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Nitrosative stress

Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, George Anderson, Marta Kubera, Andre F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Shuai Zhang, Qier An, Tianfu Wang, Shuping Gao, Guangqian Zhou
Post-stroke hyperglycemia during early reperfusion increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and subsequently aggravates brain injury and clinical prognosis. The decreased level of tight junction proteins (TJPs) has been reported but the underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. Herein we designed to investigate the detailed molecular events in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) ex and in vivo. After oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 90 min and reperfusion with 8 or 16 mM glucose for 30 min, glucose at 16 mM caused significant decrease of the TJP expression and particularly ZO-1 redistribution from membrane to cytoplasm of BMECs...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Eman N Hosny, Hussein G Sawie, Mohamed E Elhadidy, Yasser A Khadrawy
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of caffeine against aluminum chloride (AlCl3 )-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Twenty-one male albino rats were divided into 3 groups: control, AlCl3 -intoxicated group that received daily oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg for 30 days) and protected group injected daily with caffeine (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) one hour before oral administration of AlCl3 for 30 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and Na+ /K+ -ATPase were measured spectrophotometrically...
March 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Sara Franceschelli, Daniela Maria Pia Gatta, Mirko Pesce, Alessio Ferrone, Giuseppe Di Martino, Marta Di Nicola, Maria Anna De Lutiis, Ester Vitacolonna, Antonia Patruno, Alfredo Grilli, Mario Felaco, Lorenza Speranza
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a clinical condition characterized by reflux of gastroduodenal contents in the oesophagus, has proved to demonstrate a strong link between oxidative stress and the development of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been universally accepted as first-line therapy for management of GERD. The potential benefits of electrolysed reduced water (ERW), rich in molecular hydrogen, in improving symptoms and systemic oxidative stress associated with GERD was assessed. The study was performed on 84 GERD patients undergoing control treatment (PPI + tap water) or experimental treatment (PPI + ERW) for 3 months...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Tomiyasu Murata, Masayoshi Yamaguchi, Susumu Kohno, Chiaki Takahashi, Mitsumi Kakimoto, Yukiko Sugimura, Mako Kamihara, Kiyomi Hikita, Norio Kaneda
Amyloid-β (Aβ), a primary component of amyloid plaques, has been widely associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The Ca2+ -binding protein regucalcin (RGN) plays multiple roles in maintaining cell functions by regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis, various signaling pathways, and gene expression systems. Here, we investigated the functional role of RGN against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. Overexpression of RGN reduced Aβ-induced apoptosis by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation...
March 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Sampurna Datta, Subhamoy Chakraborty, Chiranjit Panja, Sanjay Ghosh
The biological outcome of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in regulating pro survival and pro death autophagic pathways still demand further investigation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of nitrosative stress in K562 cells using NO donor compound DETA-NONOate, peroxynitrite and SIN-1. Exposure to NO, peroxynitrite and SIN-1 caused decrease in K562 cell survival. NO induced autophagy but not apoptosis or necrosis in K562 cells. In contrast, peroxynitrite and SIN-1 treatment induced apoptosis in K562 cells...
March 6, 2018: Free Radical Research
Masaaki Kawakami, Mizuki Hattori, Wakana Ohashi, Toshio Fujimori, Kohshi Hattori, Mariko Takebe, Kengo Tomita, Hiroki Yokoo, Naoyuki Matsuda, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Yuichi Hattori
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE), characterized as diffuse brain dysfunction and neurological manifestations secondary to sepsis, is a common complication in critically ill patients and can give rise to poor outcome, but understanding the molecular basis of this disorder remains a major challenge. Given the emerging role of G protein-coupled receptor 2 (GRK2), first identified as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulator, in the regulation of non-GPCR-related molecules contributing to diverse cellular functions and pathology, including inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that GRK2 may be linked to the neuropathogenesis of SAE...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Ralph A Pietrofesa, Shampa Chatterjee, Kyewon Park, Evguenia Arguiri, Steven M Albelda, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou
Asbestos exposure triggers inflammatory processes associated with oxidative stress and tissue damage linked to malignancy. LGM2605 is the synthetic lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) with free radical scavenging, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in diverse inflammatory cell and mouse models, including exposure to asbestos fibers. Nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and boosting of endogenous tissue defenses were associated with the protective action of LGM2605 from asbestos-induced cellular damage...
