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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781946/co-occurrence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-cardiovascular-disease-among-ethnic-racial-groups-in-the-united-states
#1
Carmen Vidal, Ruth Polo, Kiara Alvarez, Irene Falgas-Bague, Ye Wang, Benjamin Lê Cook, Margarita Alegría
OBJECTIVE: Trauma and/or symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the exact mechanism has not been determined. We examine if the risk of CVD is different among those who have a history of trauma without PTSD symptoms, those who have experienced trauma and developed any symptoms of PTSD, and those with a PTSD diagnosis. Furthermore, we examine whether this association varies across ethnic/racial groups. METHODS: We used two datasets that form part of the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) - the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)...
May 17, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779964/childhood-trauma-and-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#2
Rachel L Loewy, Sarah Corey, Felix Amirfathi, Sawsan Dabit, Daniel Fulford, Rahel Pearson, Jessica P Y Hua, Danielle Schlosser, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon, Sophia Vinogradov
As a risk factor for psychosis, childhood trauma rates are elevated in the clinical-high-risk (CHR) syndrome compared to the general population. However, it is unknown whether trauma is typically experienced in childhood or adolescence/young adulthood, whether it occurred prior to CHR syndrome onset, and how severe trauma relates to presenting symptoms. In this study, we examined the relationship of trauma history to symptoms and functioning in individuals diagnosed with the CHR syndrome on the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (N = 103)...
May 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779059/youth-responses-to-school-shootings-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Áine Travers, Tracey McDonagh, Ask Elklit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories of recovery? RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778303/the-physiopathologic-interplay-between-stem-cells-and-tissue-niche-in-muscle-regeneration-and-the-role-of-il-6-on-muscle-homeostasis-and-diseases
#4
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778050/the-association-between-ptsd-and-facial-affect-recognition
#5
Christian L Williams, Melissa E Milanak, Matt R Judah, Howard Berenbaum
The major aims of this study were to examine how, if at all, having higher levels of PTSD would be associated with performance on a facial affect recognition task in which facial expressions of emotion are superimposed on emotionally valenced, non-face images. College students with trauma histories (N = 90) completed a facial affect recognition task as well as measures of exposure to traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. When the face and context matched, participants with higher levels of PTSD were significantly more accurate...
May 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777374/the-tenascin-c-derived-peptide-vswrapta-promotes-neuronal-branching-via-transcellular-activation-of-the-focal-adhesion-kinase-fak-and-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-in-vitro
#6
Marvin Jarocki, Omar Sallouh, Ralf Weberskirch, Andreas Faissner
The central nervous system (CNS) of mammals has a limited regeneration capacity after traumatic events, which causes chronic functional disability. The development of biomaterials aims at providing support for the regeneration process. One strategy integrates peptides that mimic functional domains of extracellular matrix (ECM) or cell adhesion molecules with synthetic polymers designed to present growth-supporting cues to the neuronal microenvironment. Thus, small peptide sequences originating from molecules of the ECM may serve as promising bio-additives, acting as artificial matricryptins to gear cellular processes...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776731/comorbidity-in-illness-induced-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-versus-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-due-to-external-events-in-a-nationally-representative-study
#7
Jordana L Sommer, Natalie Mota, Donald Edmondson, Renée El-Gabalawy
OBJECTIVE: The current study compared physical and mental health characteristics and quality of life of illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus those with PTSD due to external traumatic events in a population-based sample. METHOD: PTSD was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5) using DSM-5 criteria in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Participants with past-year PTSD (n = 1779) were categorized into two groups: illness-induced (6...
