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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925583/modeling-electrode-place-discrimination-in-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#1
Xiao Gao, David Bruce Grayden, Mark D McDonnell
OBJECTIVE: By modeling the cochlear implant (CI) electrode-to-nerve interface and quantifying electrode discriminability in the model, we address the questions of how many individual channels can be distinguished by CI recipients and the extent to which performance might be improved by inserting electrodes deeper into the cochlea. METHOD: We adapt an artificial neural network to model electrode discrimination, as well as a commonly used psychophysical measure (four-interval forcedchoice) in CI stimulation and predict how well the locations of the stimulating electrodes can be inferred from simulated auditory nerve spiking patterns...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924782/resistive-switching-of-pt-tio-x-pt-devices-fabricated-on-flexible-parylene-c-substrates
#2
Ali Khiat, Simone Cortese, Alexander Serb, Themistoklis Prodromakis
Pt/TiO x /Pt resistive switching (RS) devices are considered to be amongst the most promising candidates in memristor family and the technology transfer to flexible substrates could open the way to new opportunities for flexible memory implementations. Hence, an important goal is to achieve a fully flexible RS memory technology. Nonetheless, several fabrication challenges are present and must be solved prior to achieving reliable device fabrication and good electronic performances. Here, we propose a fabrication method for the successful transfer of Pt/TiO x /Pt stack onto flexible Parylene-C substrates...
January 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916831/long-term-task-and-dopamine-dependent-dynamics-of-subthalamic-local-field-potentials-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Sara J Hanrahan, Joshua J Nedrud, Bradley S Davidson, Sierra Farris, Monique Giroux, Aaron Haug, Mohammad H Mahoor, Anne K Silverman, Jun Jason Zhang, Adam Olding Hebb
Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potentials (LFP) are neural signals that have been shown to reveal motor and language behavior, as well as pathological parkinsonian states. We use a research-grade implantable neurostimulator (INS) with data collection capabilities to record STN-LFP outside the operating room to determine the reliability of the signals over time and assess their dynamics with respect to behavior and dopaminergic medication. Seven subjects were implanted with the recording augmented deep brain stimulation (DBS) system, and bilateral STN-LFP recordings were collected in the clinic over twelve months...
November 29, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914377/evaluating-multipulse-integration-as-a-neural-health-correlate-in-human-cochlear-implant-users-relationship-to-spatial-selectivity
#4
Ning Zhou, Bryan E Pfingst
The decrease of psychophysical detection thresholds as a function of pulse rate for a fixed-duration electrical pulse train is referred to as multipulse integration (MPI). The MPI slopes correlate with anatomical and physiological indices of cochlear health in guinea pigs with cochlear implants. The aim of the current study was to assess whether the MPI slopes were related to the spatial spread of activation by electrical stimulation. The hypothesis was that MPI is dependent on the total number of excitable neurons at the stimulation site, with broader neural excitation producing a steeper threshold decrease as a function of stimulation rate...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913315/speech-enhancement-based-on-neural-networks-improves-speech-intelligibility-in-noise-for-cochlear-implant-users
#5
Tobias Goehring, Federico Bolner, Jessica J M Monaghan, Bas van Dijk, Andrzej Zarowski, Stefan Bleeck
Speech understanding in noisy environments is still one of the major challenges for cochlear implant (CI) users in everyday life. We evaluated a speech enhancement algorithm based on neural networks (NNSE) for improving speech intelligibility in noise for CI users. The algorithm decomposes the noisy speech signal into time-frequency units, extracts a set of auditory-inspired features and feeds them to the neural network to produce an estimation of which frequency channels contain more perceptually important information (higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR)...
