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Td Barbara Nguyen-Vu, Grace Q Zhao, Subhaneil Lahiri, Rhea R Kimpo, Hanmi Lee, Surya Ganguli, Carla J Shatz, Jennifer L Raymond
Across many studies, animals with enhanced synaptic plasticity exhibit either enhanced or impaired learning, raising a conceptual puzzle: how enhanced plasticity can yield opposite learning outcomes? Here we show that recent history of experience can determine whether mice with enhanced plasticity exhibit enhanced or impaired learning in response to the same training. Mice with enhanced cerebellar LTD, due to double knockout (DKO) of MHCI H2-K(b)/H2-D(b) (K(b)D(b-/-)), exhibited oculomotor learning deficits...
February 24, 2017: ELife
Tingting Duan, Ning Gu, Ying Wang, Feng Wang, Jie Zhu, Yiru Fang, Yuan Shen, Jing Han, Xia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pathological anxiety is the most common type of psychiatric disorder. The current first-line anti-anxiety treatment, selective serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, produces a delayed onset of action with modest therapeutic and substantial adverse effects, and long-term use of the fast-acting anti-anxiety benzodiazepines causes severe adverse effects. Inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) degradative enzyme, produces anti-anxiety effects without substantial "unwanted effects" of cannabinoids, but its anti-anxiety mechanism is unclear...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Dilli Ram Poudel, Prakash Acharya, Sushil Ghimire, Rashmi Dhital, Rajani Bharati
PURPOSE: Adverse drug events (ADEs) represent medication-related patient harm, which is associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to determine the rate, specific causes, and outcomes of ADE-related hospitalization in the USA. METHODS: We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset for the years 2008 to 2011. We selected patients with ADE based on 537 Classification of Diseases-9 codes...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Martin Andersen
I study the effect of prescription drug essential health benefits (EHB) requirements from the Affordable Care Act on prescription drug formularies of health insurance marketplace plans. The EHB regulates the number of drugs covered but leaves other dimensions (cost sharing and utilization management) of the formulary unregulated. Using data on almost all formularies in the country, I demonstrate that requiring insurers to cover one additional drug adds 0.22 drugs (3.3%) to the average formulary, mostly owing to firms increasing the number of drugs covered to comply with the EHB requirement...
February 24, 2017: Health Economics
M Rowley, H Garmo, M Van Hemelrijck, W Wulaningsih, B Grundmark, B Zethelius, N Hammar, G Walldius, M Inoue, L Holmberg, A C C Coolen
Survival data analysis becomes complex when the proportional hazards assumption is violated at population level or when crude hazard rates are no longer estimators of marginal ones. We develop a Bayesian survival analysis method to deal with these situations, on the basis of assuming that the complexities are induced by latent cohort or disease heterogeneity that is not captured by covariates and that proportional hazards hold at the level of individuals. This leads to a description from which risk-specific marginal hazard rates and survival functions are fully accessible, 'decontaminated' of the effects of informative censoring, and which includes Cox, random effects and latent class models as special cases...
February 24, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
Sigal Gat-Lazer, Ronny Geva, Eitan Gur, Daniel Stein
INTRODUCTION: The Cloninger's Psychobiological Model of Temperament and Character includes temperamental dimensions such as reward dependence (RD) and harm avoidance (HA). Studies of RD differentiate between sensitivity to reward (SR) versus to punishment (SP). We investigated the interrelationship between HA and RD in acutely ill patients with binge/purge (B/P) type eating disorders (EDs) and following symptomatic stabilization. METHODS: Fifty patients with B/P EDs were assessed at admission to inpatient treatment, 36 of whom were reassessed at discharge...
February 23, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Amy Hemmington, Nicola Dalbeth, Paul Jarrett, Alan G Fraser, Reuben Broom, Peter Browett, Keith J Petrie
PURPOSE: Biosimilars are a cost-effective alternative to biologics that could improve patients' access to expensive biological medicines. Currently, there are little data on doctors' perceptions of biosimilars and in what situations they are comfortable prescribing biosimilars. In this study, we investigated medical specialists' perceptions of biosimilars and the factors associated with the acceptance of biosimilars. METHODS: A national sample of 110 of 327 medical specialists working in the areas of rheumatology, dermatology, gastroenterology, oncology and haematology completed an online questionnaire examining attitudes towards prescribing biosimilars, indication extrapolation and switching patients to a biosimilar...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Fei Zhou, Yajing Zhao, Jiyu Peng, Yirong Jiang, Maiquan Li, Yuan Jiang, Baiyi Lu
INTRODUCTION: Osmanthus fragrans flowers are used as folk medicine and additives for teas, beverages and foods. The metabolites of O. fragrans flowers from different geographical origins were inconsistent in some extent. Chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with multivariable analysis methods provides an approach for discriminating the origin of O. fragrans flowers. OBJECTIVE: To discriminate the Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii flowers from different origins with the identified metabolites...
