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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214203/prognostic-value-of-survivin-and-dna-topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-in-diffuse-and-anaplastic-astrocytomas
#1
R K Varughese, A J Skjulsvik, S H Torp
Distinguishing WHO grade II astrocytomas from grade III is a difficult task. This study looks into the potential prognostic use of mitotic activity and the proliferation markers Ki67/MiB-1 (Ki67), survivin and DNA topoisomerase IIα (TIIα) in 59 WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas (DA) and 33 WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), IDH1 R132H-mutated and not otherwise specified (NOS) by means of immunohistochemistry. All proliferation markers showed higher expression in AA compared with DA. Only Ki67 had significantly greater expression in astrocytomas, NOS vs...
January 21, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212424/risk-factors-for-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-children-new-findings-from-a-case-control-study
#2
Rebeca Ramis, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Diana Gómez-Barroso, Gonzalo López-Abente, Antonio Morales-Piga, Elena Pardo Romaguera, Nuria Aragonés, Javier García-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tumors (CNS) are the most frequent solid tumor in children. Causes of CNS tumors are mainly unknown and only 5% of the cases can be explained by genetic predisposition. We studied the effects of environmental exposure on the incidence of CNS tumors in children by subtype, according to exposure to industrial and/or urban environment, exposure to crops and according to socio-economic status of the child. METHODS: We carried out a population-based case-control study of CNS tumors in Spain, covering 714 incident cases collected from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (period 1996-2011) and 4284 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211632/amp-activated-protein-kinase-activator-a-769662-increases-intracellular-calcium-and-atp-release-from-astrocytes-in-an-ampk-independent-manner
#3
Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Josephine L Robb, Ana M Cruz, Amrinder Malhi, Paul G Weightman Potter, Michael L J Ashford, Rory J McCrimmon, Kate L J Ellacott, Craig Beall
AIM: Astrocytes are the main sources of extracellular ATP (eATP) within the brain, which functions as a gliotransmitter, capable of modulating neuronal and astrocytic activity. These cells play an important role in regulating energy homeostasis partly via astrocyte-derived ATP. Given the role of AMPK in regulating intracellular ATP levels, we hypothesised that AMPK may alter ATP release from astrocytes. METHODS: Measurements of ATP release were made from human U373 astrocytoma cells, primary mouse hypothalamic (HTAS) and cortical astrocytes (CRTAS) and wild type and AMPK α1/α2 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209310/paradoxical-ventriculomegaly-due-to-low-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-rare-complication-of-the-treatment-of-a-trapped-fourth-ventricle-case-report
#4
Neelan J Marianayagam, Netanel Ben Shalom, Saeed Yassin, Shalom Michowiz, Sagi Harnof, Gustavo Rajz
In this paper, we describe the rare phenomena of descending transtentorial herniation and paradoxical ventriculomegaly due to low pressure hydrocephalus. This resulted as a complication of treatment in a 14year old male patient, who had undergone multiple ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placements for hydrocephalus after resection of pilocytic astrocytoma. We discuss the etiology of this rare complication and our strategy for treatment. We emphasize the need for strategic placement of programmable shunts to avoid over shunting and associated complications such as tentorial herniation...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204809/ketamine-suppresses-the-substance-p-induced-production-of-il-6-and-il-8-by-human-u373mg-glioblastoma-astrocytoma-cells
#5
Keisuke Yamaguchi, Seiichiro Kumakura, Taisuke Murakami, Akimasa Someya, Eiichi Inada, Isao Nagaoka
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an important mediator of neurogenic inflammation within the central and peripheral nervous systems. SP has been shown to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders of the human brain via the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, functions as a competitive antagonist of the excitatory neurotransmission N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and also antagonizes the NK-1R by interfering with the binding of SP...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203158/a-28-year-old-male-patient-with-nail-tumors-skin-lesions-and-epilepsy
#6
Deepak M W Balak, Bernard A Zonnenberg, Juliette M J Spitzer-Naaijkens, Mieke M Hulshof
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. METHODS: We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. RESULTS: Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch...
