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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736791/control-of-standing-balance-at-leaning-postures-with-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Musa L Audu, Brooke M Odle, Ronald J Triolo
This study systematically explored the potential of applying feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) for stabilizing various erect and leaning standing postures after spinal cord injury (SCI). Perturbations ranging from 2 to 6% body weight were applied to two subjects with motor complete thoracic level SCI who were proficient at standing with implanted multichannel neural stimulators to activate the ankle, knee, hip and trunk muscles. The subjects stood with four different postures: erect, forward, forward-right and forward-left...
July 24, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735174/tetherless-near-infrared-control-of-brain-activity-in-behaving-animals-using-fully-implantable-upconversion-microdevices
#2
Ying Wang, Xudong Lin, Xi Chen, Xian Chen, Zhen Xu, Wenchong Zhang, Qinghai Liao, Xin Duan, Xin Wang, Ming Liu, Feng Wang, Jufang He, Peng Shi
Many nanomaterials can be used as sensors or transducers in biomedical research and they form the essential components of transformative novel biotechnologies. In this study, we present an all-optical method for tetherless remote control of neural activity using fully implantable micro-devices based on upconversion technology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were used as transducers to convert near-infrared (NIR) energy to visible light in order to stimulate neurons expressing different opsin proteins. In our setup, UCNPs were packaged in a glass micro-optrode to form an implantable device with superb long-term biocompatibility...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735029/peptide-modification-of-polyimide-insulated-microwires-towards-improved-biocompatibility-through-reduced-glial-scarring
#3
Sangita Sridar, Matthew A Churchward, Vivian K Mushahwar, Kathryn G Todd, Anastasia L Elias
The goal of this study is to improve the integration of implanted microdevices with tissue in the central nervous system (CNS). The long-term utility of neuroprosthetic devices implanted in the CNS is affected by the formation of a scar by resident glial cells (astrocytes and microglia), limiting the viability and functional stability of the devices. Reduction in the proliferation of glial cells is expected to enhance the biocompatibility of devices. We demonstrate the modification of polyimide-insulated microelectrodes with a bioactive peptide KHIFSDDSSE...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733161/functional-determination-of-the-differentiation-potential-of-ventral-mesencephalic-neural-precursor-cells-during-dopaminergic-neurogenesis
#4
Gilda Guerrero-Flores, Aimée Bastidas-Ponce, Omar Collazo-Navarrete, Magdalena Guerra-Crespo, Luis Covarrubias
The ventral mesencephalic neural precursor cells (vmNPCs) that give rise to dopaminergic (DA) neurons have been identified by the expression of distinct genes (e.g., Lmx1a, Foxa2, Msx1/2). However, the commitment of these NPCs to the mesencephalic DA neuronal fate has not been functionally determined. Evaluation of the plasticity of vmNPCs suggests that their commitment occurs after E10.5. Here we show that E9.5 vmNPCs implanted in an ectopic area of E10.5 mesencephalic explants, retained their specification marker Lmx1a and efficiently differentiated into neurons but did not express the gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), the limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729901/aptamer-functionalized-neural-recording-electrodes-for-the-direct-measurement-of-cocaine-in-vivo
#5
I Mitch Taylor, Zhanhong Du, Emma T Bigelow, James R Eles, Anthony R Horner, Kasey A Catt, Stephen G Weber, Brian G Jamieson, X Tracy Cui
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that acts through competitive inhibition of the dopamine transporter. In order to fully understand the region specific neuropathology of cocaine abuse and addiction, it is unequivocally necessary to develop cocaine sensing technology capable of directly measuring real-time cocaine transient events local to different brain regions throughout the pharmacokinetic time course of exposure. We have developed an electrochemical aptamer-based in vivo cocaine sensor on a silicon based neural recording probe platform capable of directly measuring cocaine from discrete brain locations using square wave voltammetry (SWV)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#6
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719819/electrical-preconditioning-of-stem-cells-with-a-conductive-polymer-scaffold-enhances-stroke-recovery
#7
Paul M George, Tonya M Bliss, Thuy Hua, Alex Lee, Byeongtaek Oh, Alexa Levinson, Swapnil Mehta, Guohua Sun, Gary K Steinberg
Exogenous human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are promising stroke therapeutics, but optimal delivery conditions and exact recovery mechanisms remain elusive. To further elucidate repair processes and improve stroke outcomes, we developed an electrically conductive, polymer scaffold for hNPC delivery. Electrical stimulation of hNPCs alters their transcriptome including changes to the VEGF-A pathway and genes involved in cell survival, inflammatory response, and synaptic remodeling. In our experiments, exogenous hNPCs were electrically stimulated (electrically preconditioned) via the scaffold 1 day prior to implantation...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717877/temporal-envelope-coding-by-inferior-colliculus-neurons-with-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#8
