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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544974/cetuximab-modified-collagen-scaffold-directs-neurogenesis-of-injury-activated-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#1
Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Sufang Han, Muya Shu, Bing Chen, Xuyi Chen, Fengwu Tang, Nuo Wang, Yue Tu, Bin Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Studies have shown that endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) activated by spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily generate astrocytes to form glial scar. The NSCs do not differentiate into neurons because of the adverse microenvironment. In this study, we defined the activation timeline of endogenous NSCs in rats with severe SCI. These injury-activated NSCs then migrated into the lesion site. Cetuximab, an EGFR signaling antagonist, significantly increased neurogenesis in the lesion site. Meanwhile, implanting cetuximab modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) into SCI lesion sites in dogs resulted in neuronal regeneration, including neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelination, and synapse formation...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541915/embedded-system-for-prosthetic-control-using-implanted-neuromuscular-interfaces-accessed-via-an-osseointegrated-implant
#2
Enzo Mastinu, Pascal Doguet, Yohan Botquin, Bo Hakansson, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Despite the technological progress in robotics achieved in the last decades, prosthetic limbs still lack functionality, reliability, and comfort. Recently, an implanted neuromusculoskeletal interface built upon osseointegration was developed and tested in humans, namely the Osseointegrated Human-Machine Gateway. Here, we present an embedded system to exploit the advantages of this technology. Our artificial limb controller allows for bioelectric signals acquisition, processing, decoding of motor intent, prosthetic control, and sensory feedback...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541908/a-hardware-efficient-scalable-spike-sorting-neural-signal-processor-module-for-implantable-high-channel-count-brain-machine-interfaces
#3
Yuning Yang, Sam Boling, Andrew J Mason
Next-generation brain machine interfaces demand a high-channel-count neural recording system to wirelessly monitor activities of thousands of neurons. A hardware efficient neural signal processor (NSP) is greatly desirable to ease the data bandwidth bottleneck for a fully implantable wireless neural recording system. This paper demonstrates a complete multichannel spike sorting NSP module that incorporates all of the necessary spike detector, feature extractor, and spike classifier blocks. To meet high-channel-count and implantability demands, each block was designed to be highly hardware efficient and scalable while sharing resources efficiently among multiple channels...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541211/cortical-brain-computer-interface-for-closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation
#4
Jeffrey Herron, Margaret Thompson, Tim Brown, Howard Chizeck, Jeffrey Ojemann, Andrew Ko
Essential Tremor is the most common neurological movement disorder. This progressive disease causes uncontrollable rhythmic motions-most often affecting the patient's dominant upper extremity-that occur during volitional movement and make it difficult for the patient to perform everyday tasks. Medication may also become ineffective as the disorder progresses. For many patients, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is an effective means of treating this condition when medication fails. In current use, however, clinicians set the patient's stimulator to apply stimulation at all times-whether it is needed or not...
May 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540144/spondylitis-transmitted-from-infected-aortic-grafts-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Thekla Antoniadou, Leonidas Dimopoulos, Marcos Liontos, Vasilios Igoumenou, Georgios N Panagopoulos, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Andreas Lazaris, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Graft infection following aortic aneurysms repair is an uncommon but devastating complication; its incidence ranges from <1% to 6% (mean 4%), with an associated perioperative and overall mortality of 12% and 17.5-20%, respectively. The most common causative organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli; causative bacteria typically arise from the skin or gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenetic mechanisms of aortic graft infections are mainly breaks in sterile technique during its implantation, superinfection during bacteremia from a variety of sources, severe intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal inflammation, inoculation of bacteria during postoperative percutaneous interventions to manage various types of endoleaks, and external injury of the vascular graft...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536516/multi-regional-adaptation-in-human-auditory-association-cortex
#6
Urszula Malinowska, Nathan E Crone, Frederick A Lenz, Mackenzie Cervenka, Dana Boatman-Reich
In auditory cortex, neural responses decrease with stimulus repetition, known as adaptation. Adaptation is thought to facilitate detection of novel sounds and improve perception in noisy environments. Although it is well established that adaptation occurs in primary auditory cortex, it is not known whether adaptation also occurs in higher auditory areas involved in processing complex sounds, such as speech. Resolving this issue is important for understanding the neural bases of adaptation and to avoid potential post-operative deficits after temporal lobe surgery for treatment of focal epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#7
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2 g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526871/electro-tactile-stimulation-enhances-cochlear-implant-speech-recognition-in-noise
#8
Juan Huang, Benjamin Sheffield, Payton Lin, Fan-Gang Zeng
