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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143922/pre-treatment-lymphopenia-and-indication-of-tumor-induced-systemic-immunosuppression-in-medulloblastoma
#1
Seema Patel, Shiyang Wang, Matija Snuderl, Matthias A Karajannis
The presence of tumor-induced systemic immune suppression, including lymphopenia, has been recognized in adult patients with glioblastoma for several decades, and pre-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) is associated with inferior clinical outcome in patients with glioblastoma. Whether tumor-induced systemic immune suppression is also present in children with malignant brain tumors is not known. We performed a retrospective analysis of pretreatment neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) compared to a control group of children with posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma (PA)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142892/evaluation-of-mir-362-expression-in-astrocytoma-of-human-brain-tumors
#2
Majid Kheirollahi, Mahdiye Moodi, Saeideh Ashouri, Parvaneh Nikpour, Mohammad Kazemi
Background: Patients affected by gliomas have a poor prognosis. Astrocytoma is a subtype of glioma. Identification of biomarkers could be an effective way to an early diagnosis of tumor or to distinguish more aggressive tumors that need more intensive therapy. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of miR-362 was increased or decreased in patients with different grades of astrocytoma. Materials and Methods: miR-362 expression was compared in 25 patients with astrocytoma with that of 4 normal nonneoplastic brain tissues...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141672/a-novel-git2-braf-fusion-in-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#3
Jeffrey Helgager, Hart G Lidov, Navin R Mahadevan, Mark W Kieran, Keith L Ligon, Sanda Alexandrescu
BACKGROUND: KIAA1549-BRAF fusion is the most common genetic event in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and leads to activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Fusions of BRAF with other partner genes, as well as other genetic alterations not involving BRAF but also leading to MAPK pathway activation have been described rarely. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a new fusion partner in the low-grade glioma of a 10-year-old male, who presented with headaches and recent episodes of seizures...
November 15, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140741/comparative-in-vitro-study-of-11-c-methionine-and-11-c-deuterodeprenyl-uptake-in-three-human-glioma-cell-lines
#4
Elena Vasilskis, Ingrid Kreimerman, Silvia Olivera, Eduardo Savio, Henry Engler
AIM: To compare the uptake of (11)C-deuterodeprenyl ((11)C-DED) and (11)C-methionine ((11)C-MET) in three human glioma cell lines and study the relationship with glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) expression. (11)C-DED is used in positron emission tomography imaging as a marker of astrocytosis in various central nervous system pathologies. It binds irreversibly to MAO B, a glial dimeric enzyme with increased activity in some neurological pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Binding and internalization studies of (11)C-MET and (11)C-DED were performed in astrocytoma grade III, glioblastoma grade IV, and radio-resistant glioblastoma grade IV cells...
November 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140606/mr-textural-analysis-on-t2-flair-images-for-the-prediction-of-true-oligodendroglioma-by-the-2016-who-genetic-classification
#5
Wenting Rui, Yan Ren, Yin Wang, Xinyi Gao, Xiao Xu, Zhenwei Yao
BACKGROUND: The genetic status of 1p/19q is important for differentiating oligodendroglioma, isocitrate-dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant, and 1p/19q-codeleted from diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant according to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. PURPOSE: To assess the value of magnetic resonance textural analysis (MRTA) on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for making a genetically integrated diagnosis of true oligodendroglioma by WHO guidelines...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138945/glioblastoma-in-neurofibromatosis-1-patients-without-idh1-braf-v600e-and-tert-promoter-mutations
#6
Ichiyo Shibahara, Yukihiko Sonoda, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Akifumi Mayama, Masayuki Kanamori, Ryuta Saito, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Shoji Mashiyama, Hiroshi Uenohara, Mika Watanabe, Toshihiro Kumabe, Teiji Tominaga
Pilocytic astrocytomas and low-grade gliomas are more common compared with glioblastomas in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). A recent genome-wide analysis has shown frequent NF1 gene alterations in the mesenchymal subtype of a glioblastoma; however, little is known about clinicopathological features of glioblastomas in NF1 patients (NF1 glioblastomas). We analyzed four NF1 glioblastomas. Radiographical and intraoperative findings showed well-circumscribed tumors from surrounding brain. Pathological analysis presented a paucity of processes with an eosinophilic cytoplasm, bizarre nuclei, xanthomatous-like appearance, multinucleated giant cells, and histiocytoid appearance...
November 14, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135884/prognostic-factors-and-treatment-of-spinal-astrocytomas-a-multi-institutional-cohort-analysis
#7
Yingjie Zou, James Sun, Yangying Zhou, Harrison Xiao Bai, Xiangyan Huang, Ranjith Babu, Alessandro Landi, Kap Sum Foong, Zishu Zhang, John Woo, Yongguang Tao, Xuejun Li, Xiangqi Tang, Bo Xiao, Paul Zhang, Li Yang
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of patients with spinal astrocytoma from multi-institutional data and the literature. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic factors, treatment, and survival of patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Our current understanding of the epidemiology, prognosis and optimal treatment of spinal astrocytoma is limited. The literature is confined to case reports or small institutional case series. METHOD: Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were extracted...