January 2017: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202028/management-of-everolimus-associated-adverse-events-in-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-a-practical-guide
#7
REVIEW
Mark Davies, Anurag Saxena, John C Kingswood
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterised by highly variable comorbid dysfunction and subsequent morbidity. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus is indicated for the treatment of adult TSC patients with renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and for subependymal giant astrocytoma (SEGA) in both adults and children, based on data from the EXIST-1 and EXIST-2 trials. However, due to the historical predominance of everolimus in the oncology setting, some physicians who treat TSC patients may be unfamiliar with everolimus-associated adverse events (AEs) and appropriate management strategies...
February 15, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196488/application-of-fluorescein-sodium-in-the-resection-of-vermis-pilocytic-astrocytomas
#8
Ji Zhang, Fuad Al-Nahari, Zi-Feng Wang, Fu-Hua Lin, Yi-Yin Zhao, Shi-Yin Xiao, Jian-Min Liu, Chao Ke, Zheng-He Chen, Yu Jiang, Men Yang, Ke Sai, Jian Wang, Yong-Gao Mou
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are slow growing neoplasms and usually located at the cerebellum. There has been certainty regarding the truthful benefit of surgical resection for patients with PA. Gross total resection (GTR) of PAs, especially those being situated in deep regions, remains a surgical challenge. Generally, they are considered as benign and usually develop in young patients. PAs, belonging to WHO I can be cured by radical resection. The patients with PA have excellent prognosis if complete resection can be conducted...
February 14, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193095/intraocular-ependymoma-with-blood-filled-spaces
#9
Aditi Dewan, Ravindra Kumar Saran, Smriti Nagpal Gupta, Deepanjali Arya, Ruchi Goel
Intraocular glial lesions are rare and include retinal gliosis, hamartomas, and astrocytomas and rarely ependymomas. Ependymomas are slow-growing glial tumors preferentially arising in the central nervous system (CNS), occasionally presenting at sites outside the CNS, with only 2 cases of primary retinal ependymoma reported till date. We report herein the third such case of a 20-year-old male who presented with a painful blind eye. The enucleated specimen showed presence of a glial tumor with cells arranged in sheets as well as few true rosettes and pseudo-rosettes and an immunohistochemical profile similar to a classical ependymoma at usual sites in the CNS...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191774/novel-peripherally-derived-neural-like-stem-cells-as-therapeutic-carriers-for-treating-glioblastomas
#10
Alexander Birbrair, Anirudh Sattiraju, Dongqin Zhu, Gilberto Zulato, Izadora Batista, Van T Nguyen, Maria Laura Messi, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Frank C Marini, Osvaldo Delbono, Akiva Mintz
Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor characterized by extensive invasiveness, heterogeneity, and angiogenesis. Standard treatment options such as radiation and chemotherapy have proven to be only marginally effective in treating GBM because of its invasive nature. Therefore, extensive efforts have been put forth to develop tumor-tropic stem cells as viable therapeutic vehicles with potential to treat even the most invasive tumor cells that are harbored within areas of normal brain...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187964/brain-perfusion-and-diffusion-abnormalities-in-children-treated-for-posterior-fossa-brain-tumors
#11
Matthew D Li, Nils D Forkert, Palak Kundu, Cheryl Ambler, Robert M Lober, Terry C Burns, Patrick D Barnes, Iris C Gibbs, Gerald A Grant, Paul G Fisher, Samuel H Cheshier, Cynthia J Campen, Michelle Monje, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE: To compare cerebral perfusion and diffusion in survivors of childhood posterior fossa brain tumor with neurologically normal controls and correlate differences with cognitive dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed retrospectively arterial spin-labeled cerebral blood flow (CBF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 21 patients with medulloblastoma (MB), 18 patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and 64 neurologically normal children. We generated ANCOVA models to evaluate treatment effects on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and cerebral white matter at time points an average of 5...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185325/a-case-of-high-grade-astrocytoma-with-braf-and-atrx-mutations-following-a-long-standing-course-over-two-decades
#12
Satoshi Nakata 中田 聡, Keishi Horiguchi, Shogo Ishiuchi, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Seiji Yamada, Sumihito Nobusawa, Hayato Ikota, Junko Hirato, Hideaki Yokoo
Pediatric high-grade gliomas are rare and occasionally hard to classify. These tumors often feature a well-demarcated histology and are expected to have a better outcome than ordinary diffuse high-grade gliomas in adults. We herein report a case of circumscribed high-grade glioma that showed a distinct molecular profile and followed an excellent course for 26 years. The patient, a 3-year-old boy at onset, presented with a contrast-enhancing mass in the right temporal lobe and underwent resection. Histologically, the tumor mainly consisted of compact bundles of GFAP-positive spindle cells...
