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Candida spp

P V Surase, G Nataraj, K Pattamadai, P R Mehta, A R Pazare, M C Agarwal, R N Nanavati
AIMS: Comparison of conventional blood culture with BACTEC 9050 for rate and time to detection of microorganisms. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective study was carried out in a multispecialty tertiary care teaching hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 835 paired specimens (797 blood and 38 nonblood specimens) were collected and processed according to standard microbiological procedures by both conventional method as well as by BACTEC 9050 automated culture system...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Wan Harun Himratul-Aznita, Che Omran Nor-Zulaila, Khairuddin Nurul-Fatihah
Candida spp. is the most prevalent species causing systemic fungal infections. The effect of antifungal agents were screened in vitro and their synergism effect were determined between hydroxychavicol (HC) in association with commercialized antifungal drugs-amphotericin B (AMB), and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) alone and in combination against five different oral Candida spp. in their planktonic states at different ratio (1:1 v/v; 1:2 v/v and 2:1 v/v). In vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. to HC and commercialized antifungal agents were investigated by broth microdilution method as described by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2...
2016: SpringerPlus
Tchana Martinez Brandolt, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Carla Vitola Gonçalves, Laura Riffel Bitencourt, Ana Maria Barral de Martinez, Josiara Furtado Mendes, Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles, Melissa Orzechowski Xavier
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection of the genital mucosa caused by different species of the genus Candida. Considering the lack of data on this topic in the south of Brazil, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of Candida spp. in the cervical-vaginal mucosa of patients treated at a university hospital in southern Rio Grande do Sul, as well as the etiology and the susceptibility of the isolates against fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nystatin. Samples were collected at the gynecology clinic of the Federal Hospital of the University of Rio Grande, and the isolates were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Matthew S Payne, Demelza J Ireland, Rory Watts, Elizabeth A Nathan, Lucy L Furfaro, Matthew W Kemp, Jeffrey A Keelan, John P Newnham
BACKGROUND: Detection of Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma and Candida spp. in the vagina during pregnancy has previously been associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, the prevalence of these microorganisms and the associated obstetric risks (likely to be population-specific) have not been determined in Australian women; furthermore, in the case of Ureaplasma spp., very few studies have attempted characterisation at the species level and none have examined genotype/serovar status to further refine risk assessment...
October 18, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Frank Schwarz, Kathrin Becker, Sebastian Rahn, Andrea Hegewald, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
BACKGROUND: The potential role of fungal organisms and their co-aggregation with either periodontopathogens or opportunistic pathogens at peri-implantitis sites is unknown. The aim of the present study was to qualitatively/quantitatively analyze and correlate fungal organisms and bacterial species at peri-implantitis sites. METHODS: In a total of 29 patients, submucosal/subgingival plaque samples were collected at peri-implantitis and healthy implant sites as well as teeth with a history of periodontitis (controls)...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Zhongle Liu, Gary P Moran, Derek J Sullivan, Donna M MacCallum, Lawrence C Myers
Filamentous growth is a hallmark of C. albicans pathogenicity compared to less-virulent ascomycetes. A multitude of transcription factors regulate filamentous growth in response to specific environmental cues. Our work, however, suggests the evolutionary history of C. albicans that resulted in its filamentous growth plasticity may be tied to a change in the general transcription machinery rather than transcription factors and their specific targets. A key genomic difference between C. albicans and its less-virulent relatives, including its closest relative C...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Suresh Sadhasivam, Sekar Palanivel, Shamik Ghosh
Antimicrobials from natural sources have gained immense importance in recent times to combat the global challenge of antibiotic resistance. Essential oils are implicated in antimicrobial action against several species. Here we have screened nine commercially available essential oils for their antimicrobial activity against organisms associated with skin, scalp and nail infections mainly Propionibacterium acnes, Malassezia spp, Candida albicans and Trichophyton spp. Among nine essential oils, B. serrata essential oil demonstrated superior antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms and surprisingly it showed maximum activity against Trichophyton spp...
October 12, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Matthew T Jamison, Jocelyn Macho, Tadeusz F Molinski
Structure-activity relationships of the antifungal aminobisabolene natural product, 1 isolated from Halichondria sp., and synthetic analogs were explored, in parallel with the antidermatophytic allylamine, Terbinafine®, against a panel of pathogenic fungi: Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. Interpretation of the results suggest different modes of action in antifungal activity for the two classes of compounds.