November 10, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130549/concomitant-idh-wildtype-glioblastoma-and-idh1-mutant-anaplastic-astrocytoma-in-a-patient-with-constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-syndrome
#8
Francesca Galuppini, Enrico Opocher, Uri Tabori, Isabella Mammi, Melissa Edwards, Britany Campbell, Jacalyn Kelly, Alessandra Viel, Michele Quaia, Francesca Rivieri, Domenico D'Avella, Antonella Arcella, Felice Giangaspero, Matteo Fassan, Marina Paola Gardiman
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare and often under-recognized tumour predisposition syndrome, presenting with both extracranial and malignant brain tumours that occur in children and/or young adults [1]. The genetic defects underlying this disease are biallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes leading to a constitutional DNA repair defect that causes a cancer predisposition syndrome with early onset [2]. This mechanism is different from Lynch syndrome (LS) where a heterozygous germline loss-of-function mutation is observed and the patients are more prone to develop colon and genitourinary cancers as adults [1]...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125440/long-term-outcomes-of-primarily-metastatic-juvenile-pilocytic-astrocytoma-in-children
#9
Derek Yecies, Paul Graham Fisher, Samuel Cheshier, Michael Edwards, Gerald Grant
OBJECTIVE Primarily metastatic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is rare, likely representing 2%-3% of all cases of JPA. Due to the rarity of primarily metastatic JPA, there is currently no standard treatment paradigm and the long-term outcomes are not fully known. The goal of this case series was to add to the current understanding of this disease process. METHODS The authors searched a comprehensive database of pediatric patients with brain and spinal cord tumors treated at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 1997 to 2016 and identified 5 patients with primarily metastatic JPA...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124520/seom-clinical-guideline-of-diagnosis-and-management-of-low-grade-glioma-2017
#10
J M Sepúlveda-Sánchez, J Muñoz Langa, M Á Arráez, J Fuster, A Hernández Laín, G Reynés, V Rodríguez González, E Vicente, M Vidal Denis, Ó Gallego
Diffuse infiltrating low-grade gliomas include oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas, and account for about 5% of all primary brain tumors. Treatment strategies for these low-grade gliomas in adults have recently changed. The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification has updated the definition of these tumors to include their molecular characterization, including the presence of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19p codeletion. In this new classification, the histologic subtype of grade II-mixed oligoastrocytoma has also been eliminated...
November 9, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118478/intraoperative-squash-smear-cytology-in-cns-lesions-a-study-of-150-pediatric-cases
#11
Arpita Jindal, Kanwalpreet Kaur, Kusum Mathur, Vinod Kumari, Himanshi Diwan
Background: Tumors of the central nervous system in the pediatric age group occur relatively frequently during the early years of life. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies of childhood and only second to acute childhood leukemia. Squash cytology is an indispensable diagnostic aid to central nervous system (CNS) lesions. The definitive diagnosis of brain lesions is confirmed by histological examination. Aim: To study the cytology of CNS lesions in pediatric population and correlate it with histopathology...
October 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118304/pediatric-optic-pathway-hypothalamic-glioma
#12
Yasuo Aihara, Kentaro Chiba, Seiichiro Eguchi, Kosaku Amano, Takakazu Kawamata
Optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas (OP/HGs) are rare astrocytic tumors that appear more commonly among young children and often are unresectable. They comprise approximately 2% of all central nervous system tumors and account for 3-5% of pediatric intracranial tumors. Initial manifestations are often visual disturbances, endocrinopathies and hypothalamic dysfunction such as the diencephalic syndrome, and sometimes hydrocephalus due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow obstruction. In many cases, the tumors are diagnosed late in the clinical course because they silently enlarge...
November 9, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114301/subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytoma-associated-hyperproteinorrhachia-causing-shunt-failures-and-nonobstructive-hydrocephalus-report-of-successful-treatment-with-long-term-follow-up
#13
Ekkehard Kasper, Yosef Laviv, Mohammed-Adeeb E Sebai, Ning Lin, William Butler
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are histologically benign tumors most frequently associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Despite their benign histopathological appearance, they may cause unfavorable outcomes due to their intraventricular location. Rarely, SEGA may be associated with hyperproteinorrhachia (high levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]), which causes malresorptive, communicating hydrocephalus; certainly, this scenario makes shunt obstruction likely in this patient population...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113734/cellular-responses-of-human-astrocytoma-cells-to-dust-from-the-acheson-process-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Yke Jildouw Arnoldussen, Torunn Kringlen Ervik, Balazs Berlinger, Ida Kero, Sergey Shaposhnikov, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Silicon carbide (SiC) is largely used in various products such as diesel particulate filters and solar panels. It is produced through the Acheson process where aerosolized fractions of SiC and other by-products are generated in the work environment and may potentially affect the workers' health. In this study, dust was collected directly on a filter in a furnace hall over a time period of 24h. The collected dust was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and found to contain a high content of graphite particles, and carbon and silicon containing particles...
