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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#1
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784842/eucast-determination-of-olorofim-f901318-susceptibility-of-mould-species-method-validation-and-mics
#2
Karin Meinike Jørgensen, Karen M T Astvad, Rasmus Krøger Hare, Maiken Cavling Arendrup
Olorofim is a novel antifungal agent with in vitro activity against Aspergillus and some other moulds. Here we addressed technical aspects for EUCAST olorofim testing and generated contemporary MIC data.EUCAST E.Def 9.3.1 testing was performed comparing two plate preparation methods (serial-dilution in medium (serial-plates) versus pre-dilution in DMSO (ISO-plates)), two lots of olorofim, visual (visual-MIC) versus spectrophotometer (spec-MIC) reading and four polystyrene plates using 34-53 Aspergillus isolates from five genera...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784014/unintentional-sulfonylurea-toxicity-due-to-a-drug-drug-interaction-a-case-report
#3
Keith Gunaratne, Emily Austin, Peter E Wu
BACKGROUND: Sulfonylureas are widely used for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but these medications carry a risk of hypoglycemia. Drug-drug interactions that inhibit sulfonylurea metabolism and thus increase systemic exposure can cause unintentional sulfonylurea toxicity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man presented with severe, recurrent hypoglycemia. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and was taking the sulfonylurea gliclazide with no prior episodes of hypoglycemia...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779647/in-vitro-susceptibility-and-multilocus-sequence-typing-of-fusarium-isolates-causing-keratitis
#4
P Dallé da Rosa, A Nunes, R Borges, B Batista, A Meneghello Fuentefria, L Z Goldani
Fungal keratitis is recognized as a significant cause of ocular morbidity and blindness especially in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to present the molecular identification and susceptibility of Fusarium isolates causing fungal keratitis in a university hospital in southern Brazil. The samples were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), while the antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology...
May 17, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778564/simultaneous-quantification-of-systemic-azoles-and-their-major-metabolites-in-human-serum-by-hplc-pda-role-of-azole-metabolic-rate
#5
Alicia Gomez-Lopez, Laura Alcazar-Fuoli, Leticia Bernal-Martínez
We describe the development and validation of a novel liquid chromatography assay (HPLC/PDA) for simultaneous quantification of voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole, as well as some of their major metabolites, voriconazole N-oxide and hydroxy-itraconazole, in human serum. Analytes were detected using a PDA system that allows the characterization of the specific UV spectra of each compound. The assay exhibited linearity between 0.25-16 mg/L for all the compounds tested. The accuracy and within- and between-day precision of the assay were in acceptable ranges...
April 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771861/vincristine-associated-neuropathy-with-antifungal-usage-a-kaiser-northern-california-experience
#6
Mina Nikanjam, Aida Sun, Mark Albers, Kristine Mangalindin, Eyun Song, Hyma Vempaty, Danny Sam, Edmund V Capparelli
The dose-limiting toxicity for vincristine is peripheral neuropathy which can be potentiated with concurrent usage of azole antifungals. The current retrospective study assessed the incidence of concurrent vincristine and azole antifungal usage to determine if it led to increased neurotoxicity for the Kaiser Northern California pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Hodgkin lymphoma patient population. Data were obtained from the electronic medical record (2007 to 2014). In total, 130 subjects received at least one dose of vincristine for ALL or Hodgkin lymphoma (median age 9, 88% ALL, 58% male, 47% Caucasian)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770723/the-impact-of-azole-antifungal-drugs-on-imatinib-metabolism-in-human-liver-microsomes
#7
Xingxian Luo, Taifeng Li, Ze Yu, Xuecai Xue, Haiyang Zhao, Na Li, Liping Ma, Changqing Yang, Lin Huanglin, Wangyu Feng
1. Imatinib is widely used for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. It is common that imatinib is clinically co-prescribed with azole antifungal agents since these patients are more prone to invasive antifungal infection. The present study was to investigate the effects of azole antifungal drugs, including ketoconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole on imatinib metabolism. 2. The main metabolites, 1-OH midazolam and N-desmethyl imatinib, were determined in the absence and in the presence of various levels of ketoconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole...
