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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107660/guided-growth-of-auditory-neurons-bioactive-particles-towards-gapless-neural-electrode-interface
#1
Hao Li, Fredrik Edin, Hisamitsu Hayashi, Olafur Gudjonsson, Niklas Danckwardt-Lillieström, Håkan Engqvist, Helge Rask-Andersen, Wei Xia
Cochlear implant (CI) is a successful device to restore hearing. Despite continuous development, frequency discrimination is poor in CI users due to an anatomical gap between the auditory neurons and CI electrode causing current spread and unspecific neural stimulation. One strategy to close this anatomical gap is guiding the growth of neuron dendrites closer to CI electrodes through targeted slow release of neurotrophins. Biodegradable calcium phosphate hollow nanospheres (CPHSs) were produced and their capacity for uptake and release of neurotrophins investigated using (125)I-conjugated glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106018/cardioneuroablation-in-the-treatment-of-neurally-mediated-reflex-syncope-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#2
Tolga Aksu, Tümer Erdem Güler, Serdar Bozyel, Kazım Serhan Özcan, Kıvanç Yalın, Ferit Onur Mutluer
OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between parasympathetic and sympathetic tone is a main cause of neurally mediated reflex syncope (NMRS). These patients may be very symptomatic and the condition may require cardiac pacemaker implantation. Cardioneuroablation (CNA) is a relatively novel technique based on radiofrequency ablation of vagal ganglia that can be used in treatment of NMRS. The aim of this analysis was to compare potential role of CNA in patients with NMRS. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement, literature search was conducted using the keywords "cardioneuroablation," "vagal denervation," "reflex syncope," "vagal ablation," and "ganglionic plexi ablation...
December 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104526/total-navigation-in-spine-surgery-a-concise-guide-to-eliminate-fluoroscopy-using-a-portable-intraoperative-ct-3d-navigation-system
#3
Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Gernot Lang, Xiaofeng Lian, Connor Berlin, Insa Janssen, Ajit Jada, Marjan Alimi, Roger Härtl
BACKGROUND: Portable intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) with integrated 3D navigation offers new opportunities for more precise navigation in spinal surgery, eliminates radiation exposure for the surgical team and accelerates surgical workflows. We present the concept of "total navigation" using iCT NAV in spinal surgery. Therefore, we propose a step-by-step guideline demonstrating how total navigation can eliminate fluoroscopy with time efficient workflows integrating iCT NAV into daily practice...
January 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103744/strategies-to-enhance-implantation-and-survival-of-stem-cells-after-their-injection-in-ischemic-neural-tissue
#4
Ioanna Sandvig, Ivana Gadjanski, Marija Vlaski, Leonora Buzanska, Darija Loncaric, Anna Sarnowska, Laura Rodriguez, Axel Sandvig, Zoran Ivanovic
High post-transplantation cell mortality is the main limitation of various approaches aimed to improve regeneration of injured neural tissue by injection of neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MStroCs) in and/or around the lesion. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify efficient ways to increase cell transplant viability. We have previously proposed the "evolutionary stem cell paradigm", which explains the association between stem cell anaerobic/microaerophilic metabolic set-up and stem cell self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation...
January 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102827/a-low-cost-scalable-current-sensing-digital-headstage-for-high-channel-count-%C3%A2%C2%B5ecog
#5
Michael Trumpis, Michele Insanally, Jialin Zou, Ashraf ElSharif, Ali Ghomashchi, N Sertac Artan, Robert Froemke, Jonathan Viventi
OBJECTIVE: High channel count electrode arrays allow for the monitoring of large-scale neural activity at high spatial resolution. Implantable arrays featuring many recording sites require compact, high bandwidth front-end electronics. In the present study, we investigated the use of a small, light weight, and low cost digital current-sensing integrated circuit for acquiring cortical surface signals from a 61-channel micro-electrocorticographic (��ECoG) array. APPROACH: We recorded both acute and chronic ��ECoG signal from rat auditory cortex using our novel digital current-sensing headstage...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102825/versatile-modular-three-dimensional-microelectrode-arrays-for-neuronal-ensemble-recordings-from-design-to-fabrication-assembly-and-functional-validation-in-non-human-primates
#6
Falk Barz, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Monica Maranesi, Luca Bonini, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther
<i>Objective. </i>Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#7
