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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921637/facets-of-psychopathy-in-relation-to-trauma-exposure-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptomology-in-a-sample-of-incarcerated-male-offenders
#1
Russell Woodfield, Katie Dhingra, Daniel Boduszek, Agata Debowska
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating role of psychopathy facets on the relationship between traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Design/methodology/approach Participants were male prisoners incarcerated in the UK. Findings The analysis revealed differential associations between the two facets of psychopathy, with potentially traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD. Specifically, neither primary psychopathy nor trauma exposure were significantly related to PTSD, while secondary psychopathy was positively and significantly related with PTSD symptoms...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921352/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-unexpected-death-of-a-loved-one-cross-national-findings-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#2
Lukoye Atwoli, Dan J Stein, Andrew King, Maria Petukhova, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Margreet Ten Have, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. METHODS: Data from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921349/repeated-trauma-exposure-does-not-impair-distress-reduction-during-imaginal-exposure-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Alissa B Jerud, Frank J Farach, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Hillary Smith, Lori A Zoellner, Norah C Feeny
BACKGROUND: Based on experimental research on threat extinction, individuals exposed to repeated traumatic events may have impaired outcome in exposure therapy compared to those who have experienced a single trauma (Lang & McTeague, ). This study examined whether repeated trauma exposure predicts smaller changes in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure and worse outcomes for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Adults (N = 116) with chronic PTSD received up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921129/-shoulder-endoprosthesis-in-the-elderly-hemiarthroplasty-or-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-anatomic-or-reverse
#4
J Kircher
Implantation of reverse shoulder endoprostheses is becoming more popular for elderly patients besides the well-established standard anatomic endoprostheses. The reasons for this are the increased life expectancy, age-dependent degeneration of the rotator cuff leading to cuff tear arthropathy, posttraumatic disability after failed osteosynthesis and primary reverse fracture arthroplasty. Stemless implants are more frequently used for primary osteoarthritis with the bone quality being the limiting factor. Modern implant systems allow the stepwise extension from bone preserving primary implants to modular and convertible revision implants that allow a partial exchange of components...
December 5, 2016: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921001/the-relation-between-marital-adjustment-and-posttraumatic-growth-in-infertile-couples-the-mediatory-role-of-religious-coping-strategies
#5
Seyyedeh Fatemeh Ghafouri, Saeed Ghanbari, Hajar Fallahzadeh, Omid Shokri
BACKGROUND: Infertility as a crisis can both lead to negative reactions and stress in infertile couples and bring about positive reactions and growth, to which henceforth posttraumatic growth is referred. This study was conducted to model the relation between martial adjustment and posttraumatic growth through the mediation of religious coping strategies in infertile couples. METHODS: This correlation-based study was performed on 250 couples at the infertility center of Shariati hospital, Tehran, Iran, selected via convenience sampling...
October 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919750/mapping-the-functional-connectome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-what-can-graph-metrics-tell-us
#6
Karen Caeyenberghs, Helena Verhelst, Adam Clemente, Peter H Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cognitive and motor deficits, and poses a significant personal, societal, and economic burden. One mechanism by which TBI is thought to affect cognition and behaviour is through changes in functional connectivity. Graph theory is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional networks. The objective of this paper is to review studies examining functional connectivity in TBI with an emphasis on graph theoretical analysis that is proving to be valuable in uncovering network abnormalities in this condition...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918881/a-preliminary-investigation-of-a-relapse-prevention-mobile-application-to-maintain-smoking-abstinence-among-individuals-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Terrell A Hicks, Shaun P Thomas, Sarah M Wilson, Patrick S Calhoun, Eric R Kuhn, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVES: Smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have increased difficulty achieving and maintaining abstinence. Contingency management approaches to smoking cessation interventions have demonstrated short-term efficacy, but are limited by high rates of relapse. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the usability and feasibility of a smartphone-based smoking cessation application (Stay Quit Coach) designed to prevent relapse among individuals with PTSD. METHODS: Smokers (N = 11) were randomized to 1) QUIT4EVER, an intervention combining mobile contingency management smoking cessation counseling and medications, and Stay Quit Coach or 2) a contact control condition that was identical to QUIT4EVER except Stay Quit Coach was not included...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918879/auditory-hallucinations-and-ptsd-in-ex-pows
