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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820494/immune-response-patterns-and-next-generation-sequencing-diagnostics-for-the-detection-of-mycoses-in-patients-with-septic-shock-results-of-a-combined-clinical-and-experimental-investigation
#1
Sebastian O Decker, Annette Sigl, Christian Grumaz, Philip Stevens, Yevhen Vainshtein, Stefan Zimmermann, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer, Kai Sohn, Thorsten Brenner
Fungi are of increasing importance in sepsis. However, culture-based diagnostic procedures are associated with relevant weaknesses. Therefore, culture- and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based fungal findings as well as corresponding plasma levels of β-d-glucan, interferon gamma (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, -4, -6, -10, -17A, and mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were evaluated in 50 septic patients at six consecutive time points within 28 days after sepsis onset...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818628/a-prospective-multicentre-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-in-cirrhotic-patients
#2
Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Russell Lewis, Paolo Caraceni, Sara Tedeschi, Mical Paul, Christoph Schramm, Tony Bruns, Manuela Merli, Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros, Elena Seminari, Pilar Retamar, Patricia Muñoz, Mario Tumbarello, Patrizia Burra, Maria Torrani Cerenzia, Bruno Barsic, Ester Calbo, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Nicola Petrosillo, Maria Angeles Galan-Ladero, Giampiero D'Offizi, Noa Bar Sinai, Jesus Rodríguez-Baño, Gabriella Verucchi, Mauro Bernardi, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the current epidemiology of BSI in patients with cirrhosis, analyse predictors of 30-day mortality, and risk factors for antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients developing a BSI episode were prospectively included at 19 centres in five countries from September 2014 to December 2015. The discrimination of mortality risk scores for 30-day mortality were compared by area under the receiver operator-risk and Cox-regression models...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818396/identification-and-susceptibility-testing-of-candida-spp-directly-from-yeast-positive-blood-cultures-with-vitek-2
#3
María Fernanda González-Lara, Pedro Torres-González, Andrea Rangel-Cordero, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, Areli Martínez-Gamboa
Culture-based identification and antifungal susceptibility take 48-72hours after positivity. We analyzed the performance of Vitek2 directly from 40 yeast-positive blood-cultures; agreement of 100% was observed for the tested antifungals; identification showed the same species in 31/40. The method reduces time (13 to 18h) for preliminary results.
July 14, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815601/antimicrobial-synergism-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-citrus-limon-l-piper-nigrum-l-and-melaleuca-alternifolia-maiden-and-betche-cheel-essential-oils
#4
Miloš M Nikolić, Katarina K Jovanović, Tatjana Lj Marković, Dejan Lj Marković, Nevenka N Gligorijević, Siniša S Radulović, Marina Kostić, Jasmina M Glamočlija, Marina D Soković
OBJECTIVES: The chemical composition, antimicrobial and synergistic effect, and cytotoxic activity of Citrus limon (lemon), Piper nigrum (green pepper) and Melaleuca alternifoila (tea tree) essential oils (EOs) were investigated. METHODS: Chemical analyses of essential oils were tested by GC-FID and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity assay was conducted using microdilution method against several oral bacteria and Candida spp. originating from the humans with oral disorders...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814889/fluconazole-resistance-in-candida-species-a-current-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth L Berkow, Shawn R Lockhart
Candida albicans and the emerging non-albicans Candida spp. have significant clinical relevance among many patient populations. Current treatment guidelines include fluconazole as a primary therapeutic option for the treatment of these infections, but it is only fungistatic against Candida spp. and both inherent and acquired resistance to fluconazole have been reported. Such mechanisms of resistance include increased drug efflux, alteration or increase in the drug target, and development of compensatory pathways for producing the target sterol, ergosterol...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802173/fungicidal-activity-of-copper-sputtered-flexible-surfaces-under-dark-and-actinic-light-against-azole-resistant-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata
#6
Myriam K S Ballo, Sami Rtimi, John Kiwi, César Pulgarin, José M Entenza, Alain Bizzini
Candida spp. are able to survive on hospital surfaces and causes healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). Since surface cleaning and disinfecting interventions are not totally effective to eliminate Candida spp., new approaches should be devised. Copper (Cu) has widely recognized antifungal activity and the use of Cu-sputtered surfaces has recently been proposed to curb the spread of HCAIs. Moreover, the activity of Cu under the action of actinic light remains underexplored. We investigated the antifungal activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces (Cu-PES) against azole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata under dark and low intensity visible light irradiation (4...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801270/immunomodulatory-effects-and-anti-candida-activity-of-lactobacilli-in-macrophages-and-in-invertebrate-model-of-galleria-mellonella
#7
Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Patricia Pimentel de Barros, Barbara Evelyn Begnini, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Mariella Vieira Pereira Leão, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
Due to the growing number of multi-resistant Candida spp., adjuvant treatments that may help combat these fungal pathogens are relevant and useful. This study evaluated the immunomodulation and anti-Candida activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei suspensions, either single- or multiple-strain, in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Galleria mellonella (GM). Mouse macrophages were activated by different lactobacilli suspensions and challenged with C. albicans (CA)...