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095914/vascular-mapping-of-the-retroauricular-skin-proposal-for-a-posterior-superior-surgical-incision-for-transcutaneous-bone-conduction-hearing-implants
#8
Adam Perenyi, Zsofia Bere, Janos Jarabin, Balazs Sztano, Edit Kukla, Ziad Bikhazi, Laszlo Tiszlavicz, Ferenc Toth, Jozsef Geza Kiss, Laszlo Rovo
BACKGROUND: Passive transcutaneous osseointegrated hearing implant systems have become increasingly popular more recently. The area over the implant is vulnerable due to vibration and pressure from the externally worn sound processor. Good perfusion and neural integrity has the potential to reduce complications. The authors' objective was to determine the ideal surgical exposure to maintain perfusion and neural integrity and decrease surgical time as a result of reduced bleeding. METHODS: The vascular anatomy of the temporal-parietal soft tissue was examined in a total of 50 subjects...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092575/a-cmos-current-steering-neurostimulation-array-with-integrated-dac-calibration-and-charge-balancing
#9
Elliot Greenwald, Christoph Maier, Qihong Wang, Robert Beaulieu, Ralph Etienne-Cummings, Gert Cauwenberghs, Nitish Thakor
An 8-channel current steerable, multi-phasic neural stimulator with on-chip current DAC calibration and residue nulling for precise charge balancing is presented. Each channel consists of two sub-binary radix DACs followed by wide-swing, high output impedance current buffers providing time-multiplexed source and sink outputs for anodic and cathodic stimulation. A single integrator is shared among channels and serves to calibrate DAC coefficients and to closely match the anodic and cathodic stimulation phases...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079471/pre-implant-modeling-of-depth-lead-placement-in-white-matter-for-maximizing-the-extent-of-cortical-activation-during-direct-neurostimulation-therapy
#10
Leopoldo Cendejas Zaragoza, Richard W Byrne, Marvin A Rossi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work was to predict preoperatively the maximum extent to which direct stimulation therapy can propagate through an epileptic circuit for stabilizing refractory focal-onset epilepsy. A pre-surgical workflow is presented which comprises a computationally intensive process for calculating the volume of cortical activation (VOCA) surrounding cylindrical depth contacts virtually placed in white matter. The process employs an activation function (AF) derived from cable modeling of an axon...
January 12, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070746/boundary-cap-neural-crest-stem-cells-promote-survival-of-mutant-sod1-motor-neurons
#11
Tanya Aggarwal, Jan Hoeber, Patrik Ivert, Svitlana Vasylovska, Elena N Kozlova
ALS is a devastating disease resulting in degeneration of motor neurons (MNs) in the brain and spinal cord. The survival of MNs strongly depends on surrounding glial cells and neurotrophic support from muscles. We previously demonstrated that boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) can give rise to neurons and glial cells in vitro and in vivo and have multiple beneficial effects on co-cultured and co-implanted cells, including neural cells. In this paper, we investigate if bNCSCs may improve survival of MNs harboring a mutant form of human SOD1 (SOD1(G93A)) in vitro under normal conditions and oxidative stress and in vivo after implantation to the spinal cord...
January 9, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068287/extracellular-matrix-proteins-as-temporary-coating-for-thin-film-neural-implants
#12
Frederik Ceyssens, Marjolijn Deprez, Neill Turner, Dries Kil, Kris van Kuyck, Marleen Welkenhuysen, Bart Nuttin, Stephen Badylak, Robert Puers
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the suitability of a thin sheet of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as a resorbable coating for temporarily reinforcing fragile or ultra-low stiffness thin-film neural implants to be placed on the brain, i.e. microelectrocorticographic (µECOG) implants. APPROACH: Thin-film polyimide-based electrode arrays were fabricated using lithographic methods. ECM was harvested from porcine tissue by a decellularization method and coated around the arrays...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065638/iterative-metal-artefact-reduction-in-ct-can-dedicated-algorithms-improve-image-quality-after-spinal-instrumentation
#13
J Aissa, C Thomas, L M Sawicki, J Caspers, P Kröpil, G Antoch, J Boos
AIM: To investigate the value of dedicated computed tomography (CT) iterative metal artefact reduction (iMAR) algorithms in patients after spinal instrumentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post-surgical spinal CT images of 24 patients performed between March 2015 and July 2016 were retrospectively included. Images were reconstructed with standard weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) and with two dedicated iMAR algorithms (iMAR-Algo1, adjusted to spinal instrumentations and iMAR-Algo2, adjusted to large metallic hip implants) using a medium smooth kernel (B30f) and a sharp kernel (B70f)...
