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Henrique Souza Barros de Oliveira, Renata Rego Lins Fumis
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of sex and spouse condition on symptoms of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms in patients and their spouses. METHODS: A prospective study conducted in a 22-bed adult mixed intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients and their spouses were enrolled 2 days after intensive care unit admission. They were interviewed while in the intensive care unit using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...
March 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Edward H Liu, Zainab Najarali, Forough Farrokhyar, Laura Banfield, Mark McRae
Posttraumatic enophthalmos due to isolated or complex orbital fractures can contribute to diplopia. Current evidence recommends early repair. However, little is known about the outcome of enophthalmos correction when repair occurs beyond 30 days after trauma. In this systematic review, the authors aim to evaluate the current evidence on functional outcomes after delayed repair of posttraumatic enophthalmos.Two independent assessors undertook a systematic review of the literature using multiple databases. The authors' inclusion criteria identified studies involving patients at least 14 years of age who had surgical correction of persistent enophthalmos 30 days after initial trauma...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Roxanne Ferguson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nursing
Kimberly A Babson, Steven H Woodward, Marie Schaer, Sandra E Sephton, Danny G Kaloupek
BACKGROUND: Human studies have often found that brain regions rich in glucocorticoid receptors exhibit smaller volume in samples with past trauma and ongoing stress; however, relatively little research has addressed the hypothesis that such smaller volumes can be traced to elevated circulating glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). This issue takes on renewed interest in light of recent proposals to treat symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with exogenous synthetic GCs...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ruslan Masgutov, Galina Masgutova, Liliya Mukhametova, Ekaterina Garanina, Svetlana S Arkhipova, Elena Zakirova, Yana O Mukhamedshina, Zhuravleva Margarita, Zarema Gilazieva, Valeriia Syromiatnikova, Adelya Mullakhmetova, Gulnaz Kadyrova, Mariya Nigmetzyanova, Sergeev Mikhail, Pankov Igor, Ramil Yagudin, Albert Rizvanov
We examined the effect of transplantation of allogenic adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) with properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on posttraumatic sciatic nerve regeneration in rats. We suggested an approach to rat sciatic nerve reconstruction using the nerve from the other leg as a graft. The comparison was that of a critical 10 mm nerve defect repaired by means of autologous nerve grafting versus an identical lesion on the contralateral side. In this experimental model, the same animal acts simultaneously as a test model, and control...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohammad Ahmad
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Nikolaos P Daskalakis, Allison C Provost, Richard G Hunter, Guia Guffanti
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pathologic response to trauma that impacts ∼8% of the population and is highly comorbid with other disorders, such as traumatic brain injury. PTSD affects multiple biological systems throughout the body, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cortical function, and the immune system, and while the study of the biological underpinnings of PTSD and related disorders are numerous, the roles of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are just emerging. Moreover, deep sequencing has revealed that ncRNAs represent most of the transcribed mammalian genome...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Anne Marie Coleman, Zoë Chouliara, Kay Currie
The aim of this article is to explore the positive and negative impacts of working therapeutically in complex psychological trauma (CPT), particularly the field of gender-based violence (GBV) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), from the clinicians' perspective. The focus was on the prospect of positive gains and growth for therapists. Twenty-one clinicians ( n = 21; counselors/psychotherapists and psychologists) from National Health Service (NHS) specialist trauma services, a community mental health team, and specialist sexual assault counseling organization participated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Thomas Rosteius, Hinnerk Baecker, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Dominik Seybold, Jan Geßmann
BACKGROUND: Supramalleolar deformities require surgical correction to avoid posttraumatic osteoarthrosis of the knee or ankle joint and to prevent definitive treatment options, such as total ankle arthroplasty or arthrodesis of the ankle joint. Various methods for the operative correction of supramalleolar deformities have been described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: What results can be achieved with focal dome osteotomy to correct posttraumatic supramalleolar deformities? MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 10 patients (mean age 37 years) with a supramalleolar posttraumatic deformity were treated by focal dome osteotomy...
March 19, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Alexandre Persu, Géraldine Petit, Coralie Georges, Philippe de Timary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Hypertension
Jeffrey T Howard, Jonathan A Sosnov, Jud C Janak, Adi V Gundlapalli, Warren B Pettey, Lauren E Walker, Ian J Stewart
The associations between injury severity, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and development of chronic diseases, such as hypertension, among military service members are not understood. We sought to (1) estimate the prevalence and incidence of PTSD within a severely injured military cohort, (2) assess the association between the presence and chronicity of PTSD and hypertension, and (3) determine whether or not initial injury severity score and PTSD are independent risk factors for hypertension. Administrative and clinical databases were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of 3846 US military casualties injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts between February 1, 2002, and February 1, 2011...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension
Caroline M Nievergelt, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Shareefa Dalvie, Michael A Hauser, Rajendra A Morey, Alicia K Smith, Monica Uddin
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a traumatic event is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Heritability estimates from twin studies as well as from recent molecular data (single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability) indicate moderate to high heritability, yet robust genetic variants for PTSD have not yet been identified and the genetic architecture of this polygenic disorder remains largely unknown. To date, fewer than 10 large-scale genome-wide association studies of PTSD have been published, with findings that highlight the unique challenges for PTSD genomics, including a complex diagnostic entity with contingency of PTSD diagnosis on trauma exposure and the large genetic diversity of the study populations...
