Read by QxMD icon Read


Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common type of primary brain tumor. It has a devastating prognosis with a 2-year-overall survival rate of only 26 % after standard treatment, which includes surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Also lower grade gliomas are difficult to treat, because they diffusely spread into the brain, where extensive removal of tissue is critical. Better understanding of the cancer's biology is a key for the development of more effective therapy approaches...
October 17, 2016: Amino Acids
Marios K Georgakis, Maria A Karalexi, Eleni I Kalogirou, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Evdoxia Bouka, Charis Bourgioti, Helen Dana, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Moschovi, Savvas Papadopoulos, Georgios Sfakianos, Evgenia Papakonstantinou, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Spyros Sgouros, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Katerina Strantzia, Basilios Zountsas, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eustratios Patsouris, Eleni Th Petridou
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) comprise the most common childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Exploiting registry-based data from Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) and SEER, US, we opted to examine incidence, time trends, survival and tentative outcome disparities of childhood PA by sociodemographic and clinical features. Childhood PA were retrieved from 12 SEE registries (N = 552; 1983-2014) and SEER (N = 2723; 1973-2012). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were estimated and survival was examined via Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
James A McCracken, Michael F Gonzales, Pramit M Phal, Katharine J Drummond
Angiocentric glioma (AG) is a low grade glioma, that was first described in 2002. Since this description, 83 patients with AG have been described, including ours. AG typically presents in childhood with medically refractory seizures that are cured with gross surgical resection. Whilst the natural history is that of a benign tumour, there have been reports of recurrence, transformation, and malignant features that suggest that AG is potentially malignant. We add to the literature a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented in May 2011 with a 3-month history of complex partial seizures, with MRI showing a T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in the left insula and inferior frontal lobe...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
John Y-K Lee, Jayesh P Thawani, John Pierce, Ryan Zeh, Maria Martinez-Lage, Michelle Chanin, Ollin Venegas, Sarah Nims, Kim Learned, Jane Keating, Sunil Singhal
BACKGROUND: Although real-time localization of gliomas has improved with intraoperative image guidance systems, these tools are limited by brain shift, surgical cavity deformation, and expense. OBJECTIVE: To propose a novel method to perform near-infrared (NIR) imaging during glioma resections based on preclinical and clinical investigations, in order to localize tumors and to potentially identify residual disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients were identified and administered a Food and Drug Administration-approved, NIR contrast agent (Second Window indocyanine green [ICG], 5 mg/kg) before surgical resection...
October 11, 2016: Neurosurgery
Heather Marion Ames, Ming Yuan, Maria Adelita Vizcaíno, Wayne Yu, Fausto J Rodriguez
Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas and glioneuronal tumors represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression/translation that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing, and have an important role in cancer, including brain tumors...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Jasna Jančić, Vesna Đurić, Nikola Ivančević, Blažo Nikolić, John N van den Anker, Janko Samardžić
The serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important sensor of the cellular energy condition which, at the same time, represents a kind of master switch between anabolic and catabolic cellular processes. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease which is considered to be a prototype of a dysregulated mTOR signaling pathway. The dysregulated mTOR pathway in TSC leads to characteristic structural and physiologic abnormalities in multiple organs. In this review we focus on the pharmacological properties of mTOR inhibitors and clinical investigations of mTOR inhibitors for two important neurological TSC manifestations: subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) and epilepsy...