November 29, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911798/stretchable-multichannel-antennas-in-soft-wireless-optoelectronic-implants-for-optogenetics
#6
Sung Il Park, Gunchul Shin, Jordan G McCall, Ream Al-Hasani, Aaron Norris, Li Xia, Daniel S Brenner, Kyung Nim Noh, Sang Yun Bang, Dionnet L Bhatti, Kyung-In Jang, Seung-Kyun Kang, Aaron D Mickle, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price, Robert W Gereau, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911758/multimodal-imaging-for-dreadd-expressing-neurons-in-living-brain-and-their-application-to-implantation-of-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors
#7
Bin Ji, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Takafumi Minamimoto, Haruhisa Inoue, Hiroki Takeuchi, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Chie Seki, Maiko Ono, Masaki Tokunaga, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Koji Tanabe, Ryong-Moon Shin, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Seiji Kito, Barry J Richmond, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
: Chemogenetic manipulation of neuronal activities has been enabled by a designer receptor (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs, DREADD) that is activated exclusively by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Here, we applied CNO as a functional reporter probe to positron emission tomography (PET) of DREADD in living brains. Mutant human M4 DREADD (hM4Di) expressed in transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons was visualized by PET with microdose [(11)C]CNO. Deactivation of DREADD-expressing neurons in these mice by nonradioactive CNO at a pharmacological dose could also be captured by arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909687/morphogenesis-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neurons-under-in-vitro-culture-conditions
#8
Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909530/implantable-loop-recorder-diagnostic-yield-and-possible-therapeutic-effect-in-patients-with-neurally-mediated-reflex-syncope
#9
Unterhuber M, Rauhe W, Sgobino P, Pescoller F, Manfrin M, Tomaino M
Through a retrospective study concerning the experience of our center in patients affected by Neurally Mediated reflex Syncope (NMS) we wanted to verify not only the diagnostic yield of the Implantable Loop Recorder (ILR) but its possible placebo therapeutic effect. In the context of patients affected by a severe clinical presentation of NMS identified through a careful clinical evaluation, we selected those who followed a diagnostic iter using the ILR. We analysed 84 patients (39 male and 45 female, mean age 71 years), during the period 2009-2013...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909502/combined-diagnostic-yield-of-tilt-table-test-and-implantable-loop-recorder-to-identify-patients-affected-by-severe-clinical-presentation-of-neurally-mediated-reflex-syncope-who-could-respond-to-cardiac-pacing
#10
Tomaino M, Unterhuber M, Sgobino P, Pescoller F, Manfrin M, Rauhe W
In this study we wanted to verify the diagnostic value of tilt table test (TTT) to predict the efficacy of cardiac pacing (PM) for preventing recurrences of neurally mediated reflex syncope (NMS) in patients with cardioinhibitory activity (CI) documented by implantable loop recorder (ILR). Among patients selected by ILR in the context of severe clinical presentation of NMS, we analysed those who underwent PM implantation. In this observational and retrospective study we wanted to verify the results of TTT in the groups of treated patients with and without recurrences...
April 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904501/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-combined-with-silk-fibroin-scaffold-in-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Ting-Gang Wang, Jie Xu, Ai-Hua Zhu, Hua Lu, Zong-Ning Miao, Peng Zhao, Guo-Zhen Hui, Wei-Jiang Wu
Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902847/food-deprivation-facilitates-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-role-of-intra-accumbal-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-associating-reinstatement-of-morphine-cpp-with-stress
#12
Fatemeh Sadeghzadeh, Vahab Babapour, Abbas Haghparast
The high rate of relapse to drug use is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays the essential role in drug abuse and relapse; nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying stress and relapse. Accordingly, the effects of intra-accumbal administration of Sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on an ineffective morphine dose+food deprivation(FD)- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP). 104 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280g were bilaterally implanted by cannula into the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
November 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900949/prediction-of-cortical-responses-to-simultaneous-electrical-stimulation-of-the-retina
#13
Kerry J Halupka, Mohit N Shivdasani, Shaun L Cloherty, David B Grayden, Yan T Wong, Anthony N Burkitt, Hamish Meffin
OBJECTIVE: Simultaneous electrical stimulation of multiple electrodes has shown promise in diversifying the responses that can be elicited by retinal prostheses compared to interleaved single electrode stimulation. However, the effects of interactions between electrodes are not well understood and clinical trials with simultaneous stimulation have produced inconsistent results. We investigated the effects of multiple electrode stimulation of the retina by developing a model of cortical responses to retinal stimulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894891/source-analysis-of-auditory-steady-state-responses-in-acoustic-and-electric-hearing
#14
Robert Luke, Astrid De Vos, Jan Wouters