For cochlear implant users, combined electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) significantly improves the performance. However, there are many more users who do not have any functional residual acoustic hearing at low frequencies. Because tactile sensation also operates in the same low frequencies (<500 Hz) as the acoustic hearing in EAS, we propose electro-tactile stimulation (ETS) to improve cochlear implant performance. In ten cochlear implant users, a tactile aid was applied to the index finger that converted voice fundamental frequency into tactile vibrations...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525604/decomposing-tool-action-observation-a-stereo-eeg-study
#9
F Caruana, P Avanzini, R Mai, V Pelliccia, G LoRusso, G Rizzolatti, G A Orban
A description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human cortical activity during cognitive tasks is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. In the present study, we employed stereo-EEG in order to assess the neural activity during tool-action observation. We recorded from 49 epileptic patients (5502 leads) implanted with intracerebral electrodes, while they observed tool and hand actions. We deconstructed actions into 3 events-video onset, action onset, and tool-object contact-and assessed how different brain regions respond to these events...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522397/cellulose-acetate-poly-lactic-acid-coaxial-wet-electrospun-scaffold-containing-citalopram-loaded-gelatin-nanocarriers-for-neural-tissue-engineering-applications
#10
Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Majid Salehi, Shahriar Hojjati-Emami
The current study aimed to develop a biodegradable three-dimensional drug-loaded scaffold with the core-shell structured fibrils using coaxial wet-electrospinning for neural tissue engineering application. Poly lactic acid was wet-electrospun as the core, whereas cellulose acetate was fabricated into the fibril's shell. The scaffold then was coated with citalopram-loaded gelatin nanocarriers (CGNs) produced by nanoprecipitation. Scanning electron microscope observation revealed that the fibrils formed a nonwoven structure with the average diameter of ∼950nm...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518115/analysis-of-retinoic-acid-induced-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-in-two-and-three-dimensional-embryoid-bodies
#11
Junning Yang, Chuanshen Wu, Ioana Stefanescu, Arie Horowitz
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolated from the inner mass of the blastocyst (typically at day E3.5), can be used as in vitro model system for studying early embryonic development. In the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ESCs differentiate by default into neural precursor cells. They can be amassed into a three dimensional (3D) spherical aggregate termed embryoid body (EB) due to its similarity to the early stage embryo. EBs can be seeded on fibronectin-coated coverslips, where they expand by growing two dimensional (2D) extensions, or implanted in 3D collagen matrices where they continue growing as spheroids, and differentiate into the three germ layers: endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512358/delayed-epidural-transplantation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-enhances-functional-recovery-after-stroke
#12
I-Hui Lee, Shiang-Suo Huang, Ching-Yu Chuang, Ko-Hsun Liao, Li-Hsin Chang, Chia-Chi Chuang, Yu-Shih Su, Hung-Jui Lin, Jui-Yu Hsieh, Shu-Han Su, Oscar Kuang-Sheng Lee, Hung-Chih Kuo
Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (iPSC-NPCs) are a promising source of tailor-made cell therapy for neurological diseases. However, major obstacles to clinical use still exist. To circumvent complications related to intracerebral administration, we implanted human iPSC-NPCs epidurally over the peri-infarct cortex 7 days after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult rats. Compared to controls, cell-treated rats showed significant improvements in paretic forelimb usage and grip strength from 10 days post-transplantation (dpt) onwards, as well as reductions in lesion volumes, inflammatory infiltration and astrogliosis at 21 dpt...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512291/characterization-of-mechanically-matched-hydrogel-coatings-to-improve-the-biocompatibility-of-neural-implants
#13
Kevin C Spencer, Jay C Sy, Khalil B Ramadi, Ann M Graybiel, Robert Langer, Michael J Cima
Glial scar is a significant barrier to neural implant function. Micromotion between the implant and tissue is suspected to be a key driver of glial scar formation around neural implants. This study explores the ability of soft hydrogel coatings to modulate glial scar formation by reducing local strain. PEG hydrogels with controllable thickness and elastic moduli were formed on the surface of neural probes. These coatings significantly reduced the local strain resulting from micromotion around the implants. Coated implants were found to significantly reduce scarring in vivo, compared to hard implants of identical diameter...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508994/disease-modifying-effects-of-neural-regeneration-peptide-2945-in-the-gaers-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#14
Gabi Dezsi, Frank Sieg, Mark Thomas, Terence J O'Brien, Marieke van der Hart, Nigel C Jones
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505596/engineered-hydrogels-increase-the-post-transplantation-survival-of-encapsulated-hesc-derived-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons
#15
Maroof M Adil, Tandis Vazin, Badriprasad Ananthanarayanan, Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Antara T Rao, Rishikesh U Kulkarni, Evan W Miller, Sanjay Kumar, David V Schaffer
Cell replacement therapies have broad biomedical potential; however, low cell survival and poor functional integration post-transplantation are major hurdles that hamper clinical benefit. For example, following striatal transplantation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), only 1-5% of the neurons typically survive in preclinical models and in clinical trials. In general, resource-intensive generation and implantation of larger numbers of cells are used to compensate for the low post-transplantation cell-survival...
