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Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Lin Xie, Jay Onysko, Howard Morrison
INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of childhood cancer incidence trends can inform etiologic research, policy and programs. This study presents the first population-based report on demographic and geographic variations in incidence trends of detailed pediatric diagnostic groups in Canada. METHODS: The Canadian Cancer Registry data were used to calculate annual age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) from 1992 to 2010 among children less than 15 years of age by sex, age and region for the 12 main diagnostic groups and selected subgroups of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC), 3rd edition...
March 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Luis V Syro, Fabio Rotondo, Leon D Ortiz, Kalman Kovacs
Temozolomide is an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent used in malignant neuroendocrine neoplasia, melanoma, brain metastases, and an essential component of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma. Since 2006 it has been used for the treatment of pituitary carcinomas and aggressive pituitary adenomas. Here, we discuss the current indications and results of temozolomide therapy in pituitary tumors, as well as frequently asked questions regarding temozolomide treatment, duration of therapy, dosage, tumor recurrence, and resistance...
March 13, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Sahaja Acharya, Clifford G Robinson, Jeff M Michalski, Dan Mullen, Todd A DeWees, Jian L Campian, Anupama Chundury, Beth Bottani, Dennis E Hallahan, Jeffrey D Bradley, Jiayi Huang
PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence of and risk factors for clinically significant radiation necrosis (cRN) in adult cranial oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas treated with proton or photon therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2007 and 2015, 160 patients with grade 2 or 3 oligodendrogliomas (with 1p/19q codeletion, n = 53) or astrocytomas (without 1p/19q codeletion, n = 107) were treated with proton (n = 37) or photon (n = 123) therapy. Clinically significant radiation necrosis (RN) was defined as symptomatic RN or asymptomatic RN that resulted in surgery or bevacizumab administration...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Daniela Aneta Starosta, Birgit Lorenz
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic condition with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and incomplete penetrance. It is characterized by multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system including astrocytomas, ependymomas, meningeomas, and schwannomas, among which bilateral vestibular schwannomas are the most frequent. Among ocular manifestations of NF2, juvenile subcapsular cataract is the most common followed by epiretinal membranes and combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium...
March 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Debajyoti Chatterjee, Bishan Dass Radotra, Narendra Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Vasishta, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Background: According to the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors (2016), histological diagnosis of gliomas should be supplemented by molecular information. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 ( IDH 1), ATRX , and BRAF V600E mutations in different grade astrocytomas and their prognostic value. Methods: Eighty cases of astrocytoma (15 pilocytic astrocytoma, 25 diffuse astrocytoma, 15 anaplastic astrocytoma, and 25 glioblastoma) with follow-up information were analyzed using immunohistochemistry for IDH1 mutant protein, ATRX, p53, and BRAF...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Woon Tak Yuh, Chun Kee Chung, Sung-Hye Park, Ki-Jeong Kim, Sun-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Tae Kim
OBJECTIVE: A spinal cord subependymoma is an uncommon, indolent, benign spinal cord tumor. It is radiologically similar to a spinal cord ependymoma, but surgical findings and outcomes differ. Gross total resection of the tumor is not always feasible. The present study was done to determine the clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of spinal cord subependymomas. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of ten spinal cord subependymoma patients (M : F=4 : 6; median 38 years; range, 21-77) from four institutions...
March 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Vladimir Kepe, Claudio Scafoglio, Jie Liu, William H Yong, Marvin Bergsneider, Sung-Cheng Huang, Jorge R Barrio, Ernest M Wright
A novel glucose transporter, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), has been demonstrated to contribute to the demand for glucose by pancreatic and prostate tumors, and its functional activity has been imaged using a SGLT specific PET imaging probe, α-methyl-4-[F-18]fluoro-4-deoxy-D-glucopyaranoside (Me-4FDG). In this study, Me-4FDG PET was extended to evaluate patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors. Me-4FDG PET scans were performed in four patients diagnosed with WHO Grade III or IV astrocytomas and control subjects, and compared with 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (2-FDG) PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same subjects...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Saumya R Bollam, Michael E Berens, Harshil D Dhruv
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-throughput genomic sequencing has identified alterations in the gene encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) as points of interest for elucidating the oncogenic mechanism of multiple different cancer types, including gliomas. In gliomas, the TERT promoter mutation (TPM) and resultant overexpression of TERT are observed mainly in the most aggressive (primary glioblastoma/grade IV astrocytoma) and the least aggressive (grade II oligodendroglioma) cases...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Luisa Iacovelli, Rosamaria Orlando, Alessandro Rossi, Paola Spinsanti, Daniela Melchiorri, Ferdinando Nicoletti
In spite of the recent advancement in the molecular characterization of malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas, the treatment of primary brain tumors remains suboptimal. The use of small molecule inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways, inhibitors of angiogenesis, and immunotherapic agents is limited by systemic adverse effects, limited brain penetration, and, in some cases, lack of efficacy. Thus, adjuvant chemo-therapy and radiotherapy still remain the gold standard in the treatment of grade-IV astrocytoma (glioblastoma multiforme) and medulloblastoma...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Tianwei Wang, Ting Gao, Xiaodong Niu, Xiao Xing, Yuan Yang, Yanhui Liu, Qing Mao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform an survival analysis of HIV patients with glioma and to assess the relationship between various prognostic factors and overall survival. METHODS: We reported in detail the management and prognosis of two patients in our hospital and performed a quantitative and comprehensive systematic literature review of patients with HIV-associated glioma. We combined our treatment experience with retrospectively obtained treatment information and studied the resultant survival time to statistically analyze and discuss whether age, surgery, gender, WHO grade, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and RT combined CTh could predict patients' survival...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Charlotte Aaberg-Jessen, Mia D Sørensen, Ana L S A Matos, José M Moreira, Nils Brünner, Arnon Knudsen, Bjarne W Kristensen
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) as a prognostic marker in glioblastomas. TIMP-1 has been associated with chemotherapy resistance, and CD63, a known TIMP-1-binding protein, has been suggested to be responsible for this effect. The aim of this study was to assess CD63 expression in astrocytomas focusing on the prognostic potential of CD63 alone and in combination with TIMP-1. METHODS: CD63 expression was investigated immunohistochemically in a cohort of 111 astrocytomas and correlated to tumor grade and overall survival by semi-quantitative scoring...