March 2, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Johannes C Schoeman, Amy C Harms, Michel van Weeghel, Ruud Berger, Rob J Vreeken, Thomas Hankemeier
Oxidative stress and inflammation are underlying pathogenic mechanisms associated with the progression of several pathological conditions and immunological responses. Elucidating the role of signalling lipid classes, which include, among others, the isoprostanes, nitro fatty acids, prostanoids, sphingoid bases and lysophosphatidic acids, will create a snapshot of the cause and effect of inflammation and oxidative stress at the metabolic level. Here we describe a fast, sensitive, and targeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics method that allows the quantitative measurement and biological elucidation of 17 isoprostanes as well as their respective isomeric prostanoid mediators, three nitro fatty acids, four sphingoid mediators, and 24 lysophosphatidic acid species from serum as well as organ tissues, including liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney and brain...
March 2, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Basema Balasiny, Matthew D Rolfe, Claire Vine, Charlene Bradley, Jeffrey Green, Jeff Cole
Synthesis of the Escherichia coli YtfE protein, also known as RIC, for the repair of damaged iron centres, is highly induced during anaerobic growth under conditions of nitrosative stress. How YtfE repairs nitrosative damage remains unclear. Contrary to previous reports, we show that strains defective in YtfE that lack the high-affinity NO reductase activity of the hybrid cluster protein (Hcp) are less sensitive to nitrosative stress than isogenic ytfE+ strains, which are extremely sensitive. Evidence that this sensitivity is due to YtfE-dependent release of NO into the cytoplasm includes: relief of growth inhibition by PTIO (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide), which degrades NO; relief of nitrosative stress by deletion of narG encoding the nitrate reductase that is the major source of NO from nitrite; partial suppression of nitrosative stress due to loss of Hcp function by a further mutation in ytfE; YtfE-dependent loss of aconitase and fumarase activities in the absence of Hcp; and YtfE-dependent relief of NsrR repression of the hcp promoter in response to cytoplasmic NO...
March 1, 2018: Microbiology
Cristina Carrasco, Mustafa Naziroǧlu, Ana B Rodríguez, José A Pariente
Currently, neuropathic pain is an underestimated socioeconomic health problem affecting millions of people worldwide, which incidence may increase in the next years due to chronification of several diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. Growing evidence links neuropathic pain present in several disorders [i.e., spinal cord injury (SCI), cancer, diabetes and alcoholism] to central sensitization, as a global result of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidative and nitrosative stress. Additionally, inflammatory signals and the overload in intracellular calcium ion could be also implicated in this complex network that has not yet been elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Liam F Fitzsimmons, Lin Liu, Ju-Sim Kim, Jessica Jones-Carson, Andrés Vázquez-Torres
The adaptations that protect pathogenic microorganisms against the cytotoxicity of nitric oxide (NO) engendered in the immune response are incompletely understood. We show here that salmonellae experiencing nitrosative stress suffer dramatic losses of the nucleoside triphosphates ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP while simultaneously generating a massive burst of the alarmone nucleotide guanosine tetraphosphate. RelA proteins associated with ribosomes overwhelmingly synthesize guanosine tetraphosphate in response to NO as a feedback mechanism to transient branched-chain amino acid auxotrophies...
February 27, 2018: MBio
Aida Salameh, Roxana Schuster, Ingo Dähnert, Johannes Seeger, Stefan Dhein
Cardioplegic arrest during heart operations is often used in cardiac surgery. During cardioplegia, the heart is subjected to a global ischemia/reperfusion-injury. (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), one of the main ingredients of green tea, seems to be beneficial in various cardiac diseases. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate EGCG in a rabbit model of cardioplegic arrest. Twenty four mature Chinchilla rabbits were examined. Rabbit hearts were isolated and perfused according to Langendorff. After induction of cardioplegia (without and with 20 µmol/L EGCG, n = 6 each) the hearts maintained arrested for 90-min...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shruti Nagaraja, Serge Ankri
During its life cycle, the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica is challenged by a wide variety of environmental stresses, such as fluctuation in glucose concentration, changes in gut microbiota composition, and the release of oxidative and nitrosative species from neutrophils and macrophages. The best mode of survival for this parasite is to continuously adapt itself to the dynamic environment of the host. Our ability to study the stress-induced responses and adaptive mechanisms of this parasite has been transformed through the development of genomics, proteomics or metabolomics (omics sciences)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
D Cupic Miladinovic, S Borozan, S Ivanovic
Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide (OP). In birds and mammals OP exhibits a toxic effect via inhibition of cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] and through oxidative/nitrosative stress. In this study, the influence of chlorpyrifos on cholinesterase activity, parameters of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA); glutathione (GSH); superoxide dismutase (SOD); nitrite concentration (NO2-); hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], and inflammatory parameter [activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO)] in the brain of Japanese quail (Coturnix japanica) was examined...