February 2, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Jay R Hoffman, Alyssa Varanoske, Jeffrey R Stout
β-Alanine is one of the more popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes today. The popularity of β-alanine stems from its ability to enhance intracellular muscle-buffering capacity thereby delaying fatigue during high-intensity exercise by increasing muscle carnosine content. Recent evidence also suggests that elevated carnosine levels may enhance cognitive performance and increase resiliency to stress. These benefits are thought to result from carnosine's potential role as an antioxidant. This review will discuss these new findings including recent investigations examining β-alanine supplementation and increased resiliency to posttraumatic stress and mild traumatic brain injury...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Katherine E Porter, Murray B Stein, Brian Martis, Kimberly M Avallone, Lauren B McSweeney, Erin R Smith, Naomi M Simon, Sean Gargan, Israel Liberzon, Charles W Hoge, Sheila A M Rauch
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly reported in recent combat Veterans. While the majority resolve, some Veterans develop postconcussive symptoms (PCS). Previous research suggests these symptoms are not specific to head injury and are often associated with psychiatric symptoms. The current study examines the relative contributions of posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and TBI on postconcussive symptoms, and explores whether the relationship remains after controlling for symptom overlap. Two hundred eighteen combat Veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) provided the data for this study as part of a baseline evaluation for inclusion into larger treatment study for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress" by Christopher R. DeCou, Trevor T. Cole, Shannon M. Lynch, Maria M. Wong and Kathleen C. Matthews ( Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy , 2017[Mar], Vol 9[2], 166-172). In the article, there was an error in the coding of missing values thus effecting the abstract, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. The frequency counts for sexual assault victimization, reactions to social disclosure, and assault-related shame were calculated incorrectly due to an error in the coding of missing values, and have been corrected in the description of participants and in the results and discussion sections...
March 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Elizabeth E Van Voorhees, Daniel A Moore, Nathan A Kimbrel, Eric A Dedert, Kirsten H Dillon, Eric B Elbogen, Patrick S Calhoun
PURPOSE: Aggressive driving contributes to the high rates of postdeployment motor vehicle-related injury and death observed among veterans, and veterans cite problems with anger, aggressive driving, and road rage as being among their most pressing driving-related concerns. Both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been associated with driving-related deficits in treatment-seeking samples of veterans, but the relative contribution of each of these conditions to problems with aggressive driving in the broader population of combat veterans is unclear...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Nathan T Kearns, Warren T Jackson, Timothy R Elliott, Tiffany Ryan, Trey W Armstrong
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The present study examines associations between levels of limb loss (partial hand vs. higher levels of limb loss) and eight clinically relevant measures of functional impairment, psychological well-being, and substance use. Research Method/Design: A cross-sectional, multisite study conducted at seven prosthetic rehabilitation centers across the United States. A total of 305 participants with upper limb loss (Mage = 44.28, SD = 15.45; 68.5% male; 70.5% white) completed orally administered self-assessments of pain interference, perceived activity restrictions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, emotional reaction to their physical condition, problematic alcohol use, prescription medication overuse, and illicit drug use...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Sonya B Norman, Moira Haller, Jessica L Hamblen, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are among the most prevalent disorders in U.S. military veterans and often co-occur. To date, most studies have focused on treatment-seeking samples, although many veterans with AUD/PTSD do not seek treatment. We evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, functioning, and quality of life in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans (using data from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study) with AUD alone, PTSD alone, and comorbid AUD/PTSD to understand the incremental burden of having both disorders relative to either one...
March 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Tambri Housen, Annick Lenglet, Cono Ariti, Shabnum Ara, Showkat Shah, Maqbool Dar, Arshad Hussain, Altaf Paul, Zahoor Wagay, Kerri Viney, Simon Janes, Giovanni Pintaldi
The present study aimed to culturally adapt, translate, and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist (HTQ-16) prior to use in a cross-sectional mental health population survey in the Kashmir Valley. Cultural adaptation and translation of the HSCL-25 and the HTQ-16 employed multiple forms of transcultural validity check. The HSCL-25 and HTQ-16 were compared against a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Ashish Amrani, Priyadarshini Sahu, Surabhi Dayal, Poonam Verma
Epidermal inclusion cysts (EICs) are the most common cutaneous cysts, occurring anywhere in the body but infrequently on the breast. It is usually seen in the third and fourth decades of life and very rarely seen in children. They can be either congenital or posttraumatic. Most of the EICs described in children were secondary to trauma. Congenital EIC on the breast is quite a rare entity. Thus, we herein describe two cases of congenital EIC on the breast in two infants of 3 months and 9 months of age, which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported previously...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
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