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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214420/prevention-of-radiotherapy-induced-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-survivors-of-paediatric-brain-tumours-the-potential-role-of-modern-imaging-and-radiotherapy-techniques
#1
REVIEW
Thankamma Ajithkumar, Stephen Price, Gail Horan, Amos Burke, Sarah Jefferies
Neurocognitive dysfunction is the leading cause of reduced quality of life in long-term survivors of paediatric brain tumours. Radiotherapy is one of the main contributors to neurocognitive sequelae. Current approaches for prevention and reduction of neurocognitive dysfunction include avoidance of radiotherapy in young children and reduction of the radiotherapy dose and volume of brain irradiated. Substantial advances have been made in brain imaging, especially with functional imaging and fibre tracking with the use of diffusion tensor imaging...
February 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#2
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214331/pomc-maintains-tumor-initiating-properties-of-tumor-tissue-derived-long-term-cultured-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#3
Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie
The identification and understanding of the molecular network of cancer stem cells (CSCs) have had a profound impact on our view of carcinogenesis and treatment strategy. Unfortunately, a major problem is that serial passages of CSCs from clinical solid tumor specimens currently are not available in any lab, and thus, reported data are difficult to confirm and intensively interrogated. Here, we have generated two tumor tissue-derived breast CSC (BCSC) lines that showed prolonged maintenance over 20 serial passages in vitro, while retaining their tumor-initiating biological properties...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214183/-misuse-and-dependence-on-prescription-opioids-prevention-identification-and-treatment
#4
B Rolland, D Bouhassira, N Authier, M Auriacombe, V Martinez, P Polomeni, G Brousse, R Schwan, P Lack, J Bachellier, S Rostaing, P Bendimerad, P Vergne-Salle, M Dematteis, S Perrot
Since the 1990s, the use of prescription opioids has largely spread, which has brought a real progress in the treatment of pain. The long-term use of prescription opioid is sometimes required, and may lead to pharmacological tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, i.e. pharmacological dependence on prescription opioids. Occasionally, this may also lead to misuse of prescription opioids (MPO). MPO preferentially occurs in vulnerable individuals, i.e., those with a young age, history of other addictive or psychiatric disorders, especially anxious and depressive disorders...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214173/pyrocarbon-interposition-shoulder-arthroplasty-preliminary-results-from-a-prospective-multicenter-study-at-2-years-of-follow-up
#5
Jérôme Garret, Arnaud Godeneche, Pascal Boileau, Daniel Molé, Mikael Etzner, Luc Favard, Christophe Levigne, François Sirveaux, Marc-Olivier Gauci, Charles Dezaly, Gilles Walch
BACKGROUND: The concept of free interposition arthroplasty proved successful for small joints of the hand, wrist, and foot, particularly after the use of implants coated with pyrocarbon, which enhanced their tribologic and elastic properties. The present study reports preliminary outcomes of a pyrocarbon-coated interposition shoulder arthroplasty (PISA) implant. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 67 consecutive patients who underwent shoulder PISA at 9 centers...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214150/self-efficacy-for-deprescribing-a-survey-for-health-care-professionals-using-evidence-based-deprescribing-guidelines
#6
Barbara Farrell, Lisa Richardson, Lalitha Raman-Wilms, David de Launay, Mhd Wasem Alsabbagh, James Conklin
BACKGROUND: Although polypharmacy is associated with significant morbidity, deprescribing can be challenging. In particular, clinicians express difficulty with their ability to deprescribe (i.e. reduce or stop medications that are potentially inappropriate). Evidence-based deprescribing guidelines are designed to help clinicians take action on reducing or stopping medications that may be causing more harm than benefit. OBJECTIVES: Determine if implementation of evidence-based guidelines increases self-efficacy for deprescribing proton pump inhibitor (PPI), benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BZRA) and antipsychotic (AP) drug classes...
