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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106926/regression-models-for-the-restricted-residual-mean-life-for-right-censored-and-left-truncated-data
#1
Giuliana Cortese, Stine A Holmboe, Thomas H Scheike
The hazard ratios resulting from a Cox's regression hazards model are hard to interpret and to be converted into prolonged survival time. As the main goal is often to study survival functions, there is increasing interest in summary measures based on the survival function that are easier to interpret than the hazard ratio; the residual mean time is an important example of those measures. However, because of the presence of right censoring, the tail of the survival distribution is often difficult to estimate correctly...
January 20, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106916/a-bayesian-analysis-of-quantal-bioassay-experiments-incorporating-historical-controls-via-bayes-factors
#2
Luis G León Novelo, Andrew Womack, Hongxiao Zhu, Xiaowei Wu
This paper addresses model-based Bayesian inference in the analysis of data arising from bioassay experiments. In such experiments, increasing doses of a chemical substance are given to treatment groups (usually rats or mice) for a fixed period of time (usually 2 years). The goal of such an experiment is to determine whether an increased dosage of the chemical is associated with increased probability of an adverse effect (usually presence of adenoma or carcinoma). The data consists of dosage, survival time, and the occurrence of the adverse event for each unit in the study...
January 20, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105775/concordance-correlation-coefficients-estimated-by-generalized-estimating-equations-and-variance-components-for-longitudinal-repeated-measurements
#3
Miao-Yu Tsai
The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a commonly accepted measure of agreement between two observers for continuous responses. This paper proposes a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach allowing dependency between repeated measurements over time to assess intra-agreement for each observer and inter- and total agreement among multiple observers simultaneously. Furthermore, the indices of intra-, inter-, and total agreement through variance components (VC) from an extended three-way linear mixed model (LMM) are also developed with consideration of the correlation structure of longitudinal repeated measurements...
January 20, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105728/invention-of-stimulus-responsive-peptide-bond-cleaving-residue-spr-and-its-application-to-chemical-biology-tools
#4
Akira Shigenaga, Jun Yamamoto, Taiki Kohiki, Tsubasa Inokuma, Akira Otaka
Elucidation of biological functions of peptides and proteins is essential for understanding peptide/protein-related biological events and developing drugs. Caged peptides and proteins that release a parent active peptide/protein by photo-irradiation have successfully been employed to elucidate the functions. Whereas the usual caged peptide/protein enables conversion of an inactive form to an active form (OFF-to-ON conversion) by photo-induced deprotection, photo-triggered main chain cleavage is reported to be applicable to ON-to-OFF conversion...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105725/antifungal-peptides-a-potential-new-class-of-antifungals-for-treating-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-caused-by-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans
#5
Siew Mei Samantha Ng, Yi Yong Alvin Yap, Jin Wei Darryl Cheong, Fui Mee Ng, Qiu Ying Lau, Timothy Barkham, Jeanette Woon Pei Teo, Jeffrey Hill, Cheng San Brian Chia
Vulvovaginal candidiasis/candidosis is a common fungal infection afflicting approximately 75% of women globally caused primarily by the yeast Candida albicans. Fluconazole is widely regarded as the antifungal drug of choice since its introduction in 1990 due to its high oral bioavailability, convenient dosing regimen and favourable safety profile. However, its widespread use has led to the emergence of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, posing a universal clinical concern. Coupled to the dearth of new antifungal drugs entering the market, it is imperative to introduce new drug classes to counter this threat...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104085/direct-current-stimulation-modulates-ltp-and-ltd-activity-dependence-and-dendritic-effects
#6
Greg Kronberg, Morgan Bridi, Ted Abel, Marom Bikson, Lucas C Parra
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to improve various forms of learning in humans. Stimulation is often applied during training, producing lasting enhancements that are specific to the learned task. These learning effects are thought to be mediated by altered synaptic plasticity. However, the effects of DCS during the induction of endogenous synaptic plasticity remain largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Here we are interested in the effects of DCS applied during synaptic plasticity induction...