May 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504947/robust-wireless-power-transmission-to-mm-sized-free-floating-distributed-implants
#16
S Abdollah Mirbozorgi, Pyungwoo Yeon, Maysam Ghovanloo
This paper presents an inductive link for wireless power transmission (WPT) to mm-sized free-floating implants (FFIs) distributed in a large three-dimensional space in the neural tissue that is insensitive to the exact location of the receiver (Rx). The proposed structure utilizes a high-Q resonator on the target wirelessly powered plane that encompasses randomly positioned multiple FFIs, all powered by a large external transmitter (Tx). Based on resonant WPT fundamentals, we have devised a detailed method for optimization of the FFIs and explored design strategies and safety concerns, such as coil segmentation and specific absorption rate limits using realistic finite element simulation models in HFSS including head tissue layers, respectively...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503731/a-microfluidic-ion-pump-for-in-vivo-drug-delivery
#17
Ilke Uguz, Christopher M Proctor, Vincenzo F Curto, Anna-Maria Pappa, Mary J Donahue, Magali Ferro, Róisín M Owens, Dion Khodagholy, Sahika Inal, George G Malliaras
Implantable devices offer an alternative to systemic delivery of drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders. A microfluidic ion pump (µFIP), capable of delivering a drug without the solvent through electrophoresis, is developed. The device is characterized in vitro by delivering γ-amino butyric acid to a target solution, and demonstrates low-voltage operation, high drug-delivery capacity, and high ON/OFF ratio. It is also demonstrated that the device is suitable for cortical delivery in vivo by manipulating the local ion concentration in an animal model and altering neural behavior...
May 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499799/mouse%C3%A2-rat-aggregation-chimaeras-can-develop-to-adulthood
#18
Katarzyna Bożyk, Katarzyna Gilecka, Monika Humięcka, Marcin Szpila, Aneta Suwińska, Andrzej K Tarkowski
In order to examine interactions between cells originating from different species during embryonic development we constructed interspecific mouse↔rat chimaeras by aggregation of 8-cell embryos. Embryos of both species expressed different fluorescent markers (eGFP and DsRed), which enabled us to follow the fate of both components from the moment of aggregation until adulthood. We revealed that in majority of embryos the blastocyst cavity appeared inside the group of rat cells, while the mouse component was allocated to the deeper layer of the inner cell mass and to the polar trophectoderm...
May 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498269/real-time-intracochlear-electrocochleography-obtained-directly-through-a-cochlear-implant
#19
Michael S Harris, William Jason Riggs, Kanthaiah Koka, Leonid M Litvak, Prashant Malhotra, Aaron C Moberly, Brendan P O'Connell, Jourdan Holder, Federico Alberto Di Lella, Carlos Mario Boccio, George B Wanna, Robert F Labadie, Oliver F Adunka
HYPOTHESIS: Utilizing the cochlear implant to record electrophysiologic responses during device placement is a feasible and efficacious technique for monitoring near real-time cochlear physiology during and following electrode insertion. BACKGROUND: Minimizing intracochlear trauma during cochlear implantation has emerged as a highly researched area to help improve patient performance. Currently, conventional cochlear implant technology allows for the recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs)...
May 11, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498076/cochlear-implantation-in-mondini-s-deformity-could-the-straight-electrode-array-with-length-of-31%C3%A2-mm-be-fully-inserted
#20
Jia-Qiang Sun, Jing-Wu Sun, Xiao-Yan Hou
CONCLUSIONS: The straight electrode array with length of 31 mm can be fully inserted using round window insertion in cochlear implantation with Mondini's deformity. It is a safe and effective process, but also a challenging task of the full implantation in children with Mondini's deformity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to discuss whether the straight electrode array with a length of 31 mm could be fully inserted in cochlear implantation with Mondini's deformity...
February 22, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
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