Speech is a complex signal containing a broad variety of acoustic information. For accurate speech reception, the listener must perceive modulations over a range of envelope frequencies. Perception of these modulations is particularly important for cochlear implant (CI) users, as all commercial devices use envelope coding strategies. Prolonged deafness affects the auditory pathway. However, little is known of how cochlear implantation affects the neural processing of modulated stimuli. This study investigates and contrasts the neural processing of envelope rate modulated signals in acoustic and CI listeners...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893099/electrically-evoked-responses-in-the-rabbit-cortex-induced-by-current-steering-with-penetrating-optic-nerve-electrodes
#15
Yan Yan, Yiliang Lu, Menghui Li, Zengguang Ma, Pengjia Cao, Yao Chen, Xiaodong Sun, Xinyu Chai, Qiushi Ren, Liming Li
Purpose: Current steering is a neural stimulation strategy that uses simultaneous stimulation of adjacent electrodes to produce additional intermediate stimulation sites and thus improves spatial resolution. We investigated the feasibility of current steering using electrophysiological and computational methods after implanting paired penetrating electrodes into the rabbit's optic nerve (ON). Methods: Penetrating electrodes at different interelectrode distances were implanted into the ON and electrically evoked cortical potentials (EEPs) in V1 recorded with a 6 × 8 array...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871074/comparison-of-the-hifocus-mid-scala-and-hifocus-1j-electrode-array-angular-insertion-depths-and-speech-perception-outcomes
#16
M Annerie van der Jagt, Jeroen J Briaire, Berit M Verbist, Johan H M Frijns
The HiFocus Mid-Scala (MS) electrode array has recently been introduced onto the market. This precurved design with a targeted mid-scalar intracochlear position pursues an atraumatic insertion and optimal distance for neural stimulation. In this study we prospectively examined the angular insertion depth achieved and speech perception outcomes resulting from the HiFocus MS electrode array for 6 months after implantation, and retrospectively compared these with the HiFocus 1J lateral wall electrode array. The mean angular insertion depth within the MS population (n = 96) was found at 470°...
November 21, 2016: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865767/neural-stem-cells-promote-nerve-regeneration-through-il12-induced-schwann-cell-differentiation
#17
Don-Ching Lee, Jong-Hang Chen, Tai-Yu Hsu, Li-Hsun Chang, Hsu Chang, Ya-Hui Chi, Ing-Ming Chiu
Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is a slow, complicated process that could be improved by implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or nerve conduit. Implantation of NSCs along with conduits promotes the regeneration of damaged nerve, likely because (i) conduit supports and guides axonal growth from one nerve stump to the other, while preventing fibrous tissue ingrowth and retaining neurotrophic factors; and (ii) implanted NSCs differentiate into Schwann cells and maintain a growth factor enriched microenvironment, which promotes nerve regeneration...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865751/feasibility-of-long-term-tibial-nerve-stimulation-using-a-multi-contact-and-wirelessly-powered-neurostimulation-system-implanted-in-rats
#18
Zainab Moazzam, Jason Paquette, Austin R Duke, Navid Khodaparast, Paul B Yoo
OBJECTIVES: Implant-driven tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) therapy is an effective technique for treating overactive bladder (OAB). However, the monopolar lead design in the currently available implantable devices pose long-term therapeutic challenges in terms of efficiently and selectively delivering electrical pulses to the target. Hence, the purpose of this study was to: (1) characterize the tibial nerve (TN) activation properties using a multi-contact implantable system and (2) evaluate the long-term stability of using such a neural interface in a pre-clinical model...
November 16, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862478/reductions-in-cortical-alpha-activity-enhancements-in-neural-responses-and-impaired-gap-detection-caused-by-sodium-salicylate-in-awake-guinea-pigs
#19
Joel I Berger, Ben Coomber, Mark N Wallace, Alan R Palmer
Tinnitus chronically affects between 10-15% of the population but despite its prevalence, the underlying mechanisms are still not properly understood. One experimental model involves administration of high doses of sodium salicylate, as this is known to reliably induce tinnitus in both humans and animals. Guinea pigs were implanted with chronic electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays, with silver ball electrodes placed on the dura over left and right auditory cortex. Two more electrodes were positioned over the cerebellum to monitor auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859029/reactivation-of-seizure-related-changes-to-interictal-spike-shape-and-synchrony-during-postseizure-sleep-in-patients
#20
Mark R Bower, Michal T Kucewicz, Erik K St Louis, Fredric B Meyer, W Richard Marsh, Matt Stead, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Local field potentials (LFPs) arise from synchronous activation of millions of neurons, producing seemingly consistent waveform shapes and relative synchrony across electrodes. Interictal spikes (IISs) are LFPs associated with epilepsy that are commonly used to guide surgical resection. Recently, changes in neuronal firing patterns observed in the minutes preceding seizure onset were found to be reactivated during postseizure sleep, a process called seizure-related consolidation (SRC), due to similarities with learning-related consolidation...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
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