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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656400/pkd-regulates-actin-polymerization-neutrophil-deformability-and-transendothelial-migration-in-response-to-fmlp-and-trauma
#1
Christoph Wille, Tim Eiseler, Sven-Thorben Langenberger, Julia Richter, Kensaku Mizuno, Peter Radermacher, Uwe Knippschild, Markus Huber-Lang, Thomas Seufferlein, Stephan Paschke
Neutrophils are important mediators of the innate immune defense and of the host response to a physical trauma. Because aberrant infiltration of injured sites by neutrophils was shown to cause adverse effects after trauma, we investigated how neutrophil infiltration could be modulated at the cellular level. Our data indicate that protein kinase D (PKD) is a vital regulator of neutrophil transmigration. PKD phosphorylates the Cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot-2L (SSH-2L). SSH-2L in turn dynamically regulates Cofilin activity and actin polymerization in response to a chemotactic stimulus for neutrophils, for example, fMLP...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535324/the-boring-billion-a-slingshot-for-complex-life-on-earth
#2
Indrani Mukherjee, Ross R Large, Ross Corkrey, Leonid V Danyushevsky
The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487301/hydrodynamic-choreographies-of-microswimmers
#3
Mehdi Mirzakhanloo, Mir Abbas Jalali, Mohammad-Reza Alam
We unveil orbital topologies of two nearby swimming microorganisms using an artificial microswimmer, called Quadroar. Depending on the initial conditions of the microswimmers, we find diverse families of attractors including dynamical equilibria, bound orbits, braids, and pursuit-evasion games. We also observe a hydrodynamic slingshot effect: a system of two hydrodynamically interacting swimmers moving along braids can advance in space faster than non-interacting swimmers that have the same actuation parameters and initial conditions as the interacting ones...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352327/limk-cofilin-pathway-and-slingshot-are-implicated-in-human-colorectal-cancer-progression-and-chemoresistance
#4
Helen Aggelou, Panagiota Chadla, Sofia Nikou, Sofia Karteri, Ioannis Maroulis, Haralabos P Kalofonos, Helen Papadaki, Vasiliki Bravou
Cofilin phospho-regulation is important for actin filament turnover and is implicated in cancer. Phosphorylation of cofilin is mediated by LIM kinases (LIMKs) and dephosphorylation by Slingshot phosphatases (SSH). LIMKs and SSH promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis and represent novel anti-cancer targets. However, little is known regarding LIMK/cofilin and SSH in human colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to address their expression and significance in human CRC. We evaluated expression of non-phosphorylated (active) and phosphorylated cofilin, LIMK1, LIMK2, and SSH1 by immunohistochemistry in 143 human CRC samples in relation to clinicopathologic parameters, response of metastatic disease to chemotherapy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, and ZEB...
January 19, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338701/ssh1-expression-is-associated-with-gastric-cancer-progression-and-predicts-a-poor-prognosis
#5
Yusufu Maimaiti, Maimaitiaili Maimaitiming, Yiliang Li, Saifuding Aibibula, Azatijiang Ainiwaer, Aikebaier Aili, Zhenzhu Sun, Kelimu Abudureyimu
BACKGROUND: Slingshot homolog-1 (SSH1) plays an important role in pathological processes, including in the occurrence and development of tumours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SSH1 is a key biomarker with prognostic value for survival in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays containing 100 gastric cancer specimens to evaluate SSH1 protein expression. The association of pathological characteristics with cumulative survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis...
January 16, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248718/proteomic-characterization-of-prostate-cancer-to-distinguish-nonmetastasizing-and-metastasizing-primary-tumors-and-lymph-node-metastases
#6
Ann-Kathrin Müller, Melanie Föll, Bianca Heckelmann, Selina Kiefer, Martin Werner, Oliver Schilling, Martin L Biniossek, Cordula Annette Jilg, Vanessa Drendel
Patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) have a poorer prognosis than patients with organ-confined tumors. We strove to uncover the proteome signature of primary PCa and associated lymph node metastases (LNMs) in order to identify proteins that may indicate or potentially promote metastases formation. We performed a proteomic comparative profiling of PCa tissue from radical prostatectomy (RPE) of patients without nodal metastases or relapse at the time of surgical resection (n=5) to PCa tissue from RPE of patients who suffered from nodal relapse (n=5)...