#8
Laura Crompton, Yael Lahav, Zahava Solomon
Literature has suggested that auditory hallucinations might be prevalent in the general population and could be linked to the experience of trauma. This prospective study examines the prevalence of auditory hallucinations in trauma survivors and its association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, over time. Former prisoners-of-war (ex-POWs) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War (n = 99) with and without PTSD and comparable veterans (n = 103) were assessed twice, in 1991 (T1) and 2003 (T2) in regards to auditory hallucinations and PTSD symptoms...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918877/a-longitudinal-examination-of-peritraumatic-emotional-responses-and-their-association-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder-among-veterans
#9
Eden Engel-Rebitzer, Michelle J Bovin, Shimrit K Black, Raymond C Rosen, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
Research has revealed a significant association between several peritraumatic emotional responses and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preliminary research has also linked peritraumatic emotional responses with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The majority of this research has been cross-sectional, thereby making it difficult to determine the extent to which the various peritraumatic emotional responses may increase risk for, or serve as a premorbid marker of, PTSD and MDD. This study examined the longitudinal role of peritraumatic emotional responses on the subsequent development of PTSD and MDD in a sample of United States military veterans...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918444/mental-health-comorbidities-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-a-narrative-review-of-epidemiology-models-neurobiological-mechanisms-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Jillian Vinall, Maria Pavlova, Gordon J G Asmundson, Nivez Rasic, Melanie Noel
Chronic pain during childhood and adolescence can lead to persistent pain problems and mental health disorders into adulthood. Posttraumatic stress disorders and depressive and anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that co-occur at high rates in both adolescent and adult samples, and are linked to heightened impairment and disability. Comorbid chronic pain and psychopathology has been explained by the presence of shared neurobiology and mutually maintaining cognitive-affective and behavioral factors that lead to the development and/or maintenance of both conditions...
December 2, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918323/group-psychotherapeutic-factors-and-perceived-social-support-among-veterans-with-ptsd-symptoms
#11
Daniel W Cox, Jess J Owen, John S Ogrodniczuk
One of the most potent protective factors against psychiatric symptoms after military trauma is perceived social support. Although group psychotherapy has been linked with increasing social support, no research has evaluated which therapeutic mechanisms are associated with this increase beyond symptom reduction. We investigated which interpersonal therapeutic factors were related to changes in social support, beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reduction. Participants were 117 veterans in a multimodal outpatient group psychotherapy treatment designed to reduce PTSD symptoms and interpersonal difficulties...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918321/the-role-of-relocation-patterns-and-psychosocial-stressors-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-among-earthquake-survivors
#12
Ebru Salcioglu, Sahin Ozden, Furkan Ari
The psychological impact of relocation within and outside of a disaster region was examined in 541 survivors of the 2011 Van earthquake in Turkey at 16.5 months postdisaster. Relocation out of the region was determined by disaster-related property/financial losses and fear during the earthquake. Anticipatory fear of future earthquakes and less sense of control over life were the strongest predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Relocation within the disaster region predicted PTSD but not depression...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917853/treatment-of-posttraumatic-epilepsy-with-new-generation-antiepileptic-drugs-aeds-our-experience
#13
Lidija Šapina, Marija Ratković
Aim To investigate influence of therapy with new generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in fastening of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) remission comparing to therapy with standard AEDs, as well as the time to remission in the presence of psychiatric comorbidities. Methods The study was conducted during the 1988-2008 period and included 113 patients (47 females and 67 males) with PTE and 113 patients (93 females and 20 males) suffering from complex partial seizures (CPS) of temporal lobe origin. In both patient groups, epileptic seizure phenotype, brain magnetic resonance imaging (1...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916727/posttraumatic-administration-of-a-sub-anesthestic-dose-of-ketamine-exerts-neuroprotection-via-attenuating-inflammation-and-autophagy
#14
C-Q Wang, Y Ye, F Chen, W-C Han, J-M Sun, X Lu, R Guo, K Cao, M-J Zheng, L-C Liao