Kenneth E Hancock, Yoojin Chung, Martin F McKinney, Bertrand Delgutte
Modulations in temporal envelopes are a ubiquitous property of natural sounds and are especially important for hearing with cochlear implants (CIs) because these devices typically discard temporal fine structure information. With few exceptions, neural temporal envelope processing has been studied in both normal hearing (NH) and CI animals using only pure sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) which poorly represents the diversity of envelope shapes contained in natural sounds because it confounds repetition rate and the width of each modulation cycle...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715338/closed-loop-neurostimulators-a-survey-and-a-seizure-predicting-design-example-for-intractable-epilepsy-treatment
#9
Hossein Kassiri, Sana Tonekaboni, M Tariqus Salam, Nima Soltani, Karim Abdelhalim, Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Roman Genov
First, existing commercially available open-loop and closed-loop implantable neurostimulators are reviewed and compared in terms of their targeted application, physical size, system-level features, and performance as a medical device. Next, signal processing algorithms as the primary strength point of the closed-loop neurostimulators are reviewed, and various design and implementation requirements and trade-offs are discussed in details along with quantitative examples. The review results in a set of guidelines for algorithm selection and evaluation...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715337/compact-energy-efficient-high-frequency-switched-capacitor-neural-stimulator-with-active-charge-balancing
#10
Wen-Yang Hsu, Alexandre Schmid
Safety and energy efficiency are two major concerns for implantable neural stimulators. This paper presents a novel high-frequency, switched capacitor (HFSC) stimulation and active charge balancing scheme, which achieves high energy efficiency and well-controlled stimulation charge in the presence of large electrode impedance variations. Furthermore, the HFSC can be implemented in a compact size without any external component to simultaneously enable multichannel stimulation by deploying multiple stimulators...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713235/connecting-the-brain-to-itself-through-an-emulation
#11
Mijail D Serruya
Pilot clinical trials of human patients implanted with devices that can chronically record and stimulate ensembles of hundreds to thousands of individual neurons offer the possibility of expanding the substrate of cognition. Parallel trains of firing rate activity can be delivered in real-time to an array of intermediate external modules that in turn can trigger parallel trains of stimulation back into the brain. These modules may be built in software, VLSI firmware, or biological tissue as in vitro culture preparations or in vivo ectopic construct organoids...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701540/a-novel-paraplegia-model-in-awake-behaving-macaques
#12
Max Ostrinsky Krucoff, Katie Zhuang, David B Macleod, Allen Yin, Yoon Woo Byun, Roberto Jose Manson, Dennis A Turner, Laura Oliveira, Mikhail A Lebedev
Lower limb paralysis from spinal cord injury (SCI) or neurological disease carries a poor prognosis for recovery and remains a large societal burden. Neurophysiological and neuroprosthetic research have the potential to improve quality of life for these patients; however, the lack of an ethical and sustainable non-human primate model for paraplegia hinders their advancement. Therefore, our multi-disciplinary team developed a way to induce temporary paralysis in awake behaving macaques by creating a fully implantable lumbar epidural catheter-subcutaneous port system that enables easy and reliable targeted drug delivery for sensorimotor blockade...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700446/pure-tone-masking-patterns-for-monopolar-and-phantom-electrical-stimulation-in-cochlear-implants
#13
Aniket A Saoji, Kanthaiah Koka, Leonid M Litvak, Charles C Finley
OBJECTIVES: Monopolar stimulation of the most apical electrode produces the lowest pitch sensation in cochlear implants clinically. A phantom electrode that uses out-of-phase electrical stimulation between the most apical and the neighboring basal electrode can produce a lower pitch sensation than that associated with the most apical electrode. However, because of the absence of contacts beyond the apical tip of the array, the ability to assess the spread of electrical excitation associated with phantom stimulation is limited in the typical cochlear implant subject with no residual hearing...
July 11, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699322/a-respiratory-marker-derived-from-left-vagus-nerve-signals-recorded-with-implantable-cuff-electrodes
#14
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Benedict Kjaergaard, Johannes J Struijk
OBJECTIVE: Left vagus nerve (LVN) stimulation (LVNS) has been tested for lowering the blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension (RH). Whereas, closed-loop LVNS (CL-LVNS) driven by a BP marker may be superior to open-loop LVNS, there are situations (e.g., exercising) when hypertension is normal. Therefore, an ideal anti-RH CL-LVNS system requires a variable to avoid stimulation in such conditions, for example, a respiratory marker ideally extracted from the LVN. As the LVN conducts respiratory signals, this study aimed to investigate if such signals can be recorded using implantable means and if a marker to monitor respiration could be derived from such recordings...
