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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148158/long-term-anesthetic-protocol-in-rats-feasibility-in-electrophysiology-studies-in-visual-prosthesis
#1
Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Veronica Tatarinoff, Nigel H Lovell, John W Morley, Gregg J Suaning
Electrical stimulation of excitable cells provides therapeutic benefits for a variety of medical conditions, including restoration of partial vision to those blinded via some types of retinal degeneration. To improve visual percepts elicited by the current technology, researchers are conducting acute electrophysiology experiments, mainly in cats. However, the rat can provide a model of a range of retinal diseases and possesses a sufficiently large eye to be used in this field. This article presents a long-term anesthetic protocol to enable electrophysiology experiments to further the development of visual prostheses...
November 17, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142267/in-vivo-characterization-of-the-electrophysiological-and-astrocytic-responses-to-a-silicon-neuroprobe-implanted-in-the-mouse-neocortex
#2
Katrien Mols, Silke Musa, Bart Nuttin, Liesbet Lagae, Vincent Bonin
Silicon neuroprobes hold great potential for studies of large-scale neural activity and brain computer interfaces, but data on brain response in chronic implants is limited. Here we explored with in vivo cellular imaging the response to multisite silicon probes for neural recordings. We tested a chronic implant for mice consisting of a CMOS-compatible silicon probe rigidly implanted in the cortex under a cranial imaging window. Multiunit recordings of cortical neurons with the implant showed no degradation of electrophysiological signals weeks after implantation (mean spike and noise amplitudes of 186 ± 42 µVpp and 16 ± 3...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135866/importance-of-perimodiolar-electrode-position-for-psychoacoustic-discrimination-in-cochlear-implantation
#3
Angel Ramos Macias, Maria Teresa Perez Zaballos, Angel Ramos de Miguel, Javier Cervera Paz
HYPOTHESIS: Modiolar proximity of the cochlear implant electrodes and low impedance values have a positive effect on electrical pitch discrimination. BACKGROUND: The proximity of the cochlear electrode to the modiolar wall can determine changes in tissue and fluid environment. With the onset of soft-surgery techniques, the trauma caused during surgery has been reduced, minimizing fibrous growth. METHODS: Computed tomography-scan measurements of electrode-inner wall distance and psychoacoustic electrode discrimination tests were done...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131813/mechanical-fatigue-resistance-of-an-implantable-branched-lead-system-for-a-distributed-set-of-longitudinal-intrafascicular-electrodes
#4
A E Pena, S S Kuntaegowdanahalli, J J Abbas, J Patrick, K W Horch, R Jung
OBJECTIVE: A neural interface system has been developed that consists of an implantable stimulator/recorder can with a 15-electrode lead that trifurcates into three bundles of five individual wire longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes. This work evaluated the mechanical fatigue resistance of the branched lead and distributed electrode system under conditions designed to mimic anticipated strain profiles that would be observed after implantation in the human upper arm. APPROACH: Custom test setups and procedures were developed to apply linear or angular strain at four critical stress riser points on the lead and electrode system...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131367/influence-of-the-neural-microenvironment-on-prostate-cancer
#5
Christian Coarfa, Diego Florentin, NagiReddy Putluri, Yi Ding, Jason Au, Dandan He, Ahmed Ragheb, Anna Frolov, George Michailidis, MinJae Lee, Dov Kadmon, Brian Miles, Christopher Smith, Michael Ittmann, David Rowley, Arun Sreekumar, Chad J Creighton, Gustavo Ayala
BACKGROUND: Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. METHOD: We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy...
November 13, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127334/biological-assessments-of-multifunctional-hydrogel-decorated-implantable-neural-cuff-electrode-for-clinical-neurology-application
#6
Han-Jun Kim, Dong Nyoung Heo, Yi Jae Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Ji Yoon Kang, Soo Hyun Lee, I I Keun Kwon, Sun Hee Do
The implantable cuff electrode is an effective neuroprosthetic device in current nerve tissue engineering. However, biocompatibility and stability are still a serious dispute in terms of in vivo function and continuous monitoring. In this regard, assessing the host's biological response to biomaterials is one of the key factors of chronic implantation. In this article, we analyzed the peripheral nerve specific-biological responses to the application of multi-functional hydrogel-coated electrodes. The surface of the cuff electrode was modified using a multifunctional hydrogel composed of PEG hydrogel, cyclosporin A(CsA)-microsphere(MS) and electrodeposited PEDOT:PSS...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125063/implantable-systems-for-drug-delivery-to-the-brain
#7
Hemlata Kaurav, Deepak N Kapoor
Most diseases and disorders of the brain require long-term therapy and a constant supply of drugs. Implantable drug-delivery systems provide long-term, sustained drug delivery in the brain. The present review discusses different type of implantable systems such as solid implants, in situ forming implants, in situ forming microparticles, depot formulations, polymeric-lipid implants, sucrose acetate isobutyrate and N-stearoyl L-alanine methyl ester systems for continuous drug delivery into brain for various brain diseases including glioblastomas, medulloblastoma, epilepsy, stroke, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's diseases...