February 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029503/slingshot-1l-a-cofilin-phosphatase-induces-primary-breast-cancer-metastasis
#7
Chen Chen, Yusufu Maimaiti, Shen Zhijun, Liu Zeming, Guo Yawen, Yu Pan, Huang Tao
Slingshot (SSH) is a member of the conserved family of cofilin phosphatases that plays a critical role in cell membrane protrusion and migration by transforming inactive phosphorylated cofilin to an active form. SSH-like protein 1 (SSH-1L) expression is detected in various types of tumors; insulin induces the phosphatases activity of SSH-1L in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner. However, little is known about the expression and role of SSH-1L in breast cancer. Here, we analyzed 295 human breast cancer tissue specimens for SSH-1L expression by immunohistochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964079/measuring-vocal-motor-skill-with-a-virtual-voice-controlled-slingshot
#8
Jarrad H Van Stan, Se-Woong Park, Matthew Jarvis, Daryush D Mehta, Robert E Hillman, Dagmar Sternad
Successful voice training (e.g., singing lessons) and vocal rehabilitation (e.g., therapy for a voice disorder) involve learning complex, vocal behaviors. However, there are no metrics describing how humans learn new vocal skills or predicting how long the improved behavior will persist post-therapy. To develop measures capable of describing and predicting vocal motor learning, a theory-based paradigm from limb motor control inspired the development of a virtual task where subjects throw projectiles at a target via modifications in vocal pitch and loudness...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956405/-single-cell-analysis-method-for-twitching-motility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Lei Ni, Zhenyu Jin, Shuai Yang, Fan Jin
Twitching motility is very important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the adaptation of surface environment and in the 3-D structure formation of mature biofilm. To quantitatively characterize twitching motility in situ, we developed a method by combining high-throughput data acquisition, automatic image processing and database establishment. This method is based on single cell analysis and big data visualization. A periodic relaxation of 0.9 second was resolved during slingshot motility analysis. Twitching motilities of bacteria under addition of two quorum sensing signaling molecules were studied, cells moved faster after signal addition...
September 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573459/cytoskeleton-associated-risk-modifiers-involved-in-early-and-rapid-progression-of-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#10
Saima Zafar, Neelam Younas, Nadeem Sheikh, Waqas Tahir, Mohsin Shafiq, Matthias Schmitz, Isidre Ferrer, Olivier Andréoletti, Inga Zerr
A high priority in the prion field is to identify pre-symptomatic events and associated profile of molecular changes. In this study, we demonstrate the pre-symptomatic dysregulation of cytoskeleton assembly and its associated cofilin-1 pathway in strain and brain region-specific manners in MM1 and VV2 subtype-specific Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease at clinical and pre-clinical stage. At physiological level, PrP(C) interaction with cofilin-1 and phosphorylated form of cofilin (p-cofilin(Ser3)) was investigated in primary cultures of mouse cortex neurons (PCNs) of PrP(C) wild-type and knockout mice (PrP(-/-))...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571304/slingshot-an-easy-way-out
#11
Shilpa M Kendre, Khushbu D Agrawal, Suresh K Kangane, Anand S Ambekar
Orthodontic alignment of ectopically placed incisors or canines can be challenging and time consuming. A variety of techniques are used to align such palatally or lingually placed teeth including indirect ties with ligature wires, E-chains, piggy-back methods. This article presents two case reports to describe an effective technique using 'slingshot' method. It is a relatively simple and rapid method which is operator friendly and easily tolerated by the patients.
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393835/emergence-of-complex-behavior-in-pili-based-motility-in-early-stages-of-p-aeruginosa-surface-adaptation
#12
Yifat Brill-Karniely, Fan Jin, Gerard C L Wong, Daan Frenkel, Jure Dobnikar
Pseudomonas aeruginosa move across surfaces by using multiple Type IV Pili (TFP), motorized appendages capable of force generation via linear extension/retraction cycles, to generate surface motions collectively known as twitching motility. Pseudomonas cells arrive at a surface with low levels of piliation and TFP activity, which both progressively increase as the cells sense the presence of a surface. At present, it is not clear how twitching motility emerges from these initial minimal conditions. Here, we build a simple model for TFP-driven surface motility without complications from viscous and solid friction on surfaces...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360125/cellular-levels-of-grb2-and-cytoskeleton-stability-are-correlated-in-a-neurodegenerative-scenario
#13
Piyali Majumder, Kasturi Roy, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Nihar Ranjan Jana, Debashis Mukhopadhyay
Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifests as neuronal loss. On the premise of Grb2 overexpression in AD mouse brain and brain tissues of AD patients, our study primarily focuses on the stability of cytoskeletal proteins in the context of degenerative AD-like conditions. Two predominant molecular features of AD, extracellular accumulation of β-amyloid oligomers and intracellular elevation of amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain levels, have been used to closely inspect the series of signalling events. In their presence, multiple signalling pathways involving ROCK and PAK1 proteins lead to disassembly of the cytoskeleton, and Grb2 partially counterbalances the cytoskeletal loss...
May 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274853/identification-of-sennoside-a-as-a-novel-inhibitor-of-the-slingshot-ssh-family-proteins-related-to-cancer-metastasis
#14
Seon Young Lee, Wooil Kim, Young Geun Lee, Hyo Jin Kang, Sang-Hyun Lee, Sun Young Park, Jeong-Ki Min, Sang-Rae Lee, Sang J Chung
Phospho-cofilin (p-cofilin), which has a phosphate group on Ser-3, is involved in actin polymerization. Its dephosphorylated form promotes filopodia formation and cell migration by enhancing actin depolymerization. Protein phosphatase slingshot homologs (SSHs), known as dual-specificity phosphatases, catalyze hydrolytic removal of the Ser-3 phosphate group from phospho-cofilin. Aberrant SSH activity results in cancer metastasis, implicating SSHs as potential therapeutic targets for cancer metastasis. In this study, we screened 658 natural products purified from traditional oriental medicinal plants to identify three potent SSH inhibitors with submicromolar or single-digit micromolar Ki values: gossypol, hypericin, and sennoside A...