October 12, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Chiara Santulli, Claudia Brizi, Matteo Micucci, Ambra Del Genio, Assunta De Cristofaro, Federica Bracco, Giuseppina Lucia Pepe, Ilaria Di Perna, Roberta Budriesi, Alberto Chiarini, Maria Frosini
Ischemic brain injury is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The use of one-drug-multi-target agents based on natural compounds is a promising therapeutic option for cerebral ischemia due to their pleiotropic properties. This study assessed the neuroprotective properties of Castanea sativa Mill. bark extract (ENC) in human astrocytoma U-373 MG cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion and rat cortical slices subjected to ischemia-like conditions or treated with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ruth Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Juan Manuel Rodríguez-Corona, Javier Enrique López-Aguilar, Marco Antonio Rodríguez-Florido, Ana Claudia Velázquez-Wong, Rubí Viedma-Rodríguez, Fabio Salamanca-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Velázquez-Flores
Expression changes for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in adult glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and in a mixture of adult and pediatric astrocytoma. Since adult and pediatric astrocytomas are molecularly different, the mixture of both could mask specific features in each. We determined the global expression patterns of lncRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNAs) in pediatric astrocytoma of different histological grades. Transcript expression changes were determined with an HTA 2.0 array. lncRNA interactions with microRNAs and mRNAs were predicted by using an algorithm and the LncTar tool, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Tomokazu Aoki, Yoshiki Arakawa, Tetsuya Ueba, Masashi Oda, Namiko Nishida, Yukinori Akiyama, Tetsuya Tsukahara, Koichi Iwasaki, Nobuhiro Mikuni, Susumu Miyamoto
The objective of this phase I/II study was to examine the efficacy and toxicity profile of temozolomide (TMZ) plus nimustine (ACNU). Patients who had received a standard radiotherapy with one or two previous chemo-regimens were enrolled. In phase I, the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) by TMZ (150 mg/m(2)/day) (Day 1-5) plus various doses of ACNU (30, 35, 40, 45 mg/m(2)/day) (Day 15) per 4 weeks was defined on a standard 3 + 3 design. In phase II, these therapeutic activity and safety of this regimen were evaluated...
October 11, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Yuqiao Xu, Lijuan Ye, Yingmei Wang, Wanling Ma, Qing Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Pierre O Fiset, Adam M Fontebasso, Nicolas De Jay, Tenzin Gayden, Hamid Nikbakht, Jacek Majewski, Nada Jabado, Steffen Albrecht
A cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) in a child recurred first with a PA histology and then with features of a ganglioglioma (GG). Molecular genetic analyses of the tumors confirmed a BRAF V600E mutation in all. They also all harbored a T202M mutation in ERK1, a kinase downstream of BRAF that is implicated in glial versus neuronal differentiation. The GG sample contained several variants that were not present in the PA samples; in particular, it had a truncating mutation in MAP2. These findings not only underscore the role of BRAF as oncogenic driver but also suggest that other genes may influence tumor morphology...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Brenda Marquina-Sánchez, Jesús González-Jorge, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Talia Wegman-Ostrosky, Noemi Baranda-Ávila, Sonia Mejía-Pérez, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Aliesha González-Arenas
Intracellular progesterone receptors (PRs) and protein kinases C (PKCs) are known regulators of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Both PRs and PKCs are found overexpressed in grade IV human astrocytomas, also known as glioblastomas, which are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In the present study, we investigated whether PR activation by PKC induces the migration and invasion of glioblastoma derived cell lines and if PKCα and δ isoforms are involved in PR activation. We observed that PKC activation with tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) increases the migration and invasion capacity of two glioblastoma derived human cell lines (U251 MG and U87) and that the treatment with the PR receptor antagonist RU486 blocks these processes...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Veronica Villani, Roberta Merola, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Mariantonia Carosi, Diana Giannarelli, Laura Marucci, Marta Maschio, Carmine M Carapella, Andrea Pace
PURPOSE: To explore the efficacy and toxicity of an extended schedule of temozolomide (50 mg/mq 1 week on/1 week off) in a population of newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas (LGG). METHODS: Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) at 12 and 24 months and response rate evaluated with Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Criteria. Secondary endpoints were clinical benefit (reduction of seizures frequency), reduction of steroid, and modifications of Karnofsky Performance Status...