As a complex disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in long-term psychiatric changes and sensorimotor and cognitive impairments. The TBI-induced loss of memory and long-term cognitive dysfunction are related to mechanistic factors including an increased inflammatory response, autophagy, edema, and ischemia. Many published studies have offered evidence for the neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory properties of ketamine for TBI patients. Nonetheless, there is a limited understanding of the accurate mechanism that underlies the potential neuroprotective effects of ketamine...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916636/glutamate-dysregulation-and-glutamatergic-therapeutics-for-ptsd-evidence-from-human-studies
#15
REVIEW
Lynnette A Averill, Prerana Purohit, Christopher L Averill, Markus A Boesl, John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder afflicting millions of individuals across the world. While the availability of robust pharmacologic interventions is quite lacking, our understanding of the putative neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD has significantly increased over the past two decades. Accumulating evidence demonstrates aberrant glutamatergic function in mood, anxiety, and trauma-related disorders and dysfunction in glutamate neurotransmission is increasingly considered a cardinal feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders including PTSD...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915390/lifetime-substance-use-as-a-predictor-of-postpartum-mental-health
#16
Betty-Shannon Prevatt, Sarah L Desmarais, Patricia A Janssen
Postpartum mood disorders (PPMD) affect approximately 10-20% of women and have adverse consequences for both mom and baby. Lifetime substance use has received limited attention in relation to PPMD. The present study examined associations of lifetime alcohol and drug use with postpartum mental health problems. Women (n = 100) within approximately 3 months postpartum (M = 2.01, SD = 1.32) participated in semi-structured interviews querying lifetime substance use, mental health history, and postpartum symptoms of anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and obsessive compulsive disorder...
December 3, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914861/rapid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-and-risk-prevention-in-residents-of-battered-women-s-shelters
#17
Dawn M Johnson, Nicole L Johnson, Curt G Beckwith, Patrick A Palmieri, Caron Zlotnick
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and intimate partner violence (IPV) are interconnected public health problems. However, few HIV prevention interventions address the unique needs of IPV survivors in shelter and none of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's best-evidence risk reduction interventions adequately explore the complex relationship between IPV and HIV risk. Although battered women's shelters provide a safe and supportive environment for women in crisis, most do not offer HIV risk reduction services or sexual safety planning...
November 30, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914507/psychiatric-psychological-injury-and-law-introduction
#18
EDITORIAL
Gerald Young
This special issue on psychiatric/psychological injury and law covers major developments in the field, and illustrates the complexities for mental health professionals in dealing with psychiatric/psychological injuries in court. The articles vary in the range of topics covered, and include ones on posttraumatic stress disorder, other trauma reactions, dissociation, disability, pain, and traumatic brain injury, in particular but also new areas, such as the effects of early penile injury. Work in the area of psychiatric/psychological injury and law needs to be scientifically-informed, comprehensive, and impartial, and the series of articles to follow will help workers in the area meet this standard...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914224/a-systematic-review-of-epileptic-seizures-in-adults-with-subdural-haematomas
#19
REVIEW
Sae-Yeon Won, Juergen Konczalla, Daniel Dubinski, Adriano Cattani, Colleen Cuca, Volker Seifert, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic epileptic seizures (PTS) are a serious complication in patients with subdural haematoma (SDH). However, to date, several studies have shown discordances about SDH-associated seizures in terms of incidence, risk factors and prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, risk factors of PTS and the role of prophylactic antiepileptic treatment in patients with SDH. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review examining PTS in patients with SDH was performed using PubMed gateway, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE between September 1961 and February 2016...
November 25, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913193/neuropeptide-y-resilience-and-ptsd-therapeutics
#20
REVIEW
Marin Kautz, Dennis S Charney, James W Murrough
Resilience to traumatic stress is a complex psychobiological process that protects individuals from developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other untoward consequences of exposure to extreme stress, including depression. Progress in translational research points toward the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system - among others - as a key mediator of stress response and as a potential therapeutic focus for PTSD. Substantial preclinical evidence supports the role of NPY in the modulation of stress response and in the regulation of anxiety in animal models...
November 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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