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Candida spp

Lorenzo Fagotti, Jakub Tatka, Mauro Jose Costa Salles, Marcelo C Queiroz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although a two-stage exchange revision is reported to have a high success rate, this strategy may fail as a treatment for prosthetic joint infection (PJI). When it does, resection arthroplasty, arthrodesis, amputation, and chronic antibiotic suppression may play a role. The purpose of this review is to determine which are the main risk factors for a two-stage exchange failure and to analyze the indications and results of resection arthroplasty, arthrodesis, amputation, and antibiotic chronic suppression for PJI...
June 22, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
J D Sobel, R Sobel
Clinicians are increasingly challenged by patients with refractory vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by azole-resistant Candida species. Fluconazole resistant C.albicans is a growing and perplexing problem following years of indiscriminate drug prescription and unnecessary drug exposure and for which there are few therapeutic alternatives. Regrettably, although the azole class of drugs has expanded, new classes of antifungal drugs have not been forthcoming, limiting effective treatment options in patients with azole resistant Candida vaginitis...
June 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Samantha Bertoncello Dos Santos, Clarice Elvira Saggin Sabadin, Débora Nunes Mario, Lilian Rigo, Dulce Aparecida Barbosa
BACKGROUND: Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity caused by fungi of the genus Candida and usually associated with immunosuppressed individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of oral candidiasis and identify the presence of Candida spp. in liver transplant recipients and assess the association between the presence of the fungus and sociodemographic variables, dietary habits and environmental exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 49 patients who had undergone liver transplants at Hospital São Vicente de Paulo in Passo Fundo - RS...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Pâmela O Ornellas, Leonardo S Antunes, Paula C Motta, Caroline Mendonça, Helvécio Póvoa, Karla Fontes, Natalia Iorio, Lívia A A Antunes
This study aimed to evaluate the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct for minimally invasive treatment (partial removal of carious tissue - PRCT) of deciduous carious tissue evaluating its efficacy in reducing microorganisms. For that, a clinical study was design including children with deciduous molars with active deep caries lesions (DCL). PRCT was performed and remaining dentin was treated with 100 μg/mL methylene blue solution (5 min) and than irradiated with a low power laser emitting red light (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660nm; 100mW; 300 J/cm²; 90s; 9J)...
June 20, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Lena Klingspor, Måns Ullberg, Johan Rydberg, Nahid Kondori, Lena Serrander, Jonas Swanberg, Kenneth Nilsson, Cecilia Jendle Bengtén, Marcus Johansson, Margareta Granlund, Eva Törnqvist, Anders Nyberg, Karin Kindlund, Minna Ygge, Dalila Kartout-Boukdir, Michael Toepfer, Eva Hålldin, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Volkan Özenci
OBJECTIVES: To identify the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. among blood culture isolates and to describe the epidemiology of fungal meningitis in Sweden. METHODS: The study was a retrospective, observational nationwide laboratory-based surveillance for fungaemia and fungal meningitis and was conducted from September 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS: In total, 488 Candida blood culture isolates were obtained from 471 patients (58% males)...
June 19, 2018: Mycoses
Benjamin Leroy-Freschini, Giorgio Treglia, Xavier Argemi, Caroline Bund, Romain Kessler, Raoul Herbrecht, Alessio Imperiale
Background: Opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of pathogens, whose early diagnosis remains challenging. Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp, the most frequent pathogens in immunocompromised patients, frequently affect lungs, liver, bone and skin. Aim: To evaluate the impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the management of immunocompromised patients with IFI. Design: A single-center retrospective study included 51 immunocompromised patients with IFI diagnosis undergoing 83 18F-FDG PET/CTs...