May 17, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767615/relevance-of-antifungal-penetration-in-biofilm-associated-resistance-of-candida-albicans-and-non-albicans-candida-species
#8
Rachna Singh, Anjna Kumari, Karminder Kaur, Parul Sethi, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The role of penetration limitation in Candida biofilm-associated antifungal resistance remains unclear. Most of the previous work has been done on Candida albicans, although non-albicans (NAC) species are also implicated in invasive candidiasis and the biofilm matrix has been shown to vary amongst different species. Only a few studies have evaluated clinical isolates. This study aimed to determine the relevance of penetration limitation in the antifungal resistance of biofilms formed by C. albicans and NAC clinical isolates, using an agar disk diffusion assay...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766554/primary-cutaneous-aspergillosis-at-the-site-of-cyanoacrylate-skin-adhesive-in-a-neonate
#9
Ayan Kusari, Jessica Sprague, Lawrence F Eichenfield, Catalina Matiz, Victoria R Barrio
Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease. We present the case of a premature infant who developed primary cutaneous aspergillosis with Aspergillus niger at the site of a skin abrasion that had been treated with a purple-colored cyanoacrylate product. The infection was treated successfully with gentle debridement of the cyanoacrylate product, followed by intravenous voriconazole and topical fluconazole. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis occurring at the site of cyanoacrylate-based skin adhesive...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760306/necessity-for-a-significant-maintenance-dosage-reduction-of-voriconazole-in-patients-with-severe-liver-cirrhosis-child-pugh-class-c
#10
Takehiro Yamada, Shungo Imai, Yasuyuki Koshizuka, Yuki Tazawa, Keisuke Kagami, Naoki Tomiyama, Ryosuke Sugawara, Akira Yamagami, Tsuyoshi Shimamura, Ken Iseki
Therapeutic drug monitoring for voriconazole, an antifungal agent, is essential for maximizing efficacy and preventing toxicity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the optimal maintenance dose of voriconazole in patients with severe liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class C) by reviewing the plasma trough concentrations obtained by therapeutic drug monitoring and daily doses of voriconazole. We retrospectively evaluated 6 patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis who received oral voriconazole treatment and were liver transplant recipients or were awaiting liver transplantation...
May 11, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760132/a-multimodal-imaging-approach-enables-in-vivo-assessment-of-antifungal-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#11
Jennifer Poelmans, Uwe Himmelreich, Liesbeth Vanherp, Luca Zhai, Amy Hillen, Bryan Holvoet, Sarah Belderbos, Matthias Brock, Johan Maertens, Greetje Vande Velde, Katrien Lagrou
Aspergillus fumigatus causes life-threatening lung infections in immunocompromised patients. Mouse models are extensively used in research to assess the in vivo efficacy of antifungals. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to evaluate experimental infections. However, single imaging modalities have limitations concerning the type of information they can provide. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescence imaging were combined to obtain longitudinal information on the extent of developing lesions and fungal load in a leucopenic mouse model of IPA...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758184/therapeutic-penetrating-keratoplasty-button-cultures-in-the-mycotic-ulcer-treatment-trial-ii-a-randomized-trial-comparing-oral-voriconazole-vs-placebo
#12
Julie Cho, N Venkatesh Prajna, Prajna Lalitha, Revathi Rajaraman, Tiruvengada Krishnan, Yijie Brittany Lin, Kathryn J Ray, Thomas M Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
OBJECTIVE: To compare oral voriconazole versus placebo in addition to topical antifungals in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. DESIGN: Non-prespecified, secondary case-control analysis from a multicenter, double-masked, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Patients with smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcers and visual acuity of 20/400 or worse who eventuated to therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK). INTERVENTION: Study participants were randomized to oral voriconazole versus oral placebo; all received topical antifungal drops...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750016/spotlight-on-isavuconazole-in-the-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis-and-mucormycosis-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Jenks, Helmut Jf Salzer, Juergen Prattes, Robert Krause, Dieter Buchheidt, Martin Hoenigl
In recent decades, important advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis. One of these advances has been the introduction of isavuconazole, a second-generation broad spectrum triazole with a favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profile and few drug-drug interactions. Phase III trials in patients with IA and mucormycosis demonstrated that isavuconazole has similar efficacy to voriconazole for the treatment of IA (SECURE trial) and liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of mucormycosis (VITAL trial with subsequent case-control analysis) and a favorable safety profile with significantly fewer ocular, hepatobiliary, and skin and soft tissue adverse events compared to voriconazole...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748145/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-benzoheterocycle-analogues-as-potent-antifungal-agents-targeting-cyp51
#14
Shizhen Zhao, Peng Wei, Mengya Wu, Xiangqian Zhang, Liyu Zhao, Xiaolin Jiang, Chenzhou Hao, Xin Su, Dongmei Zhao, Maosheng Cheng
To further enhance the anti-Aspergillus efficacy of our previously discovered antifungal lead compound 1, a series of benzoheterocycle analogues were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The most promising compounds 13s and 14a exhibited excellent antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. neoformans, A. fumigatus and fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains, that was superior or comparable to those of the reference drugs fluconazole and voriconazole. GC-MS analyses suggested that the novel compound 13s might have a similar mechanism to fluconazole by inhibiting fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51)...