March 9, 2018: BMC Cancer
Akane Suzuki, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Soko Ikuta, Mikhail Chernov, Manabu Tamura, Takakazu Kawamata, Yoshihiro Muragaki
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was evaluation of the prognostic significance of DNA ploidy assessed with intraoperative flow cytometry (iFC) during resection of low-grade gliomas (LGG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 102 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed WHO grade II supratentorial gliomas, surgical removal of which was accompanied by iFC, was done. There were 46 diffuse astrocytomas (DA) and 56 oligodendrogliomas (OD). According to iFC, 68 tumors (67%) were considered non-aneuploid and 34 (33%) aneuploid...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
José E Velázquez Vega, Daniel J Brat
Recent advances in molecular pathology have reshaped the practice of brain tumor diagnostics. The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations. Whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion in conjunction with IDH mutations now define oligodendrogliomas, which are also enriched for CIC, FUBP1, PI3K, NOTCH1, and TERT-p mutations...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Haesu Lee Motoyama, Sohsuke Yamada, Satoko Nakada, Nozomu Kurose, Akihide Tanimoto
Optic nerve pilocytic astrocytoma is an uncommon but well-known entity; however, intraorbital ancient pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic nerve is extremely rarely reported. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed description regarding the intraorbital ancient pilocytic astrocytoma, reported in available English literature, to date. We presented an extremely unusual neurofibromatosis type 1 case of a 17-year-old male's sudden ocular pain secondary to intraorbital pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic nerve with markedly cystic degeneration, fluid production, and hemorrhage, due to ancient and possibly ruptured glioma...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Yuan-Chung Tsai, Priya Vijayaraghavan, Wen-Hsuan Chiang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Te-I Liu, Ming-Yin Shen, Ayumu Omoto, Masao Kamimura, Kohei Soga, Hsin-Cheng Chiu
Therapeutic efficacy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is often severely limited by poor penetration of therapeutics through blood-brain barrier (BBB) into brain tissues and lack of tumor targeting. In this regard, a functionalized upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-based delivery system which can target brain tumor and convert deep tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light into visible light for precise phototherapies on brain tumor was developed in this work. Methods : The UCNP-based phototherapy delivery system was acquired by assembly of oleic acid-coated UCNPs with angiopep-2/cholesterol-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) and the hydrophobic photosensitizers...
2018: Theranostics
Laura Milanese, Chiara Martini, Carla Scaroni, Francesca Dassie, Filippo Ceccato, Alessandro Della Puppa, Luca Denaro, Giulia Bommarito, Valentina Citton, Mario Ermani, Pietro Maffei, Renzo Manara
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy (RT) effectiveness on hormonal reduction is proven in acromegaly; however, collateral long-term effects are still undetermined. This transversal neuroimaging study on a large cohort of acromegalic patients aimed to investigate the rate of parenchymal and vascular changes after RT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six acromegalic patients underwent RT (RT+) after unsuccessful surgery and were compared to RT- acromegalic patients matched for age, gender, adenoma features, clinical and surgical history...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Bing Wen, Feixian Fu, Liangbo Hu, Qiuyi Cai, Junshi Xie
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to clarify the association between subventricular zone (SVZ) involvement and velocity of diametric expansion(VDE) in patients with low-grade astrocytoma and also assessed the clinical outcome of those patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 168 adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial low-grade astrocytoma were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: There were 73 patients had SVZ involvement. Patients with SVZ involvement(7...
February 25, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Aurore Bussat, Maia Proisy, Bertrand Bruneau, Guillaume Bouzillé, Céline Chappé, Laurent Riffaud
OBJECTIVE Tumor-related edema of the optic tract (EOT) corresponds to a preferential posterior distribution of peritumoral edema along the white matter tract of the visual system. To date, the consequences of EOT have never been evaluated specifically in the pediatric population. In this study, the authors attempted to identify clinical and radiological features associated with the development of EOT and the specific influence of this edema on visual function. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of data collected from patients younger than 18 years who underwent surgery for a tumor in the sellar region at the authors' institution between January 2005 and January 2016...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Lu Yang, Fang Niu, Honghong Yao, Ke Liao, Xufeng Chen, Yeonhee Kook, Rong Ma, Guoku Hu, Shilpa Buch
Chronic neuroinflammation still remains a common underlying feature of HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Previous studies have reported that despite near complete suppression of virus replication by cART, cytotoxic viral proteins such as HIV trans-activating regulatory protein (Tat) continue to persist in tissues such as the brain and the lymph nodes, thereby contributing, in part, to chronic glial activation observed in HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). Understanding how the glial cells cross talk to mediate neuropathology is thus of paramount importance...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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