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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350405/reactive-oxygen-species-induced-parthanatos-of-immunocytes-by-human-cytomegalovirus-associated-substance
#1
Jung Heon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Jin Roh, Chan-Sik Park, Ju-Young Seoh, Eung-Soo Hwang
Previous studies examined various immune evasion strategies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to understand HCMV pathogenesis. Although the mechanism that underlies immunocyte destruction near HCMV-infected lesions has yet to be established, we show that substances produced by HCMV-infected cells induce death in several types of immunocytes, but not in fibroblasts or astrocytomas. These substances contain HCMV proteins and were termed HCMV-associated insoluble substance (HCMVAIS). We characterized this mechanism of cell death induced by HCMVAIS to understand the death of immunocytes near HCMV-infected lesions...
January 19, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344216/hypermethylation-downregulates-p2x7-receptor-expression-in-astrocytoma
#2
Jing Liu, Ningning Li, Ruofan Sheng, Rui Wang, Zude Xu, Ying Mao, Yin Wang, Ying Liu
The present study investigated the altered expression of p2X purinoceptor (P2X7R) in astrocytoma. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to determine the P2X7R expression in glioblastoma (GBM) and surrounding normal brain tissue. DNA methylation levels of P2X7R gene promoter in GBM were analyzed using a Sequenom MassARRAY® System. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of P2X7R in astrocytoma at different malignancy grades, including diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and GBM...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335518/recurrence-patterns-after-maximal-surgical-resection-and-postoperative-radiotherapy-in-anaplastic-gliomas-according-to-the-new-2016-who-classification
#3
Jung Ho Im, Je Beom Hong, Se Hoon Kim, Junjeong Choi, Jong Hee Chang, Jaeho Cho, Chang-Ok Suh
We assessed the appropriateness of current radiotherapy volume for WHO grade III gliomas. The records of 73 patients with WHO grade III gliomas who received postoperative radiotherapy between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the 2016 WHO classification, 25/73 (34.2%) patients had anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted; 11/73 (15.1%) patients had anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant; and 37/73 (50.7%) patients had anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype. The extent of resection (EOR) was total in 43 patients (58...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333049/marine-derived-fungi-extracts-enhance-the-cytotoxic-activity-of-doxorubicin-in-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-cells-a459
#4
Bruno Castro-Carvalho, Alice A Ramos, Maria Prata-Sena, Fernanda Malhão, Márcia Moreira, Daniela Gargiulo, Tida Dethoup, Suradet Buttachon, Anake Kijjoa, Eduardo Rocha
Background: Drug resistance is a major concern in the current chemotherapeutic approaches and the combination with natural compounds may enhance the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs. Therefore, this study evaluated the cytotoxicity of crude ethyl extracts of six marine-derived fungi - Neosartorya tsunodae KUFC 9213 (E1), Neosartorya laciniosa KUFC 7896 (E2), Neosartorya fischeri KUFC 6344 (E3), Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013 (E4), Neosartorya paulistensis KUFC 7894 (E5), and Talaromyces trachyspermum KUFC 0021 (E6) - when combined with doxorubicin (Dox), in seven human cancer cell lines...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328863/overexpression-of-mtor-and-p-240-244-s6-in-idh1-wild-type-human-glioblastomas-is-predictive-of-low-survival
#5
Luis Eduardo Machado, Arthur William Alvarenga, Fernanda Ferreira da Silva, Martín Roffé, Maria Dirlei Begnami, Luís Fernando Bleggi Torres, Isabela Werneck da Cunha, Vilma Regina Martins, Glaucia Noeli Maroso Hajj
PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation is a hallmark of high-grade gliomas, which prompted clinical trials for the use of PI3K and mTOR inhibitors. However, the poor results in the original trials suggested that better patient profiling was needed for such drugs. Thus, accurate and reproducible monitoring of mTOR complexes can lead to improved therapeutic strategies. In this work, we evaluated the expression and phosphorylation of mTOR, RAPTOR, and rpS6 in 195 human astrocytomas and 30 normal brain tissue samples...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325254/-hemangioma-arising-in-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytoma-report-of-a-case
#6
D Y Chen, X Y Liu, S Zhang, X L Li, S S Cai, X F Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318454/gl261-glioma-tumor-cells-respond-to-atp-with-an-intracellular-calcium-rise-and-glutamate-release
#7
Averey D Strong, M Caitlin Indart, Nolan R Hill, Richard L Daniels
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with an average survival rate of 15 months. The composition of the GBM tumor microenvironment-its pH, the presence of growth and immune factors, neurotransmitters, and gliotransmitters-plays an important role in GBM pathophysiology and facilitates tumor survival and growth. In particular, GBM tumor cells produce glutamate, which is toxic to healthy tissue and is associated with increased tumor invasion into adjacent brain regions. The conditions that lead to this excitotoxic release of glutamate are not completely understood...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309983/interaction-between-the-contributions-of-tumor-location-tumor-grade-and-patient-age-to-the-survival-benefit-associated-with-gross-total-resection-gtr
#8
Kate T Carroll, Alex K Bryant, Brian Hirshman, Ali A Alattar, Rushikesh Joshi, Brandon Gabel, Bob S Carter, Olivier Harismendy, Florin Vaida, Clark C Chen
BACKGROUND: Gross total resection (GTR) in glioblastoma (GB) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) patients is associated with improved survival. Here, we examine how this benefit is affected by tumor location, tumor grade, and age. METHODS: We selected patients in SEER with lobar AA or GB from 1999 to 2010. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We identified and studied 1,429 AA patients and 12,537 GB patients in the SEER database with lobar tumors...
