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Radiation exposure

Z Chen, L Cheng, G Feng
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a sporadic condition of inflammatory bone pain that occurs as recurrent flares because of osteomyelitis, which presents in the form of multiple aseptic foci. The estimated prevalence of CRMO is 1-2 per million, affecting mostly children, in the age group of 2 to 17. Main symptoms of CRMO are bone inflammation and pain, which are generally worse at night. Other symptoms seen on radiographs indicate osteolytic lesions surrounded by sclerosis, at later stages of the disease...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Alena Rajnochová Svobodová, Eva Gabrielová, Loizos Michaelides, Pavel Kosina, Alena Ryšavá, Jitka Ulrichová, Bohumil Zálešák, Jitka Vostálová
Exposure to solar radiation is a major cause of environmental human skin damage. The main constituent of solar UV light is UVA radiation (320-400 nm); however, the need for protection against UVA has been marginalized for a long time. As a result, there is still a lack of useful agents for UVA protection. In this study, the effect of silymarin (SM) and its main constituent silybin (SB) pre-treatment on UVA-stimulated damage to primary human dermal fibroblasts were carried out. The cells were pre-treated for 1 h with SB or SM and then were exposed to UVA light, using a solar simulator...
March 21, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Mohammad R Talebnejad, Ali Sadeghi-Sarvestani, M Hossein Nowroozzadeh, Seyed Mohammad J Mortazavi, Abbas Alighanbari, Mohammad R Khalili
Purpose: Mobile cell phones are used extensively these days, and their microwave (MW) radiation has been shown to affect the eye. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MW radiation on rabbit retina. Methods: This experimental study (concluded in 2015) was conducted on 40 adult white New Zealand rabbits. A Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) cell phone simulator was used for MW irradiation. The rabbits were randomized into five groups (8 in each) and treated as follows: Group 1: no irradiation (sham); Group 2: irradiation at 10 cm for 1 day; Group 3: irradiation at 30 cm for 1 day; Group 4: irradiation at 10 cm for 3 days; and Group 5: irradiation at 30 cm for 3 days...
March 2018: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Manphool Singhal, Pankaj Gupta, Surjit Singh, Niranjan Khandelwal
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute idiopathic vasculitis affecting infants and children. Coronary artery abnormalities and myocarditis are the major cardiovascular complications of KD. Coronary artery abnormalities develop in 15-25% of untreated KD. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography has hitherto been considered the modality of choice for evaluation of children with KD. There are, however, several limitations inherent to echocardiography - including limited evaluation of distal vessels, left circumflex artery and poor acoustic window in growing children...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Mohamed S ElGuindy, Ahmed M ElGuindy
Aneurysmal coronary artery disease (ACAD) comprises both coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) and coronary artery ectasia (CAE). The reported prevalence of ACAD varies widely from 0.2 to 10%, with male predominance and a predilection for the right coronary artery (RCA). Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ACAD in adults, while Kawasaki disease is the commonest cause in children and adolescents, as well as in the Far East. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when symptoms do exist, they are usually related to myocardial ischemia...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Neelam Pandey, Sarbani Giri
Increasing male infertility of unknown aetiology can be associated with environmental factors. Extensive use of mobile phones has exposed the general population to unprecedented levels of radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) that may adversely affect male reproductive health. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of RFR Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) type, 900 MHz and melatonin supplementation on germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Soshi Nakamuta, Toshihiro Nishizawa, Shiori Matsuhashi, Arata Shimizu, Toshio Uraoka, Masato Yamamoto
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Malposition of peripherally inserted central catheters placed at the bedside is a well-recognized phenomenon. We report the success rate of the placement of peripherally inserted central catheters with ultrasound guidance for tip positioning and describe the knacks and pitfalls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical case charts of 954 patients who received peripherally inserted central catheter procedure. Patient clinical data included success rate of puncture, detection rate of tip malposition with ultrasonography, adjustment rate after X-ray, and success rate of peripherally inserted central catheter placement...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Amihai Rottenstreich, Yosef Kalish, Uriel Elchalal, Alexander Klimov, Allan I Bloom
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patterns of use and outcomes of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCF) in obstetric patients. METHODS: A single center review of consecutive patients who underwent rIVCF placement during pregnancy/postpartum in 2005-2016. A pooled analysis of the relevant cases in the English literature was conducted. RESULTS: The current cohort comprised 24 women, median age 27 [interquartile range 24-30] years. Among 10 filters placed during pregnancy, the most common indication (n = 4) was the need to withhold anticoagulation therapy before delivery, in the presence of acute thrombosis...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Shihe Liu, Qing Fu, Hualong Yu, Chuanyu Zhang, Qing Yang, Yabin Hu, Wenjian Xu
BACKGROUND: 640-slice coronary CT angiography is becoming an accurate and reliable method of diagnosing coronary heart disease. However, how to reduce the radiation dosage while ensuring the clinically acceptable image quality remains a quite challenging issue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of low tube voltage on radiation dosage under 640-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Four hundred patients (236 males, 164 females) with coronary heart disease and underwent CCTA using DCVT were classified into A1 (tube voltage: 120 kV; exposure phase window: 30-80%), B1 (120 kV; 70-80%), A2 (100 kV; 30-80%) and B2 group (100 kV; 70-80%), respectively...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jiahui Lin, Hao Zhang, Jing Huang, Zhaoying Bian, Shanli Zhang, Yongbo Wang, Yuting Liao, Sui Li, Hua Zhang, Dong Zeng, Jianhua Ma
Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can improve the capability of differentiating different materials compared with conventional CT. However, due to non-negligible radiation exposure to patients, dose reduction has recently become a critical concern in CT imaging field. In this work, to reduce noise at the same time maintain DECT images quality, we present an iterative reconstruction algorithm for low-dose DECT images where in the objective function of the algorithm consists of a data-fidelity term and a regularization term...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Carlos Vitor Braga Rodrigues, Anderson Oliveira, Christiane Cigagna Wiefels, Maurício de Souza Leão, Cláudio Tinoco Mesquita
BACKGROUND: Data on the current situation of nuclear medicine practices in cardiology in Brazil are scarce. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended eight "good practices" to minimize patients' ionizing radiation exposure during myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). OBJECTIVES: To assess the adoption of the eight good practices in MPS in Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with data obtained by use of a questionnaire...
