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acute stress disorder

Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
M J J Kunst, M Van de Wiel
The current study investigated whether mental health practitioners are influenced by the narrative fallacy when assessing the psychological injuries of trauma victims. The narrative fallacy is associated with our tendency to establish logical links between different facts. In psychodiagnostic assessments, this tendency may result in overdiagnosis of mental disorders when psychological symptoms can be attributed to a traumatic event. Consequently, legal decision makers may be at risk of awarding compensation for psychological injuries which are not severe enough to justify financial reimbursement...
2016: Psychological Injury and Law
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Jonas Schaffrath, Mario Schmitz-Buhl, Ali Kemal Gün, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Doyanne Darnell, Stephen O'Connor, Amy Wagner, Joan Russo, Jin Wang, Leah Ingraham, Kirsten Sandgren, Douglas Zatzick
OBJECTIVE: Injured patients presenting to acute care medical settings have high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbidities, such as depression and substance use disorders. Integrating behavioral interventions that target symptoms of PTSD and comorbidities into the acute care setting can overcome common barriers to obtaining mental health care. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of embedding elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the delivery of routine postinjury care management...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Hani Raoul Khouzam
Trazodone is an antidepressant that is FDA-approved for the treatment of depression. It has been used by mental health and primary care providers for the treatment of multiple psychiatric and medical conditions .This review describes trazodone mechanism of action, formulation, dosage and adverse effects and then summarizes the beneficial effects of trazodone in the treatment of various psychiatric and medical conditions such as major depression, as well non-approved FDA indications such as insomnia,anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, feeding and eating disorders, substance use disorders, behavioral disturbances associated with cognitive dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, certain pain conditions, and rehabilitation after acute ischemic stroke...
October 17, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Eric M Janezic, Swetha Uppalapati, Stephanie Nagl, Marco Contreras, Edward D French, Jean-Marc Fellous
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in part due to a deficit in memory consolidation and extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic effects and promotes prosocial behaviors in both rodents and humans, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in memory consolidation. We studied the effects of administered OXT and social co-housing in a rodent model of PTSD. Acute OXT yielded a short-term increase in the recall of the traumatic memory if administered immediately after trauma. Low doses of OXT delivered chronically had a cumulating anxiolytic effect that became apparent after 4 days and persisted...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Christina Devoto, Lindsay Arcurio, Joseph Fetta, Mary Ley, Tamar Rodney, Rebekah Kanefsy, Jessica Gill
Studies have shown that the presence of acute inflammation during recovery is indicative of poor outcomes after a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of chronic inflammation in predicting post-TBI related symptoms remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in active duty personnel who either sustained or did not sustain a TBI. Service members were also assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality-of-life (QOL) through self-reported measures...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
N Ruiz-Robledillo, A Romero-Martínez, L Moya-Albiol
Caring for an offspring with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been related to high stress levels and health disturbances. However, a protective effect against these negative health outcomes has been described in high-resilient caregivers. In this context, the main aim of the present study was to assess the association between resilient coping and cortisol response to acute stress in caregivers of people with ASD. Furthermore, the study aimed to explore the mediating role of anger in this association. We exposed 40 caregivers of people with ASD to an acute psychosocial stressor in the laboratory...