January 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308612/stable-knockdown-of-adenosine-kinase-by-lentiviral-anti-adk-mir-shrnas-in-wharton-s-jelly-stem-cells
#9
Hajar Estiri, Ali Fallah, Masoud Soleimani, Abbas Aliaghaei, Fariba Karimzadeh, Shahnaz Babaei Abraki, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we describe an efficient approach for stable knockdown of adenosine kinase (ADK) using lentiviral system, in an astrocytoma cell line and in human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs). These sources of stem cells besides having multilineage differentiation potential and immunomodulatory activities, are easily available in unlimited numbers, do not raise ethical concerns and are attractive for gene manipulation and cell-based gene therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, we targeted adenosine kinase mRNA at 3' and performed coding sequences using eight miR-based expressing cassettes of anti-ADK short hairpin RNA (shRNAs)...
April 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308320/antigenic-expression-and-spontaneous-immune-responses-support-the-use-of-a-selected-peptide-set-from-the-ima950-glioblastoma-vaccine-for-immunotherapy-of-grade-ii-and-iii-glioma
#10
Valérie Dutoit, Denis Migliorini, Giulia Ranzanici, Eliana Marinari, Valérie Widmer, Johannes Alexander Lobrinus, Shahan Momjian, Joseph Costello, Paul R Walker, Hideho Okada, Toni Weinschenk, Christel Herold-Mende, Pierre-Yves Dietrich
Gliomas are lethal brain tumors that resist standard therapeutic approaches. Immunotherapy is a promising alternative strategy mostly developed in the context of glioblastoma. However, there is a need for implementing immunotherapy for grade II/III gliomas, as these are the most common CNS tumors in young adults with a high propensity for recurrence, making them lethal despite current treatments. We recently identified HLA-A2-restricted tumor-associated antigens by peptide elution from glioblastoma and formulated a multipeptide vaccine (IMA950) evaluated in phase I/II clinical trials with promising results...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299104/crossed-aphasia-in-a-patient-with-anaplastic-astrocytoma-of-the-non-dominant-hemisphere
#11
Stephanie Prater, Neil Anand, Lawrence Wei, Neil Horner
Aphasia describes a spectrum of speech impairments due to damage in the language centers of the brain. Insult to the inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant cerebral hemisphere results in Broca's aphasia - the inability to produce fluent speech. The left cerebral hemisphere has historically been considered the dominant side, a characteristic long presumed to be related to a person's "handedness". However, recent studies utilizing fMRI have shown that right hemispheric dominance occurs more frequently than previously proposed and despite a person's handedness...
September 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291009/mir-93-5p-enhances-growth-and-angiogenesis-capacity-of-huvecs-by-down-regulating-eplin
#12
Liang Liang, Lei Zhao, Ying Zan, Qing Zhu, Juan Ren, Xinhan Zhao
Tumor angiogenesis is essential in delivering oxygen and nutrients to growing tumors, and therefore considered as a hallmark of cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis. MicroRNA-93-5p (miR-93-5p) has been identified as an oncogenic miRNA in a variety of human malignancies and involved in tumor angiogenesis in astrocytoma. However, the direct effect(s) of miR-93-5p on the biological behaviors of endothelial cells have not been investigated. Thus, in the present study we investigated the role(s) of miR-93-5p in regulating the functions of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278012/pilocytic-astrocytoma-of-the-cerebellopontine-angle-mimicking-vestibular-schwannoma-report-of-a-rare-entity
#13
Gautam Dutta, Daljit Singh, Hukum Singh, Deepashu Sachdeva, Vikas Kumar, Ashutosh Chaturvedi
We present a rare case of a 55-yr old patient of pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebello-pontine angle mimicking a vestibular schwannoma. The tumor protruded into the porus acusticus causing enlargement of the internal auditory meatus, which is quite an unusual feature of glial tumours.
December 26, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277498/retinal-astrocytoma-regression-in-tuberous-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-everolimus
#14
Anat Bachar Zipori, Nasrin Tehrani, Asim Ali
Everolimus is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Retinal hamartomas, which are one of the major diagnostic features of TSC, tend to remain stable or gradually progress in the natural history of the disease. We report 2 patients with TSC treated with everolimus for SEGA in whom fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated regression of previously documented multiple retinal hamartomas in all 4 eyes...