June 18, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Wógenes N Oliveira, Lucas Amaral-Machado, Everton N Alencar, Henrique R Marcelino, Julieta Genre, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Amanda D Gondim, Guilherme M Chaves, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa, Eryvaldo Socrates T Egito
Amphotericin B (AmB), a potent antifungal drug, presents physicochemical characteristics that impair the development of suitable dosage forms. In order to overcome the AmB insolubility, several lipid carriers such as microemulsions have been developed. In this context, the bullfrog oil stands out as an eligible oily phase component, since its cholesterol composition may favor the AmB incorporation. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a microemulsion based on bullfrog oil containing AmB. Moreover, its thermal stability, antifungal activity, and cytotoxicity in vitro were evaluated...
June 18, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Yoav Bichovsky, Leonid Koyfman, Michael Friger, Boris Kirshtein, Abraham Borer, Gilbert Sebbag, Dmitry Frank, Amit Frenkel, Jochanan G Peiser, Moti Klein, Evgeni Brotfain
PURPOSE: Peritonitis is a major complication of bariatric surgery due to direct damage to the natural barriers to infection. Most such secondary peritoneal infections are caused by Gram-negative microorganisms; however, under certain conditions, Candida species can infect the peritoneal cavity following bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and microbiological data of morbidly obese patients who suffered infectious complications following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) at the Soroka Medical Center between January 2010 and June 2015...
June 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Martin Jakobs, Sabrina Klein, Tatjana Eigenbrod, Andreas W Unterberg, Oliver W Sakowitz
OBJECTIVE Catheter-associated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection remains a serious event, especially for patients in neurocritical care units. The use of external ventricular drain (EVD) catheters impregnated with antimicrobial substances has led to a significant reduction of infection rates. This study was undertaken to compare the use of antimicrobial, silver-impregnated external lumbar drains (si-ELDs) and conventional ELDs. METHODS Patients with an indication for ELD placement were randomized to receive either a conventional or an si-ELD catheter...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Nicholas D Beyda, Jonathan Amadio, Jose R Rodriguez, Karen Malinowski, Kevin W Garey, Audrey Wanger, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner
BACKGROUND: The T2Candida assay is a novel, non-culture based assay for the diagnosis of candidemia directly from whole blood. The impact of antifungals on the performance of the T2Candida assay and blood culture bottles have not been well described. In this study, the performance of the T2Candida assay was compared to that of blood culture in detecting Candida spp. in spiked blood cultures with or without the presence of antifungals. METHODS: Clinical bloodstream isolates of Candida spp...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Saeid Mahdavi Omran, Maryam Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam Zuashkiani, Vahid Moqarabzadeh, Mojtaba Taghizadeh-Armaki
Background: Candida -associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a common fungal infection in people who wear dentures. The main objective of this study was to make molecular identification of causative agents of CADS and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) in the Iranian patients with denture stomatitis. Methods: A total of 134 Candida spp. were obtained from patients with denture stomatitis. The Candida spp. were identified using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) involving the universal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) primers, which were subjected to digestion with MspI and BlnI restriction enzymes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Antonio José de Jesus Evangelista, Rosana Serpa, Ana Raquel Colares de Andrade, Patrícia Bruna Leite Mendes, Jônatas da Silva Franco, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Jamille Alencar Sales, Lília Maria Carneiro Câmara, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
AIM: To investigate the direct effect of antibiotics on growth and virulence of the major Candida species associated with invasive infections. MATERIALS & METHODS: Cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin and vancomycin were tested at twofold the peak plasma concentration (2× PP) and the peak plasma concentration (PP). The effects of antibiotics on Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis were investigated by colony counting, flow cytometry, proteolytic activity and virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans...
June 8, 2018: Future Microbiology
Anna Jaromin, Robert Zarnowski, Magdalena Piętka-Ottlik, David R Andes, Jerzy Gubernator
AIM: Ebselen (Eb) is an example of a repurposed drug with poor aqueous solubility which requires sophisticated delivery system such as nanoencapsulation in nanocapsules for topical application. MATERIALS & METHODS: Eb-nanocapsules were examined for morphology, activity against Candida spp., cytotoxicity and skin permeation. RESULTS: Eb-nanocapsules were active against skin-infecting Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis yeasts (minimal inhibitory concentration values were about 4-, 2- and 1...