October 13, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Anastasia Asimakopoulou, Sabine Weiskirchen, Ralf Weiskirchen
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein that belongs to the Lipocalins, a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules such as steroids, lipopolysaccharides, iron, and fatty acids in circulation. Two decades after its discovery and after a high variety of published findings, LCN2's altered expression has been assigned to critical roles in several pathological organ conditions, including liver injury and steatosis, renal damage, brain injury, cardiomyopathies, muscle-skeletal disorders, lung infection, and cancer in several organs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
John J Mccarthy, Martin H Leamon, Loretta P Finnegan, Catherine Fassbender
Increase in the number of opioid dependent pregnant women delivering babies at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) prompted a General Accountability Office (GAO) report documenting deficits in research and provider knowledge about care of the maternal/fetal unit and the neonate. There are three general sources of dependence: untreated opioid use disorder (OUD), pain management, and medication assisted treatment with methadone or buprenorphine. A survey of methadone patients' experiences when telling a physician of their pregnancy and opioid dependence demonstrated physician confusion about proper care, frequent negative interactions with the mother, and failures to provide appropriate referral...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Thierry Bang Tchoya, Joseph Renaud Menanga, Bernard Dabole, Michel De Waard
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaf extract of Crinum jagus L. (Amaryllidaceae) is widely used in traditional Cameroonian medicine as antiepileptic remedy and for the treatment of convulsion, depression and mood disorders associated with epilepsy. AIM OF THE STUDY: Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an active fraction extracted from the leaves of Crinum jagus against seizures, depression-like behaviour and oxidative stress in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Catherine Lau, Mark Hebert, Marc A Vani, Sue Walling, Shawn Hayley, Diane C Lagace, Jacqueline Blundell
Traumatic events contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the neural mechanisms that affect the stress response may improve treatment for stress-related disorders. Neurogenesis, the production of neurons, occurs within the adult brain and disturbances in neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus have been linked to mood and anxiety disorders. Chronic stress models have mainly suggested correlations with stress reducing adult SGZ neurogenesis, whereas acute stress models and those with a naturalistic component that are also associated with long-lasting behavioral changes have produced inconsistent results...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Patrícia Santos, Ana P Herrmann, Radharani Benvenutti, Guilherme Noetzold, Franciele Giongo, Clarissa S Gama, Angelo L Piato, Elaine Elisabetsky
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and often result in poor quality of life. Available anxiolytics show significant adverse effects as well as partial efficacy in a sizable part of patients. Innovative treatments with more favorable risk-benefit ratio are sorely needed. A growing body of clinical data indicates the benefits of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in psychiatric conditions. NAC modulates antioxidant, glutamatergic, inflammatory and neurotrophic pathways in the central nervous system, all of which are relevant to anxiety pathology...
October 7, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Yuejun Huang, Zhiwei Shen, Liu Hu, Fang Xia, Yuewa Li, Jingwen Zhuang, Peishan Chen, Qingjun Huang
There is increasing evidence that mothers' exposure to stress before or during pregnancy is linked to an incidence of psychiatric disorders in offspring. However, a few studies have estimated the role of sex in the detrimental effects of pre-gestational stress on the offspring rats at early adolescence. Sex differences regarding the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in the right hippocampus were investigated by MRS when the offspring rats reached 30 days. Additionally, the impact of pre-gestational stress exposed on an additional short-term acute stressor, such as forced swim, was examined in the male and female offspring rats...
October 4, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Oliver D Howes, Robert McCutcheon, Michael J Owen, Robin M Murray
The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia. Because it was initially based on indirect evidence and findings in patients with established schizophrenia, it was unclear what role dopamine played in the onset of the disorder. However, recent studies in people at risk of schizophrenia have found elevated striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release to stress. Furthermore, striatal dopamine changes have been linked to altered cortical function during cognitive tasks, in line with preclinical evidence that a circuit involving cortical projections to the striatum and midbrain may underlie the striatal dopamine changes...
August 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Eric P Ratliff, Roxanne W Kotzebue, Brandon Molina, Ruth E Mauntz, Arysa Gonzalez, Ayeh Barekat, Nadja El-Mecharrafie, Shannon Garza, Michael A Gurney, Madhulika Achal, Phyllis-Jean Linton, Greg L Harris, Kim D Finley
The autophagy pathway is critical for the long-term homeostasis of cells and adult organisms and is often activated during periods of stress. Reduced pathway efficacy plays a central role in several progressive neurological disorders that are associated with the accumulation of cytotoxic peptides and protein aggregates. Previous studies have shown that genetic and transgenic alterations to the autophagy pathway impacts longevity and neural aggregate profiles of adult Drosophila. In this study, we have identified methods to measure the acute in vivo induction of the autophagy pathway in the adult fly CNS...
2016: PloS One
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
Maria Fernanda Pascutti, Martje N Erkelens, Martijn A Nolte
The ability of the bone marrow (BM) to generate copious amounts of blood cells required on a daily basis depends on a highly orchestrated process of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). This process can be rapidly adapted under stress conditions, such as infections, to meet the specific cellular needs of the immune response and the ensuing physiological changes. This requires a tight regulation in order to prevent either hematopoietic failure or transformation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Georgina Perez-Garcia, Miguel A Gama Sosa, Rita De Gasperi, Margaret Lashof-Sullivan, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, James R Stone, Fatemeh Haghighi, Stephen T Ahlers, Gregory A Elder
The postconcussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) has been regarded as a mostly benign syndrome that typically resolves in the immediate months following injury. However, in some individuals, symptoms become chronic and persistent. This has been a striking feature of the mostly blast-related mTBIs that have been seen in veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. In these veterans a chronic syndrome with features of both the postconcussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder has been prominent...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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