January 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103482/synaptic-plasticity-onto-dopamine-neurons-shapes-fear-learning
#7
Marco Pignatelli, George Kwabena Essien Umanah, Sissi Palma Ribeiro, Rong Chen, Senthilkumar Senthil Karuppagounder, Hau-Jie Yau, Stephen Eacker, Valina Lynn Dawson, Ted Murray Dawson, Antonello Bonci
Fear learning is a fundamental behavioral process that requires dopamine (DA) release. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity occurs on DA neurons while an organism is engaged in aversive experiences. However, whether synaptic plasticity onto DA neurons is causally involved in aversion learning is unknown. Here, we show that a stress priming procedure enhances fear learning by engaging VTA synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we took advantage of the ability of the ATPase Thorase to regulate the internalization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in order to selectively manipulate glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on DA neurons...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102583/successful-splenorenal-shunt-occlusion-with-balloon-occluded-retrograde-transvenous-obliteration-yielded-improvement-of-residual-liver-function-enabled-administration-of-direct-acting-antivirals-and-achieved-sustained-virologic-response-to-hepatitis-c-virus
#8
Hironori Ochi, Michiko Aono, Shunji Takechi, Toshie Mashiba, Tomoyuki Yokota, Kouji Joko
We report the use of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for portosystemic shunt in one patient, resulting in marked improvements in residual liver function and enabling safe hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination with direct-acting antiviral agents. A woman undergoing outpatient treatment at our institution for HCV-related cirrhosis with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE; Child-Pugh score 8) at age 65 years. Improvement was obtained with conservative treatment; however, contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a splenorenal shunt with decreased portal vein blood flow...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102560/the-epidemiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-from-west-to-east
#9
Zsuzsanna Vegh, Zsuzsanna Kurti, Peter Lakatos
The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) show considerable variation over time and across geographic regions. The first studies on the epidemiology of IBD were available mainly from traditionally high-incidence areas, as North America and Northern and Western Europe. In the last two decades, more and more data have been reported from Eastern European and Asian counties with increasing incidence rates from some regions. According to recent studies, the high incidence and prevalence of IBD in some Western countries is plateauing and in some Eastern countries increasing incidence rates have been reported...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102550/accounting-for-competing-risks-in-randomized-controlled-trials-a-review-and-recommendations-for-improvement
#10
Peter C Austin, Jason P Fine
In studies with survival or time-to-event outcomes, a competing risk is an event whose occurrence precludes the occurrence of the primary event of interest. Specialized statistical methods must be used to analyze survival data in the presence of competing risks. We conducted a review of randomized controlled trials with survival outcomes that were published in high-impact general medical journals. Of 40 studies that we identified, 31 (77.5%) were potentially susceptible to competing risks. However, in the majority of these studies, the potential presence of competing risks was not accounted for in the statistical analyses that were described...
January 19, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102031/dual-nano-sized-contrast-agents-in-pet-mri-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Afsaneh Lahooti, Saeed Sarkar, Sophie Laurent, Saeed Shanehsazzadeh
Nowadays molecular imaging plays a vital role in achieving a successful targeted and personalized treatment. Hence, the approach of combining two or more medical imaging modalities was developed. The objective of this review is to systematically compare recent dual contrast agents in Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and in some cases Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/MRI in terms of some their characteristics, such as tumor uptake, and reticuloendothelial system uptake (especially liver) and their relaxivity rates for early detection of primary cancer tumor...
November 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102026/piperine-a-pungent-alkaloid-from-black-pepper-inhibits-b-lymphocyte-activation-and-effector-functions
#12
David A Soutar, Carolyn D Doucette, Robert S Liwski, David W Hoskin
Piperine has several well-documented anti-inflammatory properties; however, little is known regarding its effect on humoral immunity. In this study, we describe the immunosuppressive effect of piperine on B lymphocytes, which are integral to the humoral immune response. Mouse B cells were cultured in the absence or presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations (25, 50, and 100 μM) of piperine during T-dependent or T-independent stimulation. Piperine inhibited B cell proliferation by causing G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in association with reduced expression of cyclin D2 and D3...
January 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102022/the-flavonoid-7-4-dihydroxyflavone-prevents-dexamethasone-paradoxical-adverse-effect-on-eotaxin-production-by-human-fibroblasts
#13
Changda Liu, Nan Yang, Xiaoke Chen, Jody Tversky, Jixun Zhan, Mirna Chehade, Rachel L Miller, Xiu-Min Li
Eotaxin/CCL-11 is a major chemoattractant that contributes to eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. Glucocorticoids inhibit inflammation, but long-time exposure may cause paradoxical adverse effects by augmenting eotaxin/CCL-11production. The aim of this study was to determine if 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone (7,4'-DHF), the eotaxin/CCL11 inhibitor isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, reduces in vitro eotaxin production induced by long-time dexamethasone (Dex) exposure, and if so, to elucidate the mechanisms of this inhibition...