December 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123468/a-model-based-approach-for-separating-the-cochlear-microphonic-from-the-auditory-nerve-neurophonic-in-the-ongoing-response-using-electrocochleography
#8
Tatyana E Fontenot, Christopher K Giardina, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
Electrocochleography (ECochG) is a potential clinically valuable technique for predicting speech perception outcomes in cochlear implant (CI) recipients, among other uses. Current analysis is limited by an inability to quantify hair cell and neural contributions which are mixed in the ongoing part of the response to low frequency tones. Here, we used a model based on source properties to account for recorded waveform shapes and to separate the combined signal into its components. The model for the cochlear microphonic (CM) was a sinusoid with parameters for independent saturation of the peaks and the troughs of the responses...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120427/fully-integrated-silicon-probes-for-high-density-recording-of-neural-activity
#9
James J Jun, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Joshua H Siegle, Daniel J Denman, Marius Bauza, Brian Barbarits, Albert K Lee, Costas A Anastassiou, Alexandru Andrei, Çağatay Aydın, Mladen Barbic, Timothy J Blanche, Vincent Bonin, João Couto, Barundeb Dutta, Sergey L Gratiy, Diego A Gutnisky, Michael Häusser, Bill Karsh, Peter Ledochowitsch, Carolina Mora Lopez, Catalin Mitelut, Silke Musa, Michael Okun, Marius Pachitariu, Jan Putzeys, P Dylan Rich, Cyrille Rossant, Wei-Lung Sun, Karel Svoboda, Matteo Carandini, Kenneth D Harris, Christof Koch, John O'Keefe, Timothy D Harris
Sensory, motor and cognitive operations involve the coordinated action of large neuronal populations across multiple brain regions in both superficial and deep structures. Existing extracellular probes record neural activity with excellent spatial and temporal (sub-millisecond) resolution, but from only a few dozen neurons per shank. Optical Ca(2+) imaging offers more coverage but lacks the temporal resolution needed to distinguish individual spikes reliably and does not measure local field potentials. Until now, no technology compatible with use in unrestrained animals has combined high spatiotemporal resolution with large volume coverage...
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117061/three-dimensional-analysis-of-the-fundus-of-the-human-internal-acoustic-canal
#10
Nadine Schart-Morén, Sune Larsson, Helge Rask-Andersen, Hao Li
OBJECTIVES: Documentation of the nerve components in the internal acoustic canal is essential before cochlea implantation surgery. Interpretations may be challenged by wide anatomical variations of the VIIIth nerve and their ramifications. Malformations may further defy proper nerve identification. DESIGN: Using microcomputed tomography, we analyzed the fundus bone channels in an archival collection of 113 macerated human temporal bones and 325 plastic inner molds...
November 7, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116017/regenerative-potential-of-primary-adult-human-neural-stem-cells-on-micropatterned-bio-implants-boosts-motor-recovery
#11
Carole Davoust, Benjamin Plas, Amélie Béduer, Boris Demain, Anne-Sophie Salabert, Jean Christophe Sol, Christophe Vieu, Laurence Vaysse, Isabelle Loubinoux
BACKGROUND: The adult brain is unable to regenerate itself sufficiently after large injuries. Therefore, hopes rely on therapies using neural stem cell or biomaterial transplantation to sustain brain reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement in sensorimotor recovery brought about by human primary adult neural stem cells (hNSCs) in combination with bio-implants. METHODS: hNSCs were pre-seeded on implants micropatterned for neurite guidance and inserted intracerebrally 2 weeks after a primary motor cortex lesion in rats...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113579/use-of-research-interfaces-for-psychophysical-studies-with-cochlear-implant-users
#12
Ruth Y Litovsky, Matthew J Goupell, Alan Kan, David M Landsberger
A growing number of laboratories are using research interfaces to conduct experiments with cochlear-implant (CI) users. Because these interfaces bypass a subject's clinical sound processor, several concerns exist regarding safety and stimulation levels. Here we suggest best-practice approaches for how to safely and ethically perform this type of research and highlight areas of limited knowledge where further research is needed to help clarify safety limits. The article is designed to provide an introductory level of technical detail about the devices and the effects of electrical stimulation on perception and neurophysiology...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108924/visual-cortical-activity-before-and-after-cochlear-implantation-a-follow-up-erp-prospective-study-in-deaf-children
#13
Scania de Schonen, Josiane Bertoncini, Nathalie Petroff, Thierry van der Abbeele
ERPs were recorded in response to presentation of static colored patterned stimuli in 25 children (19 to 80months of age at cochlear implantation, CI) with very early prelingual profound deafness (PreLD), 21 postlingual profoundly deaf children (PostLD) (34 to 180months of age at CI) and gender- and age-matched control hearing children. Recording sessions were performed before CI, then 6 and 24months after CI. Results showed that prelingual and, at a lesser degree, postlingual auditory deprivation altered cortical visual neural activity associated to colored shapes from both P1 and N1 cortical processing stages...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107127/cyclodextrins-as-versatile-building-blocks-for-regenerative-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carlos A García-González, Angel Concheiro