May 10, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776000/examining-the-relationship-between-traumatic-growth-and-psychological-resilience-in-young-adult-children-of-parents-with-and-without-a-mental-disorder
#8
Gül Ergün, Funda Gümüş, Gül Dikeç
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between traumatic growth and psychological resilience in young adult children of parents with a mental disorder and to compare them with young adult children of parents without mental disorders. BACKGROUND: Negative life experiences that lead to trauma can affect young adults' psychological resilience, either positively or negatively. This study investigates levels of traumatic growth, the characteristics of psychological resilience, and the relationship between the former and latter in young adults between the ages of 18 and 23 who have parents with a mental disorder and who have parents without a mental disorder...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775837/predator-based-psychosocial-stress-model-of-ptsd-differentially-influences-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-depending-on-methodology
#9
Phillip R Zoladz, Eric D Eisenmann, Robert M Rose, Brooke A Kohls, Brandon L Johnson, Kiera L Robinson, Megan E Heikkila, Kasey E Mucher, Madelaine R Huntley
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychological disorder typified by diagnostic symptom clusters including hyperarousal, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and intrusive re-experiencing of the traumatic event. Patients with PTSD have been reported to self-medicate with alcohol to ameliorate hyperarousal symptoms associated with the disorder. Research utilizing rodent models of PTSD to emulate this behavioral phenomenon has thus far yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, we examined the effects of a predator-based psychosocial stress model of PTSD on voluntary ethanol consumption...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772364/pathophysiology-and-non-surgical-treatment-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-from-past-to-present-to-future
#10
REVIEW
Dana C Holl, Victor Volovici, Clemens M F Dirven, Wilco C Peul, Fop van Kooten, Korné Jellema, Niels A van der Gaag, Ishita P Miah, Kuan H Kho, Heleen M den Hertog, Hester F Lingsma, Ruben Dammers
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the more frequent pathological entities in daily neurosurgical practice. Historically, CSDH was considered a progressive, recurrent bleeding with a traumatic etiology. However, recent evidence suggests a complex intertwined pathway of inflammation, angiogenesis, local coagulopathy, recurrent microbleeds and exudates. The aim of the present review is to collect existing data on pathophysiology of CSDH in order to direct further research questions aiming to optimize treatment for the individual patient...
May 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764704/current-understanding-of-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-and-cell-based-therapeutic-opportunities
#11
REVIEW
Ye Xiong, Asim Mahmood, Michael Chopp
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Increasing evidence indicates that TBI is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Despite improved supportive and rehabilitative care of TBI patients, unfortunately, all late phase clinical trials in TBI have yet to yield a safe and effective neuroprotective treatment. The disappointing clinical trials may be attributed to variability in treatment approaches and heterogeneity of the population of TBI patients as well as a race against time to prevent or reduce inexorable cell death...
April 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764432/post-traumatic-cognitions-and-quality-of-life-in-terrorism-victims-the-role-of-well-being-in-indirect-versus-direct-exposure
#12
Miriam Bajo, Amalio Blanco, Maria Stavraki, Beatriz Gandarillas, Ana Cancela, Blanca Requero, Darío Díaz
BACKGROUND: The effect of indirect (versus direct) exposure to a traumatic event on the quality of life of terrorist attack victims has received considerable attention in the literature. However, more research is required to examine whether the symptoms and underlying processes caused by both types of exposure are equivalent. Our main hypothesis is that well-being plays a different role depending on indirect vs. direct trauma exposure. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, eighty direct victims of 11-M terrorist attacks (people who were traveling in trains where bombs were placed) and two-hundred indirect victims (individuals highly exposed to the 11-M terrorist attacks through communications media) voluntarily participated without compensation...
May 15, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763398/does-family-presence-in-the-trauma-bay-help-or-hinder-care
#13
Benny L Joyner
Family presence during a pediatric resuscitation remains somewhat controversial. Opponents express concern that family presence would be detrimental to team performance and that exposure to such a traumatic event could put family members at risk of posttraumatic stress. Proponents argue that family presence affords families a sense of closure by easing their anxieties and assuring them that everything was done for their loved ones in addition to improving clinicians' professional behavior by humanizing the patient...
