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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#1
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331801/stressful-life-events-relationship-stressors-and-cortisol-reactivity-the-moderating-role-of-suppression
#2
Lydia G Roos, Sara M Levens, Jeanette M Bennett
Stressful life events (SLEs) are exceedingly common and have been associated with a range of psychological disorders, perhaps through dysregulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The use of certain emotion regulation strategies in response to stress, such as expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal, has additionally been linked to heightened HPA axis reactivity to acute stress. However, it is unclear how emotion regulation may interact with SLEs to affect HPA axis reactivity, particularly concerning relationship stressors (RSs)...
January 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331340/hsp72-protects-from-liver-injury-via-attenuation-of-hepatocellular-death-oxidative-stress-and-jnk-signaling
#3
Kateryna Levada, Nurdan Guldiken, Xiaoji Zhang, Giovanna Vella, Fa-Rong Mo, Laura P James, Johannes Haybaeck, Sonja M Kessler, Alexandra K Kiemer, Thomas Ott, Daniel Hartmann, Norbert Hüser, Marianne Ziol, Christian Trautwein, Pavel Strnad
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a molecular chaperone that is upregulated in response to stress and possesses broad cytoprotective functions. To determine its hepatic function, we studied its expression in human liver disorders and its biological significance in newly generated transgenic animals. AIM AND METHODS: Double transgenic mice overexpressing Hsp72 (gene HSPA1A) under the control of a tissue-specific tetracycline-inducible system (Hsp72-LAP mice) were produced...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330149/voluntary-exercise-and-depression-like-behavior-in-rodents-are-we-running-in-the-right-direction
#4
Joram D Mul
Acute or chronic exposure to stress can increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder, a severe, recurrent and common psychiatric condition. Depression places an enormous social and financial burden on modern society. Although many depressed patients are treated with antidepressants, their efficacy is only modest, underscoring the necessity to develop clinically-effective pharmaceutical or behavioral treatments. Exercise training produces beneficial effects on stress-related mental disorders, indicative of clinical potential...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329979/how-acute-stress-may-enhance-subsequent-memory-for-threat-stimuli-outside-the-focus-of-attention-dlpfc-amygdala-decoupling
#5
Yu Luo, Guillén Fernández, Erno Hermans, Susanne Vogel, Yu Zhang, Hong Li, Floris Klumpers
Stress-related disorders, e.g., anxiety and depression, are characterized by decreased top-down control for distracting information, as well as a memory bias for threatening information. However, it is unclear how acute stress biases mnemonic encoding and leads to prioritized storage of threat-related information even if outside the focus of attention. In the current study, healthy adults (N = 53, all male) were randomly assigned to stress induction using the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) or a control condition...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328008/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-current-insights-in-diagnostics-treatment-and-prevention
#6
A Lok, J L Frijling, M van Zuiden
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may develop after traumatic events.- PTSD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 7%.- Recurrent re-experiencing of the traumatic event is the most characteristic PTSD symptom.- Recognition of PTSD may be hampered by the heterogeneous symptomatology, avoidance to talk about the trauma and highly frequent comorbid psychiatric and somatic comorbidity.- Feelings of guilt and shame may also influence reported trauma history...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325583/an-integrated-delivery-of-care-approach-to-improve-patient-reported-physical-function-and-mental-wellbeing-after-orthopedic-trauma-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Laura Zdziarski-Horodyski, MaryBeth Horodyski, Kalia K Sadasivan, Jennifer Hagen, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Matthew Patrick, Robert Guenther, Heather K Vincent
BACKGROUND: Orthopedic trauma injury impacts nearly 2.8 million people each year. Despite surgical improvements and excellent survivorship rates, many patients experience poor quality of life (QOL) outcomes years later. Psychological distress commonly occurs after injury. Distressed patients more frequently experience rehospitalizations, pain medication dependence, and low QOL. This study was developed to test whether an integrative care approach (IntCare; ten-step program of emotional support, education, customized resources, and medical care) was superior to usual care (UsCare)...