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are one of the most versatile substances produced by nature, and it is in the aqueous biological environment where the multifaceted potential of CDs can be completely unveiled. CDs form inclusion complexes with a variety of guest molecules, including polymers, producing very diverse biocompatible supramolecular structures. Additionally, CDs themselves can trigger cell differentiation to distinct lineages depending on the substituent groups and also promote salt nucleation. These features together with the affinity-driven regulated release of therapeutic molecules, growth factors and gene vectors explain the rising interest for CDs as building blocks in regenerative medicine...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106852/postoperative-objective-detecting-techniques-for-cochlear-implant-children-with-inner-ear-malformation
#15
Xiao-Feng Qiao, Xin Li, Qiang-Wei Zhang, Tong-Li Li, Dong Wang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the changing characteristics and rules of electrically-evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), electrically-evoked stapedius reflex threshold (ESRT) and neural response telemetry (NRT) after cochlear implant in children with inner ear malformation, and guide postoperative equipment debug. METHODS: A total of 88 children with either normal cochlea (control group) or inner ear malformation (test group) received Australian 24 multi-channel cochlear implants...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104593/optogenetic-inhibition-of-striatal-neuronal-activity-improves-the-survival-of-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-and-neurological-outcomes-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#16
Yifan Lu, Lu Jiang, Wanlu Li, Meijie Qu, Yaying Song, Xiaosong He, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is a promising treatment to improve the recovery after brain ischemia. However, how the survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of implanted NSC are influenced by endogenous neuronal activity remains unclear. In this work, we used optogenetic techniques to control the activity of striatal neurons and investigated how their activity affected the survival and migration of transplanted NSCs and overall neurological outcome after ischemic stroke. NSCs cultured from transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein were transplanted into the peri-infarct region of the striatum after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) surgery...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104374/gesture-decoding-using-ecog-signals-from-human-sensorimotor-cortex-a-pilot-study
#17
Yue Li, Shaomin Zhang, Yile Jin, Bangyu Cai, Marco Controzzi, Junming Zhu, Jianmin Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng
Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been demonstrated as a promising neural signal source for developing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). However, many concerns about the disadvantages brought by large craniotomy for implanting the ECoG grid limit the clinical translation of ECoG-based BMIs. In this study, we collected clinical ECoG signals from the sensorimotor cortex of three epileptic participants when they performed hand gestures. The ECoG power spectrum in hybrid frequency bands was extracted to build a synchronous real-time BMI system...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096270/de-novo-synthesis-of-sphingolipids-is-essential-for-decidualization-in-mice
#18
Nai-Zheng Ding, Qian-Rong Qi, Xiao-Wei Gu, Ru-Juan Zuo, Jie Liu, Zeng-Ming Yang
Sphingolipids play multiple roles in membrane structure, signal transduction, stress responses, neural development and immune reaction. The rate of de novo synthesis pathway of sphingolipids is regulated by two key enzymes, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), and ketoreductase (Kds). Here, we find that the mRNA levels of three subunits of the SPT holoenzyme (Sptlc1, Sptlc2, and Ssspta) are significantly up-regulated in mouse uterine stromal cells during decidualization. The expression of Kds, which reduces 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine to dihydrosphingosine, is co-localized with Sptlc1 in mouse uteri during early pregnancy...
October 9, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094783/surface-based-electrode-localization-and-standardized-regions-of-interest-for-intracranial-eeg
#19
Michael S Trotta, John Cocjin, Emily Whitehead, Srikanth Damera, John H Wittig, Ziad S Saad, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Intracranial recordings captured from subdural electrodes in patients with drug resistant epilepsy offer clinicians and researchers a powerful tool for examining neural activity in the human brain with high spatial and temporal precision. There are two major challenges, however, to interpreting these signals both within and across individuals. Anatomical distortions following implantation make accurately identifying the electrode locations difficult. In addition, because each implant involves a unique configuration, comparing neural activity across individuals in a standardized manner has been limited to broad anatomical regions such as cortical lobes or gyri...
November 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093476/in-vivo-neurochemical-measurements-in-cerebral-tissues-using-a-droplet-based-monitoring-system
#20
Guillaume Petit-Pierre, Philippe Colin, Estelle Laurer, Julien Déglon, Arnaud Bertsch, Aurélien Thomas, Bernard L Schneider, Philippe Renaud
Direct collection of extracellular fluid (ECF) plays a central role in the monitoring of neurological disorders. Current approaches using microdialysis catheters are however drastically limited in term of temporal resolution. Here we show a functional in vivo validation of a droplet collection system included at the tip of a neural probe. The system comprises an advanced droplet formation mechanism which enables the collection of neurochemicals present in the brain ECF at high-temporal resolution. The probe was implanted in a rat brain and could successfully collect fluid samples organized in a train of droplets...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
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