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neural implant

Bingbo Zhang, Wei Yan, Yanjing Zhu, Weitao Yang, Wenjun Le, Bingdi Chen, Rongrong Zhu, Liming Cheng
Patients are increasingly being diagnosed with neuropathic diseases, but are rarely cured because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues. This situation creates an urgent clinical need to develop alternative treatment strategies for effective repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs), highly pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and potential for multidirectional differentiation, provide a promising solution to meet this demand. However, some serious challenges remaining to be addressed are the regulation of implanted NSCs, tracking their fate, monitoring their interaction with and responsiveness to the tissue environment, and evaluating their treatment efficacy...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Julia P Slopsema, John M Boss, Lane A Heyboer, Carson M Tobias, Brooke P Draggoo, Kathleen E Finn, Payton J Hoff, Katharine H Polasek
Background: Electrical stimulation is increasingly relevant in a variety of medical treatments. In this study, surface electrical stimulation was evaluated as a method to non-invasively target a neural function, specifically natural sensation in the distal limbs. Method: Electrodes were placed over the median and ulnar nerves at the elbow and the common peroneal and lateral sural cutaneous nerves at the knee. Strength-duration curves for sensation were compared between nerves...
2018: Open Biomedical Engineering Journal
Xin Xue, Xingxing Chen, Weili Fan, Guan Wang, Liang Zhang, Zongfeng Chen, Peng Liu, Mingyong Liu, Jianhua Zhao
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) facilitates neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation into neuronal linage. However, the effect of HMGB1 on NSCs migration is still elusive. The present study is to investigate the corelation between HMGB1 and NSCs migration and the potential mechanism. The results indicated that 1 ng/ml HMGB1 promoted NSCs proliferation using CCK8 assays. Moreover, data showed that 1 ng/ml HMGB1 facilitated NSCs migration via filopodia formation using phase-contrast and transwell assays...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liu-Lin Xiong, Yu Zou, Yu Shi, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Xie-Jie Dai, Bin Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of implanted neural stem cells (NSCs) on the functional recovery of tree shrews (TSs) subjected to hemi‑sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI), and to investigate the possible mechanism involved. NSCs (passage 2), derived from the hippocampus of TSs (embryonic day 20), were labeled with Hoechst 33342 and transplanted intraspinally into the hSC of TSs at thoracic level 10 in the acute (immediately after injury) and chronic (day 9 post‑injury) stages...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Laura B Ngwenya, Sarmistha Mazumder, Zachary R Porter, Amy Minnema, Duane J Oswald, H Francis Farhadi
Cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are debilitating and contribute to the morbidity and loss of productivity of over 10 million people worldwide. Cell transplantation has been linked to enhanced cognitive function after experimental traumatic brain injury, yet the mechanism of recovery is poorly understood. Since the hippocampus is a critical structure for learning and memory, supports adult neurogenesis, and is particularly vulnerable after TBI, we hypothesized that stem cell transplantation after TBI enhances cognitive recovery by modulation of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Stem Cells International
Kiley L Armstrong, Lisa M Lombardo, Kevin M Foglyano, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of injury for manual wheelchair users are tips and falls caused by unexpected destabilizing events encountered during everyday activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of automatically restoring seated stability to manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) via a threshold-based system to activate the hip and trunk muscles with electrical stimulation during potentially destabilizing events. METHODS: We detected and classified potentially destabilizing sudden stops and turns with a wheelchair-mounted wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU), and then applied neural stimulation to activate the appropriate muscles to resist trunk movement and restore seated stability...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Adrian Mendez, Alex Hopkins, Vincent L Biron, Hadi Seikaly, Lin Fu Zhu, David W J Côté
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have examined the effects of brief electrical stimulation (BES) on nerve regeneration, with some suggesting that BES accelerates facial nerve recovery. However, the facial nerve outcome measurement in these studies has not been precise or accurate. Furthermore, no previous studies have been able to demonstrate the effect of BES on synkinesis. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of brief electrical stimulation (BES) on facial nerve function and synkinesis in a rat model...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Johannes Erhardt, Erwin Fuhrer, Oliver G Gruschke, Jochen Leupold, Matthias C Wapler, Jurgen Hennig, Thomas Stieglitz, Jan G Korvink
Patients suffering from neuronal degenerative diseases are increasingly being equipped with neural implants to treat symptoms or restore functions and increase their quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would be the modality of choice for diagnosis and compulsory post-operative monitoring of such patients. However, interactions between the MR environment and implants pose severe health risks to the patient. Nevertheless, neural implant recipients regularly underwent MRI examinations, and adverse events were reported rarely...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Josef Parvizi, Sabine Kastner
Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), also known as electrocorticography when using subdural grid electrodes or stereotactic EEG when using depth electrodes, is blossoming in various fields of human neuroscience. In this article, we highlight the potentials of iEEG in exploring functions of the human brain while also considering its limitations. The iEEG signal provides anatomically precise information about the selective engagement of neuronal populations at the millimeter scale and the temporal dynamics of their engagement at the millisecond scale...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Jia-Feng Fang, Xu-Na Huang, Xiao-Yan Han, Xi Ouyang, Lei Fan, Xin Zhao, Ze-Hong Chen, Hong-Bo Wei
BACKGROUND: Whether combined transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is more effective than transplantation of a single cell type in the restoration of erectile function is unknown. AIM: To investigate the effect of combined transplantation of MSCs and EPCs on restoration of erectile function in rats with cavernous nerve injury (CNI). METHODS: MSCs were isolated from human bone marrow and EPCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood...