January 11, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324335/efficient-synthesis-and-first-regioselective-c-6-direct-arylation-of%C3%A2-imidazo-2-1-c-1-2-4-triazine-scaffold-and-their-evaluation-in-h2o2-induced-oxidative-stress
#8
Mohammed Loubidi, Jabrane Jouha, Zahira Tber, Mostafa Khouili, Franck Suzenet, Mohamed Akssira, Mümin Alper Erdogan, Fadime Aydın Köse, Taner Dagcı, Güliz Armagan, Luciano Saso, Gérald Guillaumet
Oxidative stress and apoptosis are both associated with various acute and chronic disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study is to synthesize imidazo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazines derivatives and to evaluate their effects in H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y cells). The effects of the compounds on cell viability were measured by MTT assay and the changes in stress and apoptosis-related proteins were investigated by PathScan® Stress and Apoptosis Signaling Antibody Array kit and Western Blot technique...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323700/heat-shock-protein-hsp-regulation-by-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-machr-activation-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#9
Frinchi Monica, Scaduto Pietro, Cappello Francesco, Belluardo Natale, Mudò Giuseppa
The cholinergic system plays a crucial role in modulating in the central nervous system physiological responses such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. In a recent study, we showed that Oxotremorine-M, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, is able to transactivate the fibroblast growth factor receptor and to produce a significant increase in the hippocampal primary neurite outgrowth. In the present study we aimed to explore in the rat hippocampus the possible effect of acute or chronic treatment with Oxotremorine-M on some heat shock proteins (Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90) and on activation of related transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321525/exploring-the-consequences-of-social-defeat-stress-and-intermittent-ethanol-drinking-on-dopamine-dynamics-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#10
Alex L Deal, Joanne K Konstantopoulos, Jeff L Weiner, Evgeny A Budygin
The current study aimed to explore how presynaptic dopamine (DA) function is altered following brief stress episodes and chronic ethanol self-administration and whether these neuroadaptations modify the acute effects of ethanol on DA dynamics. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to evaluate changes in DA release and uptake parameters in rat nucleus accumbens brain slices by analyzing DA transients evoked through single pulse electrical stimulation. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: ethanol-naïve or ethanol drinking (six week intermittent two-bottle choice) and stressed (mild social defeat) or nonstressed...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316846/acute-stress-evokes-sexually-dimorphic-stressor-specific-patterns-of-neural-activation-across-multiple-limbic-brain-regions-in-adult-rats
#11
Ankit Sood, Karina Chaudhari, Vidita A Vaidya
Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker...
January 10, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314619/naringin-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-against-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-both-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-pathways-in-insulin-deficient-diabetic-mice
#12
Ye Jin Lim, Jung Ho Kim, Jeong Hoon Pan, Jae Kyeom Kim, Tae-Sik Park, Young Jun Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Jun Ho Kim
SCOPE: Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, as well as other metabolic disorders. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside in citrus species, has been shown to display strong antioxidant potential in in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress; however, the underlying protective mechanisms in diabetes are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: To study the protective effects and molecular mechanisms of naringin in preventing islet dysfunction and diabetes, we examined glucose homeostasis, β-cell apoptosis, and inflammatory response in insulin-deficient diabetic mice exposed to acute oxidative stress with streptozotocin (STZ)...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313710/long-term-outcomes-after-protocolized-sedation-vs-usual-care-in-ventilated-pediatric-patients
#13
R Scott Watson, Lisa A Asaro, James H Hertzog, Lauren R Sorce, Alicia G Kachmar, Leslie A Dervan, Derek C Angus, David Wypij, Martha A Q Curley
RATIONALE: Whether a nurse-implemented goal-directed sedation protocol resulting in more awake yet calm intubated children affects post-discharge functional status, health-related quality of life, or risk for post-traumatic stress disorder is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare post-discharge outcomes in children with acute respiratory failure cluster randomized to a sedation protocol or usual care. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 1360 patients from 31 centers in the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure trial was assessed by mail, electronically, and/or telephone six months after intensive care unit discharge...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310970/lithium-stress-and-resilience-in-bipolar-disorder-deciphering-this-key-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-regulator