January 5, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056017/when-hearing-is-tricky-speech-processing-strategies-in-prelingually-deafened-children-and-adolescents-with-cochlear-implants-having-good-and-poor-speech-performance
#14
Magdalene Ortmann, Pienie Zwitserlood, Arne Knief, Johanna Baare, Stephanie Brinkheetker, Antoinette Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Christian Dobel
Cochlear implants provide individuals who are deaf with access to speech. Although substantial advancements have been made by novel technologies, there still is high variability in language development during childhood, depending on adaptation and neural plasticity. These factors have often been investigated in the auditory domain, with the mismatch negativity as an index for sensory and phonological processing. Several studies have demonstrated that the MMN is an electrophysiological correlate for hearing improvement with cochlear implants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055036/preparation-and-implementation-of-optofluidic-neural-probes-for-in-vivo-wireless-pharmacology-and-optogenetics
#15
Jordan G McCall, Raza Qazi, Gunchul Shin, Shuo Li, Muhammad Hamza Ikram, Kyung-In Jang, Yuhao Liu, Ream Al-Hasani, Michael R Bruchas, Jae-Woong Jeong, John A Rogers
This Protocol Extension describes the fabrication and technical procedures for implementing ultrathin, flexible optofluidic neural probe systems that provide targeted, wireless delivery of fluids and light into the brains of awake, freely behaving animals. As a Protocol Extension article, this article describes an adaptation of an existing Protocol that offers additional applications. This protocol serves as an extension of an existing Nature Protocol describing optoelectronic devices for studying intact neural systems...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054637/salidroside-promotes-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-based-on-tissue-engineering-strategy-using-schwann-cells-and-plga-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Hui Liu, Peizhen Lv, Yongjia Zhu, Huayu Wu, Kun Zhang, Fuben Xu, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Salidriside (SDS), a phenylpropanoid glycoside derived from Rhodiola rosea L, has been shown to be neuroprotective in many studies, which may be promising in nerve recovery. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of SDS on engineered nerve constructed by Schwann cells (SCs) and Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were studied in vitro. We further investigated the effect of combinational therapy of SDS and PLGA/SCs based tissue engineering on peripheral nerve regeneration based on the rat model of nerve injury by sciatic transection...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054149/a-model-of-electrically-stimulated-auditory-nerve-fiber-responses-with-peripheral-and-central-sites-of-spike-generation
#17
Suyash Narendra Joshi, Torsten Dau, Bastian Epp
A computational model of cat auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses to electrical stimulation is presented. The model assumes that (1) there exist at least two sites of spike generation along the ANF and (2) both an anodic (positive) and a cathodic (negative) charge in isolation can evoke a spike. A single ANF is modeled as a network of two exponential integrate-and-fire point-neuron models, referred to as peripheral and central axons of the ANF. The peripheral axon is excited by the cathodic charge, inhibited by the anodic charge, and exhibits longer spike latencies than the central axon; the central axon is excited by the anodic charge, inhibited by the cathodic charge, and exhibits shorter spike latencies than the peripheral axon...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042918/the-neurostimulation-appropriateness-consensus-committee-nacc-safety-guidelines-for-the-reduction-of-severe-neurological-injury
#18
Timothy R Deer, Tim J Lamer, Jason E Pope, Steven M Falowski, David A Provenzano, Konstantin Slavin, Stanley Golovac, Jeffrey Arle, Joshua M Rosenow, Kayode Williams, Porter McRoberts, Samer Narouze, Sam Eldabe, Shivanand P Lad, Jose A De Andrés, Eric Buchser, Philippe Rigoard, Robert M Levy, Brian Simpson, Nagy Mekhail
INTRODUCTION: Neurostimulation involves the implantation of devices to stimulate the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral or cranial nerves for the purpose of modulating the neural activity of the targeted structures to achieve specific therapeutic effects. Surgical placement of neurostimulation devices is associated with risks of neurologic injury, as well as possible sequelae from the local or systemic effects of the intervention. The goal of the Neurostimulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) is to improve the safety of neurostimulation...
January 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040033/selective-attentional-processes-in-cochlear-implant-recipients-measurements-of-the-attentional-filter
#19
Christofer Bester, Dona M P Jayakody, Geoffrey Hammond, Donald Robertson
In normal hearing subjects, detection of near-threshold tones in noise is influenced by signal certainty. Thus, tones that are presented more frequently than others, and/or are preceded by a clearly audible cue tone of the same frequency (target tones) are detected better than other tones (probe tones). This auditory attentional filter was examined in six cochlear implant (CI) recipients, using acoustic stimuli and direct programmed electrode stimulation. Three of the subjects showed no evidence of an attentional filter...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031268/distinct-roles-of-opioid-and-dopamine-systems-in-lateral-hypothalamic-intracranial-self-stimulation
#20
Soichiro Ide, Takehiro Takahashi, Yukio Takamatsu, George R Uhl, Hiroaki Niki, Ichiro Sora, Kazutaka Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Opioid and dopamine systems play crucial roles in reward. Similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of reward that are mediated by these two systems have remained largely unknown. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in reward function in both µ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP KO) mice and dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice, important molecules in the opioid and dopamine systems. METHODS: Mice were implanted with electrodes into the right lateral hypothalamus (lh)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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