January 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101973/heparin-cross-linked-collagen-sponge-scaffolds-improve-functional-regeneration-of-rat-tracheal-epithelium
#14
Ryosuke Nakamura, Akiko Tani, Susumu Yoshie, Masakazu Ikeda, Ikuo Wada, Akihiro Hazama, Yukio Nomoto, Yasuhiro Tada, Tatsuo Nakamura, Koichi Omori
Tracheal epithelial cells maintain airway homeostasis by mediating mucociliary clearance. Following tracheal reconstruction, timely epithelial regeneration is required to prevent respiratory compromise and infectious diseases. To achieve rapid tracheal epithelial regeneration, a heparin cross-linked collagen sponge containing fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was prepared as a graft for tracheal reconstruction. The heparin cross-linked sponge exhibited a high FGF-2 retaining capacity, and tracheal epithelial and mesenchymal cells cultured in this sponge containing FGF-2 showed high proliferative capacities...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101968/defined-daily-doses-ddd-do-not-accurately-reflect-opioid-doses-used-in-contemporary-chronic-pain-treatment
#15
Suzanne Nielsen, Natasa Gisev, Raimondo Bruno, Wayne Hall, Milton Cohen, Briony Larance, Gabrielle Campbell, Marian Shanahan, Fiona Blyth, Nicholas Lintzeris, Sallie Pearson, Richard Mattick, Louisa Degenhardt
OBJECTIVE: To assess how well the defined daily dose (DDD) metric reflects opioid utilisation among chronic non-cancer pain patients. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, utilising a 7-day medication diary. SETTING: Community-based treatment settings, Australia. SUBJECTS: A sample of 1101 people prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. METHODS: Opioid dose data was collected via a self-completed 7-day medication diary capturing names, strengths and doses of each medication taken in the past week...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101905/mapping-the-road-from-childhood-adversity-to-personality-disorder-the-role-of-unresolved-states-of-mind
#16
Antonella Cirasola, Saul Hillman, Peter Fonagy, Marco Chiesa
Childhood adversity has been found to be an important aetiological factor in the development of personality disorder (PD) in several studies. However, the role of disorganized attachment with unresolved mental states for traumatic experiences requires further investigation. This study explores the relationship between childhood adversities, unresolved states of mind, PD diagnosis and psychiatric distress. Two hundred forty-five adult participants, 124 from a clinical PD group and 121 non-psychiatric controls were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Cassel Baseline Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Adult Attachment Interview, in order to ascertain presence of PD, childhood adversity, level of psychiatric distress and unresolved states of mind...
January 19, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100750/target-dependent-compartmentalization-of-the-corelease-of-glutamate-and-gaba-from-the-mossy-fibers
#17
Emilio J Galván, Rafael Gutiérrez
: The mossy fibers (MFs) corelease glutamate and GABA onto pyramidal cells of CA3 during development, until the end of the third postnatal week. However, the major target cells of the MF are the interneurons of CA3. Therefore, it has been shown that the interneurons of the hilus and stratum lucidum receive this dual monosynaptic input on MF stimulation. Because the plasticity of glutamatergic transmission from the different terminals of the MF is target specific, we here asked whether the corelease of glutamate and GABA was also subjected to a target-dependent compartmentalization...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098412/a-hierarchical-modeling-approach-to-estimate-regional-acute-health-effects-of-particulate-matter-sources
#18
Jenna R Krall, Amber J Hackstadt, Roger D Peng
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and other clinical parameters. Determining which sources of PM, such as traffic or industry, are most associated with adverse health outcomes could help guide future recommendations aimed at reducing harmful pollution exposure for susceptible individuals. Information obtained from multisite studies, which is generally more precise than information from a single location, is critical to understanding how PM impacts health and to informing local strategies for reducing individual-level PM exposure...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098411/an-efficient-basket-trial-design
#19
Kristen M Cunanan, Alexia Iasonos, Ronglai Shen, Colin B Begg, Mithat Gönen
The landscape for early phase cancer clinical trials is changing dramatically because of the advent of targeted therapy. Increasingly, new drugs are designed to work against a target such as the presence of a specific tumor mutation. Because typically only a small proportion of cancer patients will possess the mutational target, but the mutation is present in many different cancers, a new class of basket trials is emerging, whereby the drug is tested simultaneously in different baskets, that is, subgroups of different tumor types...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098410/juror-decision-making-in-death-penalty-sentencing-when-presented-with-defendant-s-history-of-child-abuse-or-neglect
#20
Lisa L Bell Holleran, Tyler J Vaughan, Donna M Vandiver
Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design...
January 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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