March 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
Qing Liu, Lei Lei, Tao Yu, Ting Jiang, Yunqing Kang
During bone growth, the lack of a neuralized vascular network in the regenerating area can affect subsequent bone quality. This study aimed to investigate if brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could promote neurogenesis and osteogenesis in human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to improve bone formation during tissue engineering. Initially, a safe and effective BDNF concentration that facilitated hBMSC proliferation in vitro was determined. Subsequently, examination of mineralized nodule formation and evaluation of ALP activity and ALP gene expression revealed that the most effective concentration of BDNF to elicit a response in hBMSCs was 100 ng/mL...
February 28, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Klas Tybrandt, Dion Khodagholy, Bernd Dielacher, Flurin Stauffer, Aline F Renz, György Buzsáki, János Vörös
Electrical interfacing with neural tissue is key to advancing diagnosis and therapies for neurological disorders, as well as providing detailed information about neural signals. A challenge for creating long-term stable interfaces between electronics and neural tissue is the huge mechanical mismatch between the systems. So far, materials and fabrication processes have restricted the development of soft electrode grids able to combine high performance, long-term stability, and high electrode density, aspects all essential for neural interfacing...
February 28, 2018: Advanced Materials
Evon S Ereifej, Griffin M Rial, John K Hermann, Cara S Smith, Seth M Meade, Jacob M Rayyan, Keying Chen, He Feng, Jeffrey R Capadona
Clinical implantation of intracortical microelectrodes has been hindered, at least in part, by the perpetual inflammatory response occurring after device implantation. The neuroinflammatory response observed after device implantation has been correlated to oxidative stress that occurs due to neurological injury and disease. However, there has yet to be a definitive link of oxidative stress to intracortical microelectrode implantation. Thus, the objective of this study is to give direct evidence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Yuchen Wang, Lanlan Ma, Xuejiao Wang, Ling Qin
Auditory steady state response (ASSR) and inhibitory gating (IG) are electrophysiological examinations commonly used to evaluate the sensory and cognitive functions of the brain. In some clinic examinations and animal experiments, general anesthesia is necessary to conduct electrophysiological recordings. However, the effects of anesthesia on ASSR and IG remain unclear. For this reason, we recorded local field potentials though electrodes implanted in different brain areas of rats: the auditory cortex (AC), hippocampus (HC), amygdala (AMY), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and compared the characteristics of ASSR and IG under anesthetized and conscious conditions...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Soheila Samiee, Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli, Sylvain Baillet
Polyrhythmic coupling of oscillatory components in electrophysiological signals results from the interactions between neuronal sub-populations within and between cell assemblies. Since the mechanisms underlying epileptic disorders should affect such interactions, abnormal level of cross-frequency coupling is expected to provide a signal marker of epileptogenesis. We measured phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), a form of cross-frequency coupling between neural oscillations, in a rodent model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
February 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Muge Ozker, Daniel Yoshor, Michael S Beauchamp
Human faces contain multiple sources of information. During speech perception, visual information from the talker's mouth is integrated with auditory information from the talker's voice. By directly recording neural responses from small populations of neurons in patients implanted with subdural electrodes, we found enhanced visual cortex responses to speech when auditory speech was absent (rendering visual speech especially relevant). Receptive field mapping demonstrated that this enhancement was specific to regions of the visual cortex with retinotopic representations of the mouth of the talker...
February 27, 2018: ELife
Meng-Chen Lo, Shuwu Wang, Sagar Singh, Vinod B Damodaran, Ijaz Ahmed, Kevin Coffey, David Barker, Kshitij Saste, Karanvir Kals, Hilton M Kaplan, Joachim Kohn, David I Shreiber, Jeffrey D Zahn
OBJECTIVE: Despite the feasibility of short-term neural recordings using implantable microelectrodes, attaining reliable, chronic recordings remains a challenge. Most neural recording devices suffer from a long-term tissue response, including gliosis, at the device-tissue interface. It was hypothesized that smaller, more flexible intracortical probes would limit gliosis by providing a better mechanical match with surrounding tissue. APPROACH: This paper describes the in vivo evaluation of flexible parylene microprobes designed to improve the interface with the adjacent neural tissue to limit gliosis and thereby allow for improved recording longevity...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Michael J Landry, Frederic-Guillaume Rollet, Timothy E Kennedy, Christopher J Barrett
Growing primary cells and tissue in long-term cultures, such as primary neural cell culture, presents many challenges. A critical component of any environment that supports neural cell growth in vivo is an appropriate 2-D surface or 3-D scaffold, typically in the form of a thin polymer layer that coats an underlying plastic or glass substrate and aims to mimic critical aspects of extracellular matrix. A fundamental challenge to mimicking a hydrophilic, soft natural cell environment is that materials with these properties are typically fragile, and difficult to adhere and stabilize on an underlying plastic or glass cell culture substrate...
February 26, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Richárd Fiáth, Katharina T Hofer, Vivien Csikós, Domonkos Horváth, Tibor Nánási, Kinga Tóth, Frederick Pothof, Christian Böhler, Maria Asplund, Patrick Ruther, István Ulbert
Stereo-electroencephalography depth electrodes, regularly implanted into drug-resistant patients with focal epilepsy to localize the epileptic focus, have a low channel count (6-12 macro- or microelectrodes), limited spatial resolution (0.5-1 cm) and large contact area of the recording sites (~mm2). Thus, they are not suited for high-density local field potential and multiunit recordings. In this paper, we evaluated the long-term electrophysiological recording performance and histocompatibility of a neural interface consisting of 32 microelectrodes providing a physical shape similar to clinical devices...
February 26, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
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