May 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956722/effect-of-goggle-slippage-on-the-video-head-impulse-test-outcome-and-its-mechanisms
#15
Myung-Whan Suh, Jae Hong Park, Seong Il Kang, Jae Hyun Lim, Moo Kyun Park, Seong Keun Kwon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantitatively measure the tightness of the goggle strap during the video head impulse test (vHIT) and to identify slippage-induced artifacts according to tightness. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of faulty gain caused by goggle slippage and explain the typical artifacts associated with it. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An endotracheal tube cuff manometer was coupled to the EyeSeeCam vHIT system (Interacoustics, Assens, Denmark) to monitor strap tightness...
January 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865840/a-pleckstrin-homology-like-domain-is-critical-for-f-actin-binding-and-cofilin-phosphatase-activity-of-slingshot-1
#16
Katsunori Takahashi, Haruka Okabe, Shin-Ichiro Kanno, Tomoaki Nagai, Kensaku Mizuno
Slingshot-1 (SSH1) is a protein phosphatase that specifically dephosphorylates and activates cofilin, an F-actin-severing protein. SSH1 binds to and co-localizes with F-actin, and the cofilin-phosphatase activity of SSH1 is markedly increased by binding to F-actin. In this study, we performed a secondary structure analysis of SSH1, which predicted the existence of a pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain in the N-terminal region of SSH1. SSH1 also contains a DEK-C domain in the N-terminal region. The N-terminal fragment of SSH1 bound to and co-localized with F-actin, but mutation at Arg-96 or a Leu-His-Lys (LHK) motif in the PH-like domain reduced this activity...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770000/left-and-right-ventricular-hemodynamic-forces-in-healthy-volunteers-and-elite-athletes-assessed-with-4d-flow-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Per M Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Marcus Carlsson, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Håkan Arheden
Intracardiac blood flow is driven by hemodynamic forces that are exchanged between the blood and myocardium. Previous studies have been limited to 2D measurements or investigated only left ventricular (LV) forces. Right ventricular (RV) forces and their mechanistic contribution to asymmetric redirection of flow in the RV have not been measured. We therefore aimed to quantify 3D hemodynamic forces in both ventricles in a cohort of healthy subjects, using magnetic resonance imaging 4D flow measurements. Twenty five controls, 14 elite endurance athletes, and 2 patients with LV dyssynchrony were included...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634760/pharmacological-inhibition-of-centrosome-clustering-by-slingshot-mediated-cofilin-activation-and-actin-cortex-destabilization
#18
Gleb Konotop, Elena Bausch, Tomoaki Nagai, Andrey Turchinovich, Natalia Becker, Axel Benner, Michael Boutros, Kensaku Mizuno, Alwin Krämer, Marc Steffen Raab
Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of virtually all types of cancers, including solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Cancer cells with extra centrosomes use centrosome clustering (CC) to allow for successful division. Because normal cells do not rely on this mechanism, CC is regarded as a promising target to selectively eradicate cells harboring supernumerary centrosomes. To identify novel inhibitors of CC, we developed a cell-based high-throughput screen that reports differential drug cytotoxicity for isogenic cell populations with different centrosome contents...
November 15, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460578/-parenchymal-splenic-lesion-after-a-water-balloon-shot
#19
Nikolaj Hjort Schmidt, Poul Edling
Acute splenic rupture can be a life-threatening condition which needs immediate attention. We report a case where parenchymal splenic lesions and subcapsular haematoma were developed after a patient was being hit with a water balloon from a slingshot. The patient was treated conservatively but developed an arteriovenous fistula which was treated with central arterial coiling. We discuss the need for acute computed tomography after relevant trauma as well as the evidence for follow-up scans and management of splenic pseudoaneurysms with splenic arterial embolization...
July 25, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282933/slingshot-feeding-of-the-goblin-shark-mitsukurina-owstoni-pisces-lamniformes-mitsukurinidae
#20
Kazuhiro Nakaya, Taketeru Tomita, Kenta Suda, Keiichi Sato, Keisuke Ogimoto, Anthony Chappell, Toshihiko Sato, Katsuhiko Takano, Yoshio Yuki
Five striking and prey capture events of two goblin sharks were videotaped at sea for the first time, showing their extraordinary biting process. The goblin sharks swung their lower jaw downward and backward to attain a huge gape and then rapidly protruded the jaws forward a considerable distance. The jaws were projected at a maximum velocity of 3.1 m/s to 8.6-9.4% of the total length of the shark, which is by far the fastest and greatest jaw protrusion among sharks. While the jaws were being retracted, the mouth opened and closed again, which was considered a novel feeding event for sharks...
2016: Scientific Reports
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