September 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Naeimeh Fathi, Rasoul Mohammadi, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Ghahri, Seyedeh Zahra Sadrossadati
BACKGROUND: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Andrée F Maheux, Adnane Sellam, Yves Piché, Maurice Boissinot, René Pelletier, Dominique K Boudreau, François J Picard, Hélène Trépanier, Marie-Josée Boily, Marc Ouellette, Paul H Roy, Michel G Bergeron
Successful treatment of a Candida infection relies on 1) an accurate identification of the pathogenic fungus and 2) on its susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In the present study we investigated the level of correlation between phylogenetical evolution and susceptibility of pathogenic Candida spp. to antifungal drugs. For this, we compared a phylogenetic tree, assembled with the concatenated sequences (2475-bp) of the ATP2, TEF1, and TUF1 genes from 20 representative Candida species, with published minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the four principal antifungal drug classes commonly used in the treatment of candidiasis: polyenes, triazoles, nucleoside analogues, and echinocandins...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Shankar Thangamani, Hassan E Eldesouky, Haroon Mohammad, Pete E Pascuzzi, Larisa Avramova, Tony R Hazbun, Mohamed N Seleem
BACKGROUND: Ebselen, an organoselenium compound and a clinically safe molecule has been reported to possess potent antifungal activity, but its antifungal mechanism of action and in vivo antifungal activity remain unclear. METHODS: The antifungal effect of ebselen was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and C. gattii clinical isolates. Chemogenomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify the antifungal target of ebselen...
October 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Fabio Araujo Motta, Libera Maria Dalla-Costa, Marisol Dominguez Muro, Mariana Nadal Cardoso, Gledson Luiz Picharski, Gregory Jaeger, Marion Burger
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with death due to bloodstream infection caused by Candida spp. in pediatric patients and evaluate the resistance to the main anti-fungal used in clinical practice. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, observational, analytical study with retrospective collection that included 65 hospitalized pediatric patients with bloodstream infection by Candida spp. A univariate analysis was performed to estimate the association between the characteristics of the candidemia patients and death...
October 3, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Charles R Ashby, Bhargav A Patel, Tanaji T Talele, Mohamed N Seleem
Bacterial infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibacterial drugs. Therefore, new bacterial targets and new antimicrobials are unmet medical needs. Rhodanine derivatives have been shown to possess potent antimicrobial activity via a novel mechanism. However, their potential use as antibacterials has not been fully examined. In this study, we determined the spectrum of activity of seven rhodanine derivatives (compounds Rh 1-7) against clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and Candida albicans...
2016: PloS One
Rita Teixeira-Santos, Elisabete Ricardo, Ricardo J Branco, Maria M Azevedo, Acácio G Rodrigues, Cidália Pina-Vaz
Patients with multiple comorbidities are often administered simultaneously or sequentially antifungals and antibacterial agents, without full knowledge of the consequences of drug interactions. Considering the clinical relevance of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), the association between L-AMB and six antibacterial agents was evaluated against four clinical isolates and one type strain of Candida spp. and two clinical isolates and one type strain of Aspergillus fumigatus. In order to evaluate such combined effects, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of L-AMB was determined in the presence of 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cristina Rueda, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Jesús Guinea, Benito Almirante, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Oscar Zaragoza
OBJECTIVES: Paradoxical growth (PG) and trailing effect (TE) are frequently observed during antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST). These two phenomena interfere with the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical impact of TE and PG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analysed the frequency of TE and PG of 690 Candida isolates collected from a population-based study performed in Spain (CANDIPOP) and correlated the results clinical outcome of the patients...
September 24, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Taissa Vila, Kelly Ishida, Sergio Henrique Seabra, Sonia Rozental
Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
P Balashanmugam, M D Balakumaran, R Murugan, K Dhanapal, P T Kalaichelvan
An attempt was made to synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles from ten different Cassia spp. Among them, Cassia roxburghii aqueous leaf extract supported the synthesis of highly efficient and stable AgNPs. The synthesis of AgNPs was optimized at different physico-chemical condition and highly stable AgNPs were synthesized with 1.0mL of C. roxburghii leaf extract, pH 7.0, 1.0mM AgNO3 and at 37°C. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XPS, DLS and ZETA potential. DLS and ZETA potential analysis, the average AgNPs size was 35nm and the zeta potential was -18...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Claúdia Arruda, Gabriela Artico, Roseli Freitas, Antônio Filho, Dante Migliari
INTRODUCTION: Predisposing factors in chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC) have been poorly recognized. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of Candida spp. in areas of the oral mucosa showing greater prevalent rate of CHC, such as the retrocomissural area, the lateral borders of the tongue, and the hard-palate mucosa in four groups of individuals presenting predisposing factors as follows: Smoking habits (group I); patients with low salivary flow rate (SFR) (hyposalivation - group II); patients with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion (LVDO -group III); and control subjects (group IV)...
2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Muhammad Imran, Alina Amjad, Fakhir Raza Haidri
OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to assess the frequency of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and to determine the frequencies of different etiological organisms in these patients. METHODS: This was descriptive cross sectional study, which was carried out in medical ICU of Shifa International Hospital Islamabad from January 2013 to January 2014. A total of 1866 patients were admitted in the department of medicine including medical ICU...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
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