February 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Ana Negri, Prisca Javidnia, Ran Mu, Xiaojie Zhang, Jeremie Vendome, Ben Gold, Julia Roberts, Dipti Barman, Thomas Ioerger, James C Sacchettini, Xiuju Jiang, Kristin Burns-Huang, Thulasi Warrier, Yan Ling, J David Warren, Deena A Oren, Thijs Beuming, Hongyao Wang, Jie Wu, Haitao Li, Kyu Y Rhee, Carl F Nathan, Gang Liu, Selin Somersan-Karakaya
The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as a pathogen depends on the redundant and complex mechanisms it has evolved for resisting nitrosative and oxidative stresses inflicted by host immunity. Improving our understanding of these defense pathways can reveal vulnerable points in Mtb pathogenesis. In this study, we combined genetic, structural, computational, biochemical, and biophysical approaches to identify a novel enzyme class represented by Rv2466c. We show that Rv2466c is a mycothiol-dependent nitroreductase of Mtb and can reduce the nitro group of a novel mycobactericidal compound using mycothiol as a cofactor...
February 21, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Valencia Fernandes, Dilip Sharma, Kiran Kalia, Vinod Tiwari
Astrogliosis is a key contributor for many neurological disorders involving apoptosis, neuroinflammation and subsequent neuronal death. Silibinin, a polyphenol isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been shown to suppress the astrocyte activation in various neurodegenerative disorders and also exhibit a neuroprotective role in neuroinflammation-driven oxidative damage. In the present study, we found that treatment with silibinin significantly attenuates LPS- oxidative-nitrosative stress in C6 astrocytoma cells...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Sushovan Dam, Jean-Marie Pagès, Muriel Masi
Bacteria have evolved several strategies to survive a myriad of harmful conditions in the environment and in hosts. In Gram-negative bacteria, responses to nutrient limitation, oxidative or nitrosative stress, envelope stress, exposure to antimicrobials and other growth-limiting stresses have been linked to the development of antimicrobial resistance. This results from the activation of protective changes to cell physiology (decreased outer membrane permeability), resistance transporters (drug efflux pumps), resistant lifestyles (biofilms, persistence) and/or resistance mutations (target mutations, production of antibiotic modification/degradation enzymes)...
January 25, 2018: Microbiology
Céline Renoux, Philippe Joly, Camille Faes, Pauline Mury, Buse Eglenen, Mine Turkay, Gokce Yavas, Ozlem Yalcin, Yves Bertrand, Nathalie Garnier, Daniela Cuzzubbo, Alexandra Gauthier, Marc Romana, Berenike Möckesch, Giovanna Cannas, Sophie Antoine-Jonville, Vincent Pialoux, Philippe Connes
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between several sickle cell disease genetic modifiers (beta-globin haplotypes, alpha-thalassemia, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) and the level of oxidative stress and to evaluate the association between oxidative stress and the rates of vaso-occlusive events. STUDY DESIGN: Steady-state oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, biological variables, genetic modulators, and vaso-occlusive crisis events requiring emergency admissions were measured during a 2-year period in 62 children with sickle cell anemia (58 SS and 4 Sβ 0 )...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Claudia G Fresta, Aishik Chakraborty, Manjula B Wijesinghe, Angela M Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Barbara Tavazzi, Susan M Lunte, Filippo Caraci, Prajnaparamita Dhar, Giuseppe Caruso
Engineered nanoparticles are finding a wide spectrum of biomedical applications, including drug delivery and capacity to trigger cytotoxic phenomena, potentially useful against tumor cells. The full understanding of their biosafety and interactions with cell processes is mandatory. Using microglial (BV-2) and alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells, in this study we determined the effects of engineered carbon nanodiamonds (ECNs) on cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as on energy metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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