April 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747356/-research-on-the-surgery-treatment-and-etiology-of-fungal-endophthalmitis
#15
H Y Zhou, J J Ye, Y Y Chen, F T Dong
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of vitrectomy and etiological diagnosis in the treatment of fungal endophthalmitis. Methods: A retrospective survey was done on the clinical manifestation, etiological diagnosis and treatment efficacy of 15 patients (15 eyes) who had been diagnosed with fungal endophthalmitis at the inpatient department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2002-2015. A total of 15 eyes of 15 patients, 3 male and 12 female patients, were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was (45...
April 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747155/manual-punch-versus-automated-flow-through-sample-desorption-for-dried-blood-spot-lc-ms-ms-analysis-of-voriconazole
#16
Lisa C Martial, Erik van den Hombergh, Cornelis Tump, Otto Halmingh, David M Burger, Erik M van Maarseveen, Roger J Brüggemann, Rob E Aarnoutse
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is a patient-friendly alternative for plasma sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). To speed up the analysis time, an automated flow-through desorption method of DBS samples may be beneficial. This article describes the cross-validation of a manual punch DBS method with an automated desorption (DBS autosampler, DBSA) method for the DBS analysis of the antifungal drug voriconazole, followed by cross-validation of both DBS methods with a plasma-based method, and an assessment of agreement between DBS/DBSA and regular plasma concentration measurements (gold standard) in samples from patients on voriconazole treatment...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744898/moderate-correlation-between-systemic-il-6-responses-and-crp-with-trough-concentrations-of-voriconazole
#17
Bas Vreugdenhil, Walter J F M van der Velden, Ton Feuth, Matthijs Kox, Peter Pickkers, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Nicole M A Blijlevens, Roger J M Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: Voriconazole (VCZ) exhibits a wide intra-patient pharmacokinetic variability, which is disadvantageous because of the narrow-therapeutic range of VCZ. A considerable part of this variation remains unexplainable despite extensive knowledge of this drug. It is hypothesized that inflammation has an impact on voriconazole pharmacokinetics. In this study we investigated the correlation between voriconazole trough concentrations and various cytokines. METHODS: A prospective single center analysis was performed in adult hematology patients receiving voriconazole for possible, probable or proven IFD...
May 9, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743305/five-year-national-surveillance-of-invasive-candidiasis-species-distribution-and-azole-susceptibility-from-the-china-hospital-invasive-fungal-surveillance-net-chif-net-study
#18
Meng Xiao, Zi-Yong Sun, Mei Kang, Da-Wen Guo, Kang Liao, Sharon C-A Chen, Fanrong Kong, Xin Fan, Jing-Wei Cheng, Xin Hou, Meng-Lan Zhou, Ying Li, Shu-Ying Yu, Jing-Jing Huang, He Wang, Ying-Chun Xu
Data on the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis (IC) and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates in China are still limited. Here we report surveillance for IC from the China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) Study. Sixty-five tertiary hospitals collected 8,829 Candida isolates from August 1, 2009 to July 31, 2014. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization -time of flight mass spectrometry supplemented by rDNA sequencing was used to define species, and fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disk diffusion method...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739053/fungal-infection-caused-by-geotrichum-capitatum-in-a-severe-aplastic-anemia-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Wulin Shan, Chunyang Dai, Jingsong Kan, Ming Li, Meiling Yin
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections often occur in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report an infection case caused by Geotrichum capitatum in a severe aplastic anemia patient. METHODS: Identification of the pathogenic bacteria was done by sequencing and mass spectrometric analysis. RESULTS: The fungal infection was isolated from blood cultures. The pathogenic bacteria were identified as Geotrichum capitatum. The infection was primarily cured by voriconazole and caspofungin monotherapy...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737099/-determination-of-voriconazole-in-human-plasma-and-its-bioequivalence-by-hplc-ms-ms
#20
Jin Xiang, Qin Yu, Mao-Zhi Liang, Yong-Ping Qin, Feng Nan
OBJECTIVE: To develop a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of voriconazole in human plasma and its bioequivalence. METHODS: 48 healthy male volunteers received a single dose of 200 mg voriconazole tablets in a two period (with two preparations) and randomized crossover bioequivalence study. Their plasma voriconazole was determined using HPLC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters and bioequivalence of the two preparations were calculated with WinNonlin® 6...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
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