January 28, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214027/arrested-geomorphic-trajectories-and-the-long-term-hidden-potential-for-change
#7
L Allan James
Geomorphic systems often experience morphological changes that define a trajectory over decadal time periods. These trends can be halted by natural inhibitors such as vegetation, knickpoints, bed armor, or bank cohesion, or by anthropogenic inhibitors such as revetment, levees, or dams. Details about where and how channels and floodplains are stabilized are often poorly understood, which poses a risk that modern projects could unwittingly remove critical stabilizing elements (inhibitors) and unleash an episode of rapid change...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213970/efficacy-and-safety-of-immuno-magnetically-sorted-smooth-muscle-progenitor-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-restoring-urethral-sphincter-function
#8
Yanhui Li, Morgaine Green, Yan Wen, Yi Wei, Prachi Wani, Zhe Wang, Renee Reijo Pera, Bertha Chen
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-based cell therapy holds promise for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, safety concerns, especially tumorgenic potential of residual undifferentiated cells in hiPSC derivatives, are major barriers for its clinical translation. An efficient, fast and clinical-scale strategy for purifying committed cells is also required. Our previous studies demonstrated the regenerative effects of hiPSC-derived smooth muscle progenitor cells (pSMCs) on the injured urethral sphincter in SUI, but the differentiation protocol required fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) which is not practical for autologous clinical applications...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#9
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213601/protocol-for-a-scoping-review-of-post-trial-extensions-of-randomised-controlled-trials-using-individually-linked-administrative-and-registry-data
#10
Tiffany Fitzpatrick, Laure Perrier, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus, Peter Jüni, Merrick Zwarenstein, Lisa M Lix, Mark Smith, Laura C Rosella, David A Henry
INTRODUCTION: Well-conducted randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the least biased estimates of intervention effects. However, RCTs are costly and time-consuming to perform and long-term follow-up of participants may be hampered by lost contacts and financial constraints. Advances in computing and population-based registries have created new possibilities for increasing the value of RCTs by post-trial extension using linkage to routinely collected administrative/registry data in order to determine long-term interventional effects...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213516/rapid-regulation-of-sialidase-activity-in-response-to-neural-activity-and-sialic-acid-removal-during-memory-processing-in-rat-hippocampus
#11
Akira Minami, Yuko Meguro, Sayaka Ishibashi, Ami Ishii, Mako Shiratori, Saki Sai, Yuuki Horii, Hirotaka Shimizu, Hokuto Fukumoto, Sumika Shinba, Risa Taguchi, Tadanobu Takahashi, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Takashi Suzuki
Sialidase cleaves sialic acids on the extracellular cell surface as well as inside the cell, and is necessary for normal long-term potentiation (LTP) at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses and for hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Here, we investigated in detail the role of sialidase in memory processing. Sialidase activity measured with 4MU-Neu5Ac or X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB was increased by high K(+)-induced membrane depolarization. Sialidase activity was also increased by chemical LTP induction with forskolin and activation of BDNF signaling, non-NMDARs or NMDARs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213505/revealing-the-concealed-nature-of-long-qt-type-3-syndrome
#12
Amara Greer-Short, Sharon A George, Steven Poelzing, Seth H Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5) are associated with the long-QT-3 (LQT3) syndrome. Nav1.5 is densely expressed at the intercalated disk, and narrow intercellular separation can modulate cell-to-cell coupling via extracellular electric fields and depletion of local sodium ion nanodomains. Models predict that significantly decreasing intercellular cleft widths slows conduction because of reduced sodium current driving force, termed "self-attenuation...
February 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213341/the-benefit-of-web-and-computer-based-interventions-for-stress-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Elena Heber, David Daniel Ebert, Dirk Lehr, Pim Cuijpers, Matthias Berking, Stephanie Nobis, Heleen Riper
BACKGROUND: Stress has been identified as one of the major public health issues in this century. New technologies offer opportunities to provide effective psychological interventions on a large scale. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of Web- and computer-based stress-management interventions in adults relative to a control group. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed, including 26 comparisons (n=4226). Cohen d was calculated for the primary outcome level of stress to determine the difference between the intervention and control groups at posttest...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213294/a-low-cost-simplified-and-scaleable-pneumotachograph-and-face-mask-for-neonatal-mouse-respiratory-measurements
#14
Jenny J Sun, Roshan Nanu, Russell S Ray
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal respiratory disorders are a leading cause of perinatal mortality due to complications resulting from premature births and prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse, but optimal treatments for these symptoms are still unclear due to a variety of confounds and risk factors. Mouse models present an opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms and efficacy of potential treatments of these conditions with controlled variables. However, measuring respiration in newborn mice is difficult and commercial components are expensive and often require modification, creating a barrier and limiting our understanding of the short and long-term effects of birth complications on respiratory function...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213190/n-acetylcysteine-for-treating-cocaine-addiction-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Marco Antonio Nocito Echevarria, Tassio Andrade Reis, Giulianno Ruffo Capatti, Victor Siciliano Soares, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
The aim of this paper is to extensively review the current literature available on N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment for cocaine dependence (clinical and experimental studies). We screened all articles published before February 2016 reporting on the use of NAC as a pharmacological intervention for cocaine dependence or discussed its potential as a therapeutic approach for cocaine dependence. We described our results qualitatively. 21 studies matched our search criteria: 6 clinical trials and 15 animal studies...