February 24, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Peihua Li, Huiming Ye, Jiangwu Liu, Hongwei Jin, Yongzhi Lin, Shuidi Yan, Yang Yu, Lei Gao, Feihai Xu, Zhongying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) is used as a biomarker to aid to diagnose and monitor the prognosis of breast cancer patients. A new quantitative determination kit for CA15-3 with chemiluminescent assay was developed by Xiamen InnoDx Biotech Co., Ltd, China. Therefore, we conducted the report to evaluate the performance of the kit. METHODS: According to the "Guiding principles on performance analysis of diagnostic reagents in vitro", the calibration curve, limit of detection, reportable range, accuracy, precision, anti-interference capability, cross-reaction and comparison by measuring EDTA plasma and serum were carried out...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Andrea V Cuc, Dona E C Locke, Noah Duncan, Julie A Fields, Charlene Hoffman Snyder, Sherrie Hanna, Angela Lunde, Glenn E Smith, Melanie Chandler
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide effect size estimates of the impact of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions provided to patients with mild cognitive impairment: computerized brain fitness exercise and memory support system on support partners' outcomes of depression, anxiety, quality of life, and partner burden. METHODS: A randomized controlled pilot trial was performed. RESULTS: At 6 months, the partners from both treatment groups showed stable to improved depression scores, while partners in an untreated control group showed worsening depression over 6 months...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Heather L Price, Leora C Dahl
In two studies, mock investigators conducted a computer-based investigation of a crime involving an alibi witness who varied in the consistency of his statements taken 5 years apart. Investigators showed evidence of skepticism of alibi witness statements in which major contradictions (activity, location) were present, and some skepticism of statements in which minor (activity) details were contradictory. Entirely consistent statements were judged favorably, and reduced perceptions of suspect guilt (Study 2)...
February 24, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Abdessattar Khlaifia, Isabelle Matias, Daniela Cota, Fabien Tell
Communication form the viscera to the brain is essential to set physiological homoeostatic parameters but also to drive more complex behaviours such as mood, memory and emotional states. Here we investigated the impact of the nutritional status on long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a neural hub integrating visceral signals. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid (eCB) induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Elizabeth C Ahern, Stacia N Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D Lyon
This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: "Did the toy break?" versus DYR: "Do you remember if the toy broke?") on 262 maltreated and non-maltreated children's (age range 4-9 years) reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Ean M Garvin, Cas F Bridge, Meredith S Garvin
Metal releases have been received by the Grand Lake watershed from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) since the mid 1800s. To address data gaps in metal distributions in the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, streambed sediment and floodplain soil was sampled on various streams. The <63-µm fraction was analyzed for Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations by portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mean metal concentration results at reference transects indicated that background sediment/soil concentrations for Cd, Pb, and Zn within the watershed were 0...
February 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Morgane Rosendale, Damien Jullié, Daniel Choquet, David Perrais
Endocytosis in neuronal dendrites is known to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and plasticity such as long-term depression (LTD). However, the inability to detect endocytosis directly in living neurons has hampered studies of its dynamics and regulation. Here, we visualized the formation of individual endocytic vesicles containing pHluorin-tagged receptors with high temporal resolution in the dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons. We show that transferrin receptors (TfRs) are constitutively internalized at optically static clathrin-coated structures...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
T Roberts, M Newell, W Auffermann, B Vidakovic
Mammography is routinely used to screen for breast cancer. However, the radiological interpretation of mammogram images is complicated by the heterogeneous nature of normal breast tissue and the fact that cancers are often of the same radiographic density as normal tissue. In this work, we use wavelets to quantify spectral slopes of breast cancer cases and controls and demonstrate their value in classifying images. In addition, we propose asymmetry statistics to be used in forming features, which improve the classification result...
February 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
You-Gan Wang, Liya Fu
The well-known generalized estimating equations is a very popular approach for analyzing longitudinal data. Selecting an appropriate correlation structure in the generalized estimating equations framework is a key step for estimating parameters efficiently and deriving reliable statistical inferences. We present two new criteria for selecting the best among the candidates with any arbitrary structures, even for irregularly timed measurements. The simulation results demonstrate that the new criteria perform more similarly to EAIC and EBIC as the sample size becomes large...
February 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
Bo Cai, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
A normality assumption is typically adopted for the random effects in a clustered or longitudinal data analysis using a linear mixed model. However, such an assumption is not always realistic, and it may lead to potential biases of the estimates, especially when variable selection is taken into account. Furthermore, flexibility of nonparametric assumptions (e.g., Dirichlet process) on these random effects may potentially cause centering problems, leading to difficulty of interpretation of fixed effects and variable selection...
February 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
Yongqiang Tang
We derive the closed-form restricted maximum likelihood estimator and Kenward-Roger's variance estimator for fixed effects in the mixed effects model for repeated measures (MMRM) when the missing data pattern is monotone. As an important application of the analytic result, we present the formula for calculating the power of treatment comparison using the Wald t-test with the Kenward-Roger adjusted variance estimate in MMRM. It allows adjustment for baseline covariates without the need to specify the covariate distribution in randomized trials...
February 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
Johanna Catherine Maclean, Brendan Saloner
We examine the impact of the 2006 Massachusetts healthcare reform on substance use disorder (SUD) treatment facilities' provision of care. We test the impact of the reform on treatment quantity and access. We couple data on the near universe of specialty SUD treatment providers in the USA with a synthetic control method approach. We find little evidence that the reform lead to changes in treatment quantity or access. Reform effects were similar among for-profit and non-profit facilities. In an extension, we show that the reform altered the setting in which treatment is received, the number of offered services, and the number of programs for special populations...
February 21, 2017: Health Economics
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