September 22, 2016: Tumori
Tong Ren, Shide Lin, Zhongfeng Wang, Aijia Shang
Astrocytoma is one of the most common types of brain tumor, which is histologically and clinically classified into four grades (I-IV): I (pilocytic astrocytoma), II (diffuse astrocytoma), III (anaplastic astrocytoma), and IV (glioblastoma multiforme). A higher grade astrocytoma represents a worse prognosis and is more aggressive. In this study, we compared the differential proteome profile of astrocytoma from grades I to IV. The protein samples from clinical specimens of grades I, II, III, and IV astrocytoma were analyzed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and quantification...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Hirofumi Masutomi, Saki Kawashima, Yoshitaka Kondo, Yoshiaki Uchida, Byungki Jang, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Yong-Sun Kim, Kentaro Shimokado, Akihito Ishigami
Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are posttranslational modification enzymes that citrullinate (deiminate) protein arginine residues in a calcium-dependent manner, yielding citrulline residues. Enzymatic citrullination abolishes positive charges of native protein molecules, inevitably causing significant alterations in their structure and function. Previously, we reported the abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and an increase of PAD2 content in hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer disease. In this study, we investigated PAD expression by using dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) in human astrocytoma U-251MG cells...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Samy L Habib, Noor Y Al-Obaidi, Maciej Nowacki, Katarzyna Pietkun, Barbara Zegarska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Wojciech Zegarski, Tomasz Drewa, Edward A Medina, Zhenze Zhao, Sitai Liang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant and multi-system genetic disorder in humans. TSC affects around 25,000 to 40,000 individuals in the United States and about 1 to 2 million individuals worldwide, with an estimated prevalence of one in 6,000 newborns. TSC occurs in all races and ethnic groups, and in both genders. TSC is caused by defects or mutations in two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Loss of TSC1/TSC2 leads to dysregulation of mTOR, resulting in aberrant cell differentiation and development, and abnormal enlargement of cells...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Sara Giovanna Romeo, Alfredo Conti, Francesca Polito, Chiara Tomasello, Valeria Barresi, Domenico La La Torre, Maria Cucinotta, Flavio Filippo Angileri, Marcello Bartolotta, Rosa Maria Di Giorgio, M'Hammed Aguennouz
Sirtuins are a family of 7 histone deacetylases largely involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and death. The role of sirtuins in tumorigenesis and cancer progression has been previously studied in certain cancer types. Few studies have investigated sirtuin expression in gliomas, with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) in diffuse astrocytoma [low grade astrocytoma (LGA)], anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and in primary glioma cell lines: PLGAC (primary LGA cells); PAAC (primary AA cells); and PGBMC (primary GBM cells)...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Hong-Jiang Li, Hong-Xiu Han, Dong-Fu Feng
Reports describing a rapid increase in the cystic volume of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a short time frame are rare. The present study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who was admitted to the No. 9 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China), with a small cystic brain lesion and positive immunological testing for cysticercosis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic lesion, 6 mm in diameter, in the left frontal lobe. Neurocysticercosis was suspected and the patient was treated with a clinical trial of albendazole and steroids...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Wen-Juan Huang, Wei-Wei Chen, Xia Zhang
Central nervous system-based cancers have a much higher mortality rate with the 2016 estimates at 6.4 for incidence and 4.3 for deaths per 100,000 individuals. Grade IV astrocytomas, known as glioblastomas are highly aggressive and show a high proliferation index, diffused infiltration, angiogenesis, microvascular proliferation and pleomorphic vessels, resistance to apoptosis, and pseudopalisading necrosis. Extensive hypoxic regions in glioblastomas contribute to the highly malignant phenotype of these tumors...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Jitendra G Nasit, Payal Shah, Himanshu Zalawadia
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) is an uncommon mixed glioneuronal tumour. DNET is classified as Grade I neoplasm in revised World Health Organization classification of tumors of the nervous system. DNET is commonly seen in the temporal lobe of children and young adults with features of pharmacoresistant complex partial seizures. Tumors arising in association with DNETs are rare. Only two cases of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) arising in DNETs are reported. Surgical excision is the only successful management with favourable prognosis...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"