#14
REVIEW
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira
BACKGROUND: Lithium is the lightest metal and the only mood stabilizer that has been used for over half a century for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). As a small ion, lithium is omnipresent, and consequently, its molecular mechanisms and targets are widespread. Currently, lithium is a crucial pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute mood episodes, prophylactic therapy, and suicide prevention in BD. Besides, lithium blood level is the most widely used biomarker in clinical psychiatry...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310960/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#15
John R Richards
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a challenging clinical disorder. CHS patients frequently present to the emergency department and may require treatment for intractable emesis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities. Thought to be a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, CHS has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis potency and use, as enabled by various states having legalized the recreational use of cannabis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of this review is to investigate the pathophysiology of CHS and evaluate the published literature on pharmacologic treatment in the emergency department...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309698/burdens-on-emergency-responders-after-a-terrorist-attack-in-berlin
#16
U Wesemann, P Zimmermann, M Mahnke, O Butler, S Polk, G Willmund
Background: Terrorist attacks induce various responses in emergency responders. Addressing this range of responses in individual workers is of central interest. Aims: To assess the gender- and occupation-specific effects of a terrorist attack, particularly in emergency responders. Methods: This was a pilot study. Emergency responders present during the 2016 terrorist attack at Breitscheidplatz in Berlin were asked to participate. Measures for crisis management had been previously implemented...
December 22, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307664/chronic-nicotine-differentially-alters-spontaneous-recovery-of-contextual-fear-in-male-and-female-mice
#17
Jessica M Tumolo, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating disorder with symptoms such as flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance of reminders of the traumatic event. Exposure therapy, which attempts to extinguish fear responses, is a commonly used treatment for PTSD but relapse following successful exposure therapy is a frequent problem. In rodents, spontaneous recovery (SR), where extinguished fear responses resurface following extinction treatment, is used as a model of fear relapse. Previous studies from our lab showed that chronic nicotine impaired fear extinction and acute nicotine enhanced SR of contextual fear in adult male mice...
January 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307285/incidence-of-fanconi-anaemia-in-phenotypically-normal-aplastic-anaemia-patients-in-west-bengal
#18
Atreyee Dutta, Rajib De, Tuphan Kanti Dolai, Pritha Pal, Shanoli Ghosh, Pradip Kumar Mitra, Ajanta Halder
OBJECTIVES: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure and autosomal recessive blood disorder. FA patients have a higher risk of cancer, including acute myeloid leukaemia and squamous cell carcinoma. Maximum, but not all, affected individuals have one or more somatic abnormalities, including skin, skeletal, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological anomalies, etc. Positive stress cytogenetics has immense implications for the treatment and management of FA...
January 7, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306651/refractory-collapse-and-severe-burn-think-about-acute-adrenal-insufficiency
#19
Ismail Aissa, Mohammed Meziane, Abdelghafour El Koundi, Mustapha Bensghir, Samir Siah, Salim Jaafar Alaoui
INTRODUCTION: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare endocrine disorder, which can in its acute form be life-threatening in case of late diagnosis or treatment. The stress during a thermal burn can easily decompensate the AI. We report the case of an acute adrenal insufficiency (AAI) discovered following a refractory collapse occurred after a severe thermal burn. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman was accidentally burned to the lower limbs by hot water. Total burn surface area was 36 %...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305344/review-and-drug-therapy-implications-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#20
REVIEW
Kristen D Belfield, Eric M Tichy
PURPOSE: The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and medication-use implications of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common enzyme deficiency in humans, are reviewed. SUMMARY: Originally identified as favism in patients who experienced hemolysis after ingestion of fava beans, G6PD deficiency results from an X-linked chromosomal mutation that leads to reduced activity of the enzyme responsible for the final step of the pentose phosphate pathway, through which reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate required for protection of cells from oxidative stress is produced...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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