February 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213183/a-role-for-the-serotonin-reuptake-transporter-in-the-brain-and-intestinal-features-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-developmental-antidepressant-exposure
#16
REVIEW
Kara Gross Margolis
Many disease conditions considered CNS-predominant harbor significant intestinal comorbidities. Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) have increasingly been shown to play important roles in both brain and intestinal development and long-term function. 5-HT and SERT may thus modulate critical functions in the development and perpetuation of brain-gut axis disease. We discuss the potential roles of 5-HT and SERT in the brain and intestinal manifestations of autism spectrum disorders and developmental antidepressant exposure...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213148/interface-tuning-and-stabilization-of-monoglyceride-mesophase-dispersions-food-emulsifiers-and-mixtures-efficiency
#17
Sébastien Serieye, Fabienne Méducin, Irena Milošević, Ling Fu, Samuel Guillot
Several food surfactants were examined as possible efficient emulsifiers for liquid crystalline monolinolein-based particles and as alternative choices to the non-food-grade emulsifier conventionally used Pluronic® F127. We described a food emulsifiers' toolbox, investigating their ability to emulsify mesophases (stabilization capacity, particle size, zeta potential) and their impact on internal nanostructures (from swelling to drastic modifications). Among the selected surfactants, sucrose stearate (S1670) was found to be the best candidate for replacing in a long term F127 as an efficient stabilizer of lipid particles...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213110/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-stroke-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Tsung-Jung Ho, Chi-Fung Cheng, Xiang Liu, Hsinyi Tsang, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Shao-Mei Huang, Ju-Pi Li, Cheng-Wen Lin, Jaung-Geng Lin, Jung-Chun Lin, Chih-Chien Lin, Wen-Miin Liang, Ying-Ju Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) include stroke, which is a cerebrovascular disturbance characterized by reduced blood flow in the brain, leading to death or physical disability. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in ancient China for the treatment of diabetes and stroke by supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the frequencies and patterns of CHM treatment for stroke patients with T2D and the outcomes of long-term use in Taiwan...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213057/utilization-of-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-for-uterine-cancer
#19
Jason D Wright, Stephanie Cham, Ling Chen, William M Burke, June Y Hou, Ana I Tergas, Vrunda Desai, Jim C Hu, Cande V Ananth, Alfred I Neugut, Dawn L Hershman
BACKGROUND: To limit the potential short and long-term morbidity of lymphadenectomy, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has been proposed for endometrial cancer. The principle of SLN biopsy relies on removal of a small number of lymph nodes that are the first drainage basins from a tumor and thus the most likely to harbor tumor cells. While the procedure may reduce morbidity, efficacy data is limited and little is known about how commonly the procedure is performed. OBJECTIVE: We examined the patterns and predictors of use of SLN biopsy and outcomes of the procedure in women with endometrial cancer who underwent hysterectomy...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212869/improvement-of-simultaneous-cr-vi-and-phenol-removal-by-an-immobilised-bacterial-consortium-and-characterisation-of-biodegradation-products
#20
Ornella M Ontañon, Paola S González, Germán Barros, Elizabeth Agostini
Microbial bioremediation emerged some decades ago as an eco-friendly technology to restore polluted sites. Traditionally, the search for microorganisms suitable for bioremediation has been based on the selection of isolated strains able to remove a specific type of pollutant. However, this strategy has now become obsolete, since co-pollution is a global reality. Thus, current studies attempt to find bacterial cultures capable of coping with a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. In this sense, the bacterial consortium SFC 500-1 has demonstrated efficiency for Cr(VI) and phenol removal, both of which are found in many industrial wastewaters...
February 14, 2017: New Biotechnology
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