June 6, 2018: Nanomedicine
Elizabeth Ximena Castrillón-Duque, Jennifer Puerta Suárez, Walter Dario Cardona Maya
Background: Candida spp. causes semen candidiasis, the most important sexually transmitted fungal infection; this microorganism affects male fertility potential and could alter oocyte fertilization. The in vitro effects of the yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and their soluble factors of fungal metabolism on semen quality were studied. Methods: Candida strains (2, 0.5 and 0.05 McF) and their soluble factors were incubated for 3 hr with selected spermatozoa...
January 2018: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
Yasuhiro Hori, Kazutoshi Shibuya
Echinocandins are antifungal agents that specifically inhibit the biosynthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, a major structural component of fungal cell walls. Echinocandins are recommended as first-line or alternative/salvage therapy for candidiasis and aspergillosis in antifungal guidelines of various countries. Resistance to echinocandins has been reported in recent years. The mechanism of echinocandin resistance involves amino acid substitutions in hot spot regions of the FKS gene product, the catalytic subunit of 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase...
2018: Medical Mycology Journal
Mayram Hacioglu, Cagla Bozkurt Guzel, Paul B Savage, A Seher Birteksoz Tan
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis, affecting millions of women worldwide every year. Candida albicans is the most frequent agent of VVC followed by other species of Candida such as C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Out of a total of 100 clinical isolates of Candida spp. obtained from patients diagnosed with VVC, 84 were identified as C. albicans, while the remaining isolates were identified as non--albicans Candida strains. Phospholipases and proteinases were produced by a majority of the C...
May 26, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Vartika Srivastava, Rajeev Kumar Singla, Ashok Kumar Dubey
Increased incidences of Candida infection have augmented morbidity and mortality in human population, particularly among severely immunocompromised patients and those having long stay in hospitals (nosocomial infections). Many virulence factors and fitness attributes are reported to be associated with the pathogenicity of Candida sp. It can cause infections ranging from easily treatable superficial type to life-threatening invasive infections. Additionally, it has the capability to infect humans of all age groups...
May 28, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Lana Glerieide Silva Garcia, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Maria Lucilene Queiroz da Silva, Débora Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha, Rodrigo Silveira Vieira, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante
Difficulties in the treatment of Candida spp. invasive infections are usually related to the formation of biofilms. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of molecular weight (MW) of chitosan (using high (HMW), medium (MMW) and low (LMW) molecular weight chitosan) on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto. The deacetylation degree (DD) and molecular weight M were measured by potentiometric titration and viscosimetry, respectively. The planktonic shape activity was quantified by broth microdilution, and the activity against biofilm was quantified by metabolic activity through XTT 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]- 2H-tetrazolium hydroxide and biomass formation (crystal violet)...
September 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Thomas Neß
Endophthalmitis is a severe intraocular infection with potentially devastating consequences, such as becoming blind or loss of an eyeball. It can be exogenous (postoperative or posttraumatic) or endogenous. The most frequent causes of postoperative endophthalmitis are cataract surgery and intravitreal injections. Typical symptoms are pain and loss of visual acuity. Hypopyon and infiltration of the vitreous body with the loss of the red reflex are the most important clinical findings for endophthalmitis. The diagnosis is primarily clinical and supported by microbiological cultures and PCR from the vitreous body and/or anterior chamber and is of use for a targeted treatment...
May 25, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Rafaella Braga Santos, Liliana Scorzoni, Andressa Mayumi Namba, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
Investigation into new therapeutic strategies, such as the use of bacterial isolates with probiotic characteristics, has increased in importance due to the high incidence of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida infections. This study evaluates Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains as prophylactic and therapeutic agents against infection caused by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis in a Galleria mellonella model. Prophylactic treatment provided greater benefits during Candida spp...
May 23, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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