sabir, Cindy van Velthoven, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser
Acute hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only clinically established intervention following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, almost half of all cooled infants still die or suffer from long-lasting neurological impairments. Regenerative therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear promising as adjuvant therapy. In the present study, we hypothesized that HT combined with delayed MSC therapy results in augmented protection, improving long-term neurological outcome. Postnatal day 9 (P9) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia followed by 4 hours HT...
February 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453914/medication-adherence-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
Nejc Horvat, Igor Locatelli, Mitja Kos, Ana Janežič
This study evaluated medication adherence and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Slovenian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and examined the factors associated with HRQoL. Demographic and therapy information was collected from 65 patients through interviews. The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale were used to evaluate HRQoL and adherence, resp. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between the factors and HRQoL...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453154/unique-pharmacology-of-a-novel-allosteric-agonist-sensitizer-insulin-receptor-monoclonal-antibody
#19
Simon A Hinke, Anne M Cieniewicz, Thomas Kirchner, Katharine D'Aquino, Rupesh Nanjunda, Jason Aligo, Robert Perkinson, Philip Cooper, Ken Boayke, Mark L Chiu, Steve Jarantow, Eilyn R Lacy, Yin Liang, Dana L Johnson, Jean M Whaley, Russell B Lingham, Anthony J Kihm
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a key feature of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), and improving insulin sensitivity is important for disease management. Allosteric modulation of the insulin receptor (IR) with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can enhance insulin sensitivity and restore glycemic control in animal models of T2D. METHODS: A novel human mAb, IRAB-A, was identified by phage screening using competition binding and surface plasmon resonance assays with the IR extracellular domain...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452751/trends-in-cancer-mortality-in-spain-the-influence-of-the-financial-crisis
#20
Josep Ferrando, Laia Palència, Mercè Gotsens, Vanessa Puig-Barrachina, Marc Marí-Dell'Olmo, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz, Xavier Bartoll, Carme Borrell
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the onset of the economic crisis in Spain affected cancer mortality and mortality trends. METHOD: We conducted a longitudinal ecological study based on all cancer-related deaths and on specific types of cancer (lung, colon, breast and prostate) in Spain between 2000 and 2013. We computed age-standardised mortality rates in men and women, and fit mixed Poisson models to analyse the effect of the crisis on cancer mortality and trends therein...
February 13, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
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