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Marcelo A Queiroz, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Giovanni Guido Cerri
The new technology of PET/MRI is a prototype of hybrid imaging, allowing for the combination of molecular data from PET scanning and morphofunctional information derived from MRI scanning. Recent advances regarding the technical aspects of this device, especially after the development of MRI-compatible silicon photomultipliers of PET, permitted an increase in the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI translated into dose reduction and higher imaging quality. Among several clinical applications, PET/MRI gains ground initially in oncology, where MRI per se plays an essential role in the assessment of primary tumors (which is limited in the case of PET/CT), including prostate, rectal and gynecological tumors...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Masaaki Takeuchi, Yasufumi Nagata, Masaki Izumo, Yoshihiro J Akashi, Fen-Chiung Lin, Yutaka Otsuji
We hypothesized that area of calcified aortic valve (ACAV) measured by 2D echocardiography (2DE) can predict future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS).Multidetector computed tomography determined aortic valve calcification load is strongly associated with AS severity but has risks for radiation exposure. Quantification of ACAV by transthoracic 2DE is simple and convenient but its clinical utility has not been extensively studied.We measured ACAV in 124 asymptomatic severe AS patients (80 ± 9 years, 45 males) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cui Feng, Di Zhu, Xianlun Zou, Anqin Li, Xuemei Hu, Zhen Li, Daoyu Hu
To investigate the subjective and quantitative image quality and radiation exposure of CT enterography (CTE) examination performed at low tube voltage and low concentration of contrast agent with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm, compared with conventional CTE.One hundred thirty-seven patients with suspected or proved gastrointestinal diseases underwent contrast enhanced CTE in a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner. All cases were assigned to 2 groups. Group A (n = 79) underwent CT with low tube voltage based on patient body mass index (BMI) (BMI < 23 kg/m, 80 kVp; BMI ≥ 23 kg/m, 100 kVp) and low concentration of contrast agent (270 mg I/mL), the images were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and 50% ASIR algorithm...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marie-Therese I Valovska, Vernon M Pais
Urolithiasis is the most common nonobstetric complication in the gravid patient. The experience can provoke undue stress for the mother, fetus, and management team. The physiologic changes of pregnancy render the physical exam and imaging studies less reliable than in the typical patient. Diagnosis is further complicated by the need for careful selection of imaging modality in order to maximize diagnostic utility and minimize obstetric risk to the mother and ionizing radiation exposure to the fetus. Ultrasound remains the first-line diagnostic imaging modality in this group, but other options are available if results are inconclusive...
April 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
Hong-Ze Zeng, Qin Liu, Hong-Lin Chen, Wei Liu, Qi-Shan Zeng, Chun-Cheng Wu, Bing Hu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: ERCP has the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. Performers may unconsciously increase fluoroscopy time (FT) due to lack of radiation protection awareness. This study investigates whether a flashing warning light adopted as a behavioral intervention for performers reduces FT and radiation exposure during ERCP. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized trial of 200 therapeutic ERCPs. A flashing warning light was placed on top of the endoscopy monitor...
March 17, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. Although invasive melanoma accounts for only 2% of all skin cancer cases, it is responsible for 80% of skin cancer deaths. Basal and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 predominant types of nonmelanoma skin cancer, represent the vast majority of skin cancer cases. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on behavioral counseling for the primary prevention of skin cancer and the 2009 recommendation on screening for skin cancer with skin self-examination...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Nora B Henrikson, Caitlin C Morrison, Paula R Blasi, Matt Nguyen, Kendall C Shibuya, Carrie D Patnode
Importance: Exposure to UV radiation, especially in childhood, increases skin cancer risk. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling for skin cancer prevention to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched for studies published from January 2009 to March 31, 2016, for skin cancer prevention and from August 2005 to March 31, 2016, for skin self-examination...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Kim Ngan Tran, Jong-Il Choi
PURPOSE: To study gene expression modulation in response to continuous whole-body exposure to low-dose-rate gamma radiation and improve our understanding of the mechanism of this impact at the molecular basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: cDNA microarray method with complete pooling of samples was used to study expression changes in the transcriptome profile of livers from rats treated with prolonged low-dose-rate ionizing radiation relative to that of sham-irradiated rats...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mimi M Li, Mohamad S Hamady, Colin D Bicknell, Celia V Riga
Flexible robotic catheters are an emerging technology which provide an elegant solution to the challenges of conventional endovascular intervention. Originally developed for interventional cardiology and electrophysiology procedures, remotely steerable robotic catheters such as the Magellan system enable greater precision and enhanced stability during target vessel navigation. These technical advantages facilitate improved treatment of disease in the arterial tree, as well as allowing execution of otherwise unfeasible procedures...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
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