August 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782479/candida-infections-and-human-defensins
#8
Vania Polesello, Ludovica Segat, Sergio Crovella, Luisa Zupin
Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. Indeed Candida spp. are present as commensal flora in the host human body but they can switch into a pathological form inducing cellular damage and disease. Among Candida strains, C. albicans is the most prevalent in both mucosal and systemic infections. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence...
August 7, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774702/candida-and-invasive-mould-diseases-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-patients-and-patients-with-haematological-cancer
#9
REVIEW
A L Colombo, J N de Almeida Júnior, Monica A Slavin, Sharon C-A Chen, Tania C Sorrell
Critically ill patients and patients with haematological cancer are HIV-negative populations at high risk of invasive fungal infections. In intensive-care units, candidaemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis predominate, but aspergillosis has emerged as a lethal, under-recognised cause of pneumonia. In patients with haematological malignancies or who have undergone stem-cell transplantations, pulmonary disease due to aspergillus and other mould diseases predominate. In this Series paper, we provide an update on risk assessment, new diagnostic strategies, and therapeutic approaches...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764159/otomycosis-in-a-rural-community-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-assessment-of-risk-factors-and-identification-of-fungal-and-bacterial-agents
#10
Priti Agarwal, Leimapokpam Sumitra Devi
INTRODUCTION: Otomycosis is one of the frequently encountered fungal infections of external auditory canal, commonly seen in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Various host (local, systemic) and environmental factors can predispose a person to otomycosis. Although clinical presentations along with otoscopic findings of the patients are well suggestive of fungal infection, proper identification of causative agents is mandatory in order to prevent recurrences and complications...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763899/-impact-of-antifungal-therapy-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-candida-spp-colonization-in-lower-respiratory-tract
#11
G Zhang, B B Feng, Z H Lu, W Su, Y S Wu
Objective: To explore the impact of antifungal therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with Candida spp. colonization in lower respiratory tract. Methods: In this retrospective study, patients required mechanical ventilation with pulmonary Candida spp. colonization admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU) between July 2012 and June 2016 were included. The patients were divided into the treatment group and control group according to whether or not they received antifungal therapy. The isolation rate of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, total length of hospital stay, the 28-day mortality and the overall mortality were compared between the two groups...
July 25, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758337/changes-in-the-distribution-of-colonising-and-infecting-candida-spp-isolates-antifungal-drug-consumption-and-susceptibility-in-a-french-intensive-care-unit-a-10-year-study
#12
Milène Sasso, Claire Roger, Magali Sasso, Hélène Poujol, Saber Barbar, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Laurence Lachaud
Monitoring fungal ecology and resistance to antifungal agents within intensive care units (ICU) is essential for the management of invasive fungal infections. Therefore, a retrospective descriptive study was carried in the ICU of Nimes University Hospital, France, from 2007 to 2016. As the majority of invasive fungal infections in ICU are caused by Candida species, the study objectives were to describe Candida species distribution, to assess candidaemia incidence and to monitor the antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida isolates and the consumption of antifungal agents...
July 31, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754461/evaluating-of-fungal-contamination-in-hospital-wet-cooling-systems-in-markazi-province-central-iran
#13
M Mosayebi, Z Eslamirad, R Hajihossein, B Ghorbanzadeh, M Shahverdi, M Didehdar
OBJECTIVE: Fungal infections are common complication among hospitalized patients especially between who is immunocompromised. Wet cooling systems in the hospital environment play a critical role as a source of these infections. The aim of this study was survey of wet cooling system of hospitals for fungal contamination in Arak city. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted during May to September of 2016. Sampling was done as random. Samples were obtained from water and straw of 84 wet cooling systems of four hospitals in Arak city...