May 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761354/stress-and-health-of-internally-displaced-female-yezidis-in-northern-iraq
#14
Pia Jäger
Burden and vulnerability factors after the genocide by ISIS accumulate to a high risk of health for displaced Yezidi women having survived or escaped the "ISIS" persecutions and massacres 2014. In May 2017, standardized interviews, including tests for the acquisition of healthrelated quality of life (SF12), stress (PSS10) and experienced trauma were performed with 29 and a medical anamnesis with 10 displaced female Yezidi in camps for internally displaced people (IDP) and unofficial settlements in Northern Iraq...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761018/behavioral-and-neurophysiological-abnormalities-during-cued-continuous-performance-tasks-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Weixiang Zhao, Ruhong Wu, Suhong Wang, Haihui Qi, Yitao Qian, Suinuan Wang
Objective: This study's aim was to investigate the features and neural mechanisms of sustained attention in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by comparing and analyzing neuropsychological, behavioral, event-related potentials, and event-related desynchronization and synchronization between mTBI patients and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty mTBI patients with mTBI and 20 healthy controls underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a cued continuous performance task (AX-CPT)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760868/non-medical-use-of-prescription-drugs-by-young-men-impact-of-potentially-traumatic-events-and-of-social-environmental-stressors
#16
Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking, Véronique S Grazioli, Simon Marmet, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Mélissa Lemoine, Gerhard Gmel, Joseph Studer
Background : Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is an increasing phenomenon associated with physical and psychological consequences. This study investigated the effects of distinct forms of stress on NMUPD. Methods : Data from 5308 young adult men from the Swiss cohort study on substance use risk factors (C-SURF) were analysed regarding NMUPD of sleeping pills, tranquilizers, opioid analgesics, psychostimulants, and antidepressants. Various forms of stress (discrete, potentially traumatic events, recent and long-lasting social-environmental stressors) during the period preceding the NMUPD assessment were measured...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759262/focus-on-the-quadruple-aim-development-of-a-resiliency-center-to-promote-faculty-and-staff-wellness-initiatives
#17
Ellen Morrow, Megan Call, Robin Marcus, Amy Locke
DEFINING THE PROBLEM: A growing body of evidence highlights the need for wellness programs to support health care professionals. Although much of the existing literature centers on practicing physicians and physician trainees, there is growing awareness that these challenges are not unique to physicians and affect all members of the health care team. Traumatic and stressful events will always be a part of health care; how these events are addressed on a personal and team level is essential to the success of a health care system...
May 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756552/management-of-traumatic-hip-fracture-in-the-palliative-care-unit
#18
Katherine Whitehead, Donna Spaner
We report on the case of an elderly patient in a palliative care unit who fell and sustained a hip fracture. Hip fractures are potentially terminal events for elderly patients with other life-limiting conditions. The case highlights the need for more evidence to determine the best approach to care for hip fractures in patients who are in the final weeks or months of life.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755579/exploring-ptsd-in-emergency-operators-of-a-major-university-hospital-in-italy-a-preliminary-report-on-the-role-of-gender-age-and-education
#19
Claudia Carmassi, Camilla Gesi, Martina Corsi, Ivan M Cremone, Carlo A Bertelloni, Enrico Massimetti, Maria Cristina Olivieri, Ciro Conversano, Massimo Santini, Liliana Dell'Osso
Background: Emergency services personnel face frequent exposure to potentially traumatic events, with the potential for chronic symptomatic distress. The DSM-5 recently recognized a particular risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among first responders (criterion A4) but data are still scarce on prevalence rates and correlates. Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the possible role of age, gender, and education training in a sample of emergency personnel diagnosed with DSM-5 PTSD...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755256/alliance-across-group-treatment-for-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-the-role-of-interpersonal-trauma-and-treatment-type
#20
Johanna Thompson-Hollands, Scott D Litwack, Karen A Ryabchenko, Barbara L Niles, J Gayle Beck, William Unger, Denise M Sloan
Objective: Examine initial levels and pattern of change of alliance in group treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for veterans. Method: One hundred and seventy-eight male veterans with PTSD were recruited for this study. Participants were randomly assigned to either group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) or to group present-centered therapy (GPCT). Alliance with fellow group members was assessed every other session throughout the group (total of seven assessments)...
March 2018: Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice
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