December 19, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273633/otx1-regulates-cell-cycle-progression-of-neural-progenitors-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#15
Baoshan Huang, Xue Li, Xiaomeng Tu, Wei Zhao, Dan Zhu, Yue Feng, Xiang Si, Jie-Guang Chen
The progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex coordinate proliferation and mitotic exit to generate the correct number of neurons and glial cells during development. However, mechanisms for regulating the mitotic cycle of cortical progenitors are not fully understood. Otx1 is one of the homeobox-containing transcription factors frequently implicated in the development of the central nervous system. Mice bearing a targeted deletion of Otx1 exhibit brain hypoplasia and a decrease in the number of cortical neurons...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259541/connexin43-containing-gap-junction-channels-facilitate-hiv-bystander-toxicity-implications-in-neurohiv
#16
Shaily Malik, Martin Theis, Eliseo A Eugenin
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection compromises the central nervous system (CNS) in a significant number of infected individuals, resulting in neurological dysfunction that ranges from minor cognitive deficits to frank dementia. While macrophages/microglia are the predominant CNS cells infected by HIV, our laboratory and others have shown that HIV-infected astrocytes, although present in relatively low numbers with minimal to undetectable viral replication, play key role in NeuroAIDS pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258767/immunohistochemical-comparative-analysis-of-gfap-map-2-nogo-a-olig-2-and-wt-1-expression-in-who-2016-classified-neuroepithelial-tumours-and-their-prognostic-value
#17
David Emanuel Schwab, Guilherme Lepski, Christian Borchers, Katrin Trautmann, Frank Paulsen, Jens Schittenhelm
Immunohistochemistry is routinely used in differential diagnosis of tumours of the central nervous system (CNS). The latest 2016 WHO 2016 revision now includes molecular data such as IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion thus restructuring glioma classification. Direct comparative information between commonly used immunohistochemical markers for glial tumours GFAP, MAP - 2, NOGO - A, OLIG - 2 and WT - 1 concerning quality and quantity of expression and their relation to the new molecular markers are lacking. We therefore compared the immunohistochemical staining results of all five antibodies in 34 oligodendrogliomas, 106 ependymomas and 423 astrocytic tumours...
December 14, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258490/cytotoxic-antioxidative-genotoxic-and-antigenotoxic-effects-of-horchata-beverage-of-south-ecuador
#18
Natalia Bailon-Moscoso, Fani Tinitana, Ruth Martínez-Espinosa, Andrea Jaramillo-Velez, Alejandra Palacio-Arpi, Jessica Aguilar-Hernandez, Juan Carlos Romero-Benavides
BACKGROUND: "Horchata" is an herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador; 66% of its plants are anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, and 51% are analgesics. Anti-inflammatory substances can prevent carcinogenesis mediated by cytotoxic effects and can prevent DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptotic/antigenotoxic effects of horchata as well as its mechanism. METHODS: Nine different varieties of horchata were prepared in the traditional way and then freeze-dried...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245912/combination-of-aqp1-and-%C3%AE-catenin-expression-is-an-independent-prognosis-factor-in-astrocytoma-patients
#19
Huikun Zhang, Fengxia Qin, Limin Yang, Jia He, Xiaoli Liu, Ying Shao, Zhifang Guo, Ming Zhang, Wenliang Li, Li Fu, Feng Gu, Yongjie Ma
Previous research usually focused on single protein or gene in tumor development, actually highly heterogeneous nature and different signaling pathways largely contribute to tumor progression and tumor patients' outcomes. Therefore, using combinatorial biomarkers to evaluate the prognostic features and guide management is gradually accepted and urgently needed. β-catenin is a well-known crucial factor in astrocytoma progression and it is involved in aquaporin1 (AQP1) mediated cell migration. In this study, we revealed the function of AQP1 in astrocytoma progression and provided the first clinical evidence that AQP1 expression was positively correlated with β-catenin...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244617/differentiation-of-high-grade-from-low-grade-astrocytoma-improvement-in-diagnostic-accuracy-and-reliability-of-pharmacokinetic-parameters-from-dce-mr-imaging-by-using-arterial-input-functions-obtained-from-dsc-mr-imaging
#20
Sung-Hye You, Seung Hong Choi, Tae Min Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Sung-Hye Park, Jae-Kyung Won, Il Han Kim, Soon Tae Lee, Hye Jeong Choi, Roh-Eul Yoo, Koung Mi Kang, Tae Jin Yun, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn
Purpose To evaluate whether arterial input functions (AIFs) derived from dynamic susceptibility-contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, or AIFDSC values, improve diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging for differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas, compared with AIFs obtained from DCE MR imaging (AIFDCE). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 226 patients (138 men, 88 women; mean age, 52...
December 15, 2017: Radiology
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