July 25, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750040/oral-administration-of-live-or-heat-killed-candida-albicans-worsened-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-sepsis-in-a-murine-model-possibly-due-to-an-increased-serum-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan
#14
Wimonrat Panpetch, Naraporn Somboonna, Dewi Embong Bulan, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Malcolm Finkelman, Navaporn Worasilchai, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Candida albicans is the most common fungus in the human intestinal microbiota but not in mice. To make a murine sepsis model more closely resemble human sepsis and to explore the role of intestinal C. albicans, in the absence of candidemia, in bacterial sepsis, live- or heat-killed C. albicans was orally administered to mice at 3h prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A higher mortality rate of CLP was demonstrated with Candida-administration (live- or heat-killed) prior to CLP. Fecal Candida presented only in experiments with live-Candida administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748285/toward-the-standardization-of-mycological-examination-of-sputum-samples-in-cystic-fibrosis-results-from-a-french-multicenter-prospective-study
#15
Noémie Coron, Marc Pihet, Emilie Fréalle, Yolande Lemeille, Claudine Pinel, Hervé Pelloux, Gilles Gargala, Loic Favennec, Isabelle Accoceberry, Isabelle Durand-Joly, Frédéric Dalle, Frédéric Huet, Annlyse Fanton, Amale Boldron, Guy-André Loeuille, Philippe Domblides, Bérengère Coltey, Isabelle Pin, Catherine Llerena, Françoise Troussier, Christine Person, Christophe Marguet, Nathalie Wizla, Caroline Thumerelle, Dominique Turck, Stéphanie Bui, Michael Fayon, Alain Duhamel, Anne Prévotat, Benoit Wallaert, Sylvie Leroy, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Laurence Delhaes
Fungal respiratory colonization of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients emerges as a new concern; however, the heterogeneity of mycological protocols limits investigations. We first aimed at setting up an efficient standardized protocol for mycological analysis of CF sputa that was assessed during a prospective, multicenter study: "MucoFong" program (PHRC-06/1902). Sputa from 243 CF patients from seven centers in France were collected over a 15-month period and submitted to a standardized protocol based on 6 semi-selective media...
July 26, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748033/candida-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis-the-effect-on-wound-closure-in-vitro
#16
Thijs M Haverman, Alexa M G A Laheij, Johannes J de Soet, Jan de Lange, Frederik R Rozema
Microorganisms play a role in oral mucositis after cancer therapy. The current study explored the hypothesis that Candida spp. alone and together with Porphyromonas gingivalis cause delayed healing of oral ulcerations due to the inhibition of wound closure. An in vitro scratch assay model was used to study the influence of viable and heat-killed Candida glabrata, Candida kefyr, and Candida albicans on cell migration of oral epithelial cells. Separately, the effect of conditioned medium of Candida spp. and the effect of a mixed infection of Candida spp...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748029/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-among-human-immunodeficient-virus-infected-outpatients-in-taiwan-oral-candida-colonization-as-a-comparator
#17
Chi-Jung Wu, Wen-Chien Ko, Mao-Wang Ho, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Yun-Liang Yang, Jiun-Nong Lin, I-Wen Huang, Hui-Ying Wang, Jui-Fen Lai, Yih-Ru Shiau, Li-Yun Hsieh, Hui-Ting Chen, Chih-Chao Lin, Wen-Li Chu, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Tsai-Ling Lauderdale
Human immuodeficency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have increased in recent years in Taiwan. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for nasal and oral S. aureus and MRSA colonization among contemporary HIV-infected populations. Clinical variables for S. aureus and MRSA colonization among HIV-infected outpatients from three hospitals were analyzed and compared with those for oral Candida colonization...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735999/results-of-real-time-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-renal-transplant-recipients-with-sterile-pyuria
#18
M Sarier, M Demir, S Goktas, I Duman, M Buyukkinaci, Y Yuksel, S Tekin, A H Yavuz, A Sengul
Urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization after renal transplantation. Patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs suffer not only from common uropathogens but also from opportunistic infections caused by unusual uropathogens. Sterile pyuria is associated with numerous infectious agents including viruses, fungi, and atypical or fastidious organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathogens using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (rtMPCR) assay in sterile pyuria of renal transplant recipients...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730647/swimming-pools-and-fungi-an-epidemiology-survey-in-polish-indoor-swimming-facilities
#19
Marek Jankowski, Anna Charemska, Rafał Czajkowski
Environmental conditions for swimming facilities may support fungal growth and also may represent a biological risk for users. However, since previously published studies both cleaning procedures and sanitary regulations are likely to have been improved. The aim of the study was to examine whether attendance to public swimming pools was still a risk factor for fungal infection of the skin in Poland. We investigated the occurrence of mycotic species, in a sample from Polish swimming pools. Detection and identification of isolated species were achieved by cultural and morphological methods...
July 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730378/enzymatic-activity-of-candida-spp-from-oral-cavity-and-urine-in-children-with-nephrotic-syndrome
#20
Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk, Maria Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria Dąbkowska, Ewa Swoboda-Kopeć, Dariusz Gozdowski, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Urszula Demkow, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Oral colonization with Candida spp. is not synonymous with a systemic active infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate enzymatic activity of Candida strains isolated from the oral cavity in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and to compare it with the activity determined in urine. We studied 32 children with NS and 26 control healthy children. Children with NS were treated with glucocorticosteroids, cyclosporin A, mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine. In all children, API-ZYM enzymatic tests were performed to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes of Candida isolated from the oral cavity and in urine...
July 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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