February 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180935/clinicopathological-features-and-microsurgical-outcomes-for-giant-pediatric-intracranial-tumor-in-60-consecutive-cases
#13
Ailing Guo, Vigneyshwar Suresh, Xianzhi Liu, Fuyou Guo
PURPOSE: Giant pediatric intracranial tumor (GPIT) remains to be a challenging disease with high morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The clinical data of 60 patients under 18 years of age operated on with GPIT (≥5 cm in diameter) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Gross total resection was achieved in 46 cases (77%) and subtotal resection was obtained in 14 cases (23%). Ninety percent (47/52) of the cases with obstructive hydrocephalus were resolved remarkably and only 10% (5/52) of the patients needed a ventriculoperitoneal shunt after tumor resection...
February 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179461/-11-c-pbr28-pet-detects-translocator-protein-in-a-patient-with-astrocytoma-and-alzheimer-disease
#14
William C Kreisl, Robin Lawrence, Emily Page, Andrew F Teich, Deepa S Subramaniam, Robert B Innis, R Scott Turner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175463/142%C3%A2-genetic-and-nongenetic-determinants-of-cellular-architecture-in-idh1-mutant-oligodendrogliomas-and-astrocytomas-using-single-cell-transcriptome-analysis
#15
Andrew Sean Venteicher, Itay Tirosh, Christine Hebert, Leah Escalante, Robert L Martuza, Brian V Nahed, William T Curry, Daniel P Cahill, Bradley Bernstein, David N Louis, Aviv Regev, Mario Suva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173580/multifocal-intradural-extramedullary-pilocytic-astrocytomas-of-the-spinal-cord-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Azam Basheer, Richard Rammo, Steven Kalkanis, Michelle M Felicella, Mokbel Chedid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168193/proliferative-and-invasive-effects-of-progesterone-induced-blocking-factor-in-human-glioblastoma-cells
#17
Araceli Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) is a progesterone (P4) regulated protein expressed in different types of high proliferative cells including astrocytomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. It has been shown that PIBF increases the number of human astrocytoma cells. In this work, we evaluated PIBF regulation by P4 and the effects of PIBF on proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, both derived from human glioblastomas. PIBF mRNA expression was upregulated by P4 (10 nM) from 12 to 24 h...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167531/adenosine-deaminase-that-acts-on-rna-3-adar3-binding-to-glutamate-receptor-subunit-b-pre-mrna-inhibits-rna-editing-in-glioblastoma
#18
Eimile Oakes, Ashley Anderson, Aaron Cohen-Gadol, Heather A Hundley
RNA editing is a cellular process that precisely alters nucleotide sequences, thus regulating gene expression and generating protein diversity. Over 60% of human transcripts undergo adenosine to inosine RNA editing and editing is required for normal development and proper neuronal function of animals. Editing of one adenosine in the transcript encoding the glutamate receptor subunit B, GRIA2, modifies a codon replacing the genomically encoded glutamine (Q) with arginine (R); thus this editing site is referred to as the Q/R site...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163525/synchronous-pediatric-supratentorial-glioblastoma-multiforme-with-noncontiguous-infratentorial-pilocytic-astrocytoma-a-rare-event
#19
Jitender Chaturvedi, Bevinahalli N Nandeesh, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Anita Mahadevan, S Sampath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163514/pilocytic-midbrain-astrocytoma-presenting-with-fresh-bleed-after-twenty-one-years-survival-following-first-surgery-a-unique-case-of-longest-brainstem-glioma-survival
#20
Guru Dutta Satyarthee, M D Sudhan, V S Mehta
Brainstem glioma usually carries a poor prognosis and prolonged survival is very infrequent. In a detailed Pubmed, Medline search for prolonged survival, authors could got a longest survival only up to seventeen years, reported by Umehara et al, who was subjected to gamma knife therapy and got symptomatic, MRI brain reveled large tumor growth during pregnancy necessitating emergency surgery and histopathological diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma. Authors report an interesting case of midbrain glioma diagnosed 21 years back, who underwent gross resection in the year 1993, histopathology was pilocytic astrocytoma, WHO grade I, and received gamma knife surgery for residual subsequently and he presented with sudden onset left sided hemiplegia on the current admission...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
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