July 11, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695320/at1-and-at2-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-modulate-the-cardiovascular-response-evoked-by-acute-exposure-to-restraint-stress-in-rats
#15
Taíz F S Brasil, Aline Fassini, Fernando M Corrêa
The prelimbic cortex (PL) is an important structure in the neural pathway integrating stress responses. Brain angiotensin is involved in cardiovascular control and modulation of stress responses. Blockade of angiotensin receptors has been reported to reduce stress responses. Acute restraint stress (ARS) is a stress model, which evokes sustained blood pressure increase, tachycardia, and reduction in tail temperature. We therefore hypothesized that PL locally generated angiotensin and angiotensin receptors modulate stress autonomic responses...
July 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694236/fibrin-functionalization-with-synthetic-adhesive-ligands-interacting-with-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-1-integrin-receptor-enhance-neurite-outgrowth-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-stem-progenitors
#16
Joana Silva, Ana R Bento, Daniela Barros, Tiago L Laundos, Susana R Sousa, Pedro Quelhas, Mónica M Sousa, Ana P Pêgo, Isabel F Amaral
To enhance fibrin hydrogel affinity towards pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and its capacity to support NSPC migration and neurite extension, we explored the tethering of synthetic peptides engaging integrin α6β1, a cell receptor enriched in NSPCs. Six α6β1 integrin ligands were tested for their ability to support integrin α6β1-mediated adhesion of embryonic stem cell-derived NSPCs (ES-NSPs) and sustain ES-NSPC viability, migration, and neuronal differentiation. Due to their better performance, peptides T1, HYD1, and A5G81 were immobilized into fibrin and functionalized gels characterized in terms of peptide binding efficiency, structure and viscoelastic properties...
July 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693584/-long-term-stability-of-stimulating-spiral-nerve-cuff-electrodes-on-human-peripheral-nerves
#17
Breanne P Christie, Max Freeberg, William D Memberg, Gilles J C Pinault, Harry A Hoyen, Dustin J Tyler, Ronald J Triolo
BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerves has been shown to be effective in restoring sensory and motor functions in the lower and upper extremities. This neural stimulation can be applied via non-penetrating spiral nerve cuff electrodes, though minimal information has been published regarding their long-term performance for multiple years after implantation. METHODS: Since 2005, 14 human volunteers with cervical or thoracic spinal cord injuries, or upper limb amputation, were chronically implanted with a total of 50 spiral nerve cuff electrodes on 10 different nerves (mean time post-implant 6...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689389/is-there-additive-therapeutic-effect-when-gcsf-combined-with-adipose-derived-stem-cell-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Joongkee Min, Jeong Hoon Kim, Kyoung Hyo Choi, Hyung Ho Yoon, Sang Ryong Jeon
OBJECTIVE: Functional and neural tissue recovery has been reported in many animal studies conducted with stem cells. However, the combined effect of cytokines and stem cells has not yet been adequately researched. Here, we analyzed the additive effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) infusion in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. METHODS: Four days after intrathecal infusion tubes implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats, SCI was induced with an infinite horizon impactor...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688070/long-term-performance-of-porous-platinum-coated-neural-electrodes
#19
M Leber, R Bhandari, J Mize, D J Warren, M M H Shandhi, F Solzbacher, S Negi
Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in neural implants for the study and diagnostics of neurological disorders as well as for the symptomatic treatment of central nervous system related diseases. One of the major challenges is the trade-off between small electrode sizes for high selectivity between single neurons and large electrode-tissue interface areas for excellent stimulation and recording properties. This paper presents an approach of increasing the real surface area of the electrodes by creating a surface microstructure...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687506/effects-of-alkaloid-rich-extract-from-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-havil-on-naloxone-precipitated-morphine-withdrawal-symptoms-and-local-field-potential-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-mice
#20
Dania Cheaha, Chayaporn Reakkamnuan, Jakkrit Nukitram, Somsmorn Chittrakarn, Pimpimol Phukpattaranont, Niwat Keawpradub, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. (M. speciosa) is among the most well-known plants used in ethnic practice of Southeast Asia. It has gained increasing attention as a plant with potential to substitute morphine in addiction treatment program. However, its action on the central nervous system is controversial. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and neural signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, brain reward center) of mice...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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