November 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113409/phase-i-clinical-trial-of-axl1717-for-treatment-of-relapsed-malignant-astrocytomas-analysis-of-dose-and-response
#15
Robert Aiken, Magnus Axelson, Johan Harmenberg, Maria Klockare, Olle Larsson, Cecilia Wassberg
Purpose: Early phase I study of safety of AXL1717 in patients with recurrent or progressive malignant astrocytomas and evaluation of preliminary anti-tumor efficacy. Patients and methods: Nine patients fulfilling the set criteria were enrolled. Eight had recurrent glioblastoma and one gliosarcoma. Patients were treated with an oral suspension of AXL1717 (215-400 mg bid) cycle-by-cycle in 35-day cycles (28 days bid and 7 days off). Patients with progressive disease and/or toxicity-related dose delay of more than 14 days were withdrawn...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113174/quantitative-analysis-of-permeability-for-glioma-grading-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Ming Zhao, Li-Li Guo, Ning Huang, Qiong Wu, Li Zhou, Hui Zhao, Jing Zhang, Kuang Fu
The objective of the present study was to quantitatively analyze the permeability of tumor entity and peritumor edema in glioma grading, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). In the present retrospective study, 80 patients underwent T1-weighted DCE-MRI examination at 3.0 T and the pathological results (including astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma) were obtained between January 2012 and June 2015. All cases were surgically validated as grade I-IV gliomas. The original DCE-MRI data were analyzed using dual compartment modified Tofts model...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107097/case-report-low-grade-astrocytoma-within-a-mature-cystic-teratoma-in-an-adolescent-patient
#17
Nicole Yoder, Asher Marks, Pei Hui, Babak Litkouhi, Julia Cron
BACKGROUND: Mature cystic teratomas are the most common ovarian neoplasm in adolescents. They are typically benign, however malignant transformation rarely occurs. We report a low-grade astrocytoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma in an adolescent patient. CASE: The patient was a 12-year-old female with an asymptomatic ovarian cyst and subsequent cystectomy. Final pathology identified a solid tumor with glial tissue within the cyst, reported as low-grade astrocytoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102752/prognostic-factors-for-the-survival-outcome-of-bilateral-thalamic-glioma-an-integrated-survival-analysis
#18
Xiaodong Niu, Tianwei Wang, Yuan Yang, Youjun Gan, Jiaoming Li, Yanhui Liu, Qing Mao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform an integrated survival analysis of patients with BTG and to assess the influence of various prognostic factors on overall survival. METHODS: A literature search on PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar was performed for literature in English published from 1964 to May 2017. Detailed information including demographics, clinical characteristics, treatments, critical events, and time to events for survival analysis were extracted from the included articles...
November 1, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091765/low-grade-astrocytoma-mutations-in-idh1-p53-and-atrx-cooperate-to-block-differentiation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-via-repression-of-sox2
#19
Aram S Modrek, Danielle Golub, Themasap Khan, Devin Bready, Jod Prado, Christopher Bowman, Jingjing Deng, Guoan Zhang, Pedro P Rocha, Ramya Raviram, Charalampos Lazaris, James M Stafford, Gary LeRoy, Michael Kader, Joravar Dhaliwal, N Sumru Bayin, Joshua D Frenster, Jonathan Serrano, Luis Chiriboga, Rabaa Baitalmal, Gouri Nanjangud, Andrew S Chi, John G Golfinos, Jing Wang, Matthias A Karajannis, Richard A Bonneau, Danny Reinberg, Aristotelis Tsirigos, David Zagzag, Matija Snuderl, Jane A Skok, Thomas A Neubert, Dimitris G Placantonakis
Low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs) carry neomorphic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) concurrently with P53 and ATRX loss. To model LGA formation, we introduced R132H IDH1, P53 shRNA, and ATRX shRNA into human neural stem cells (NSCs). These oncogenic hits blocked NSC differentiation, increased invasiveness in vivo, and led to a DNA methylation and transcriptional profile resembling IDH1 mutant human LGAs. The differentiation block was caused by transcriptional silencing of the transcription factor SOX2 secondary to disassociation of its promoter from a putative enhancer...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089803/conditional-survival-after-a-diagnosis-of-malignant-brain-tumour-in-canada-2000-2008
#20
Y Yuan, J Ross, Q Shi, F G Davis
BACKGROUND: "Conditional survival probability" is defined as the probability that a patient will survive an additional time, given that the patient has already survived a defined period of time after diagnosis. Such estimates might be more relevant for clinicians and patients during post-diagnosis care, because survival probability projections are based on the patient's survival to date. Here, we provides the first population-based estimates of conditional survival probabilities by histology for brain cancer in Canada...
October 2017: Current Oncology
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