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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748803/serial-mri-scan-of-posterior-fossa-tumours-predict-patients-at-risk-of-developing-neurocognitive-impairment
#1
Ramadhan Othman, Kurdistan Gh Abdullah
Background: Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours in children. More than 50% of these tumours develop in the posterior cranial fossa. Long term survivors of posterior fossa tumours (PFT) suffer from neurocognitive and memory issues. We hypothesized that serial MRI scanning of brain would show differences in hippocampal and ACC volume change in PFT patients treated with and without chemo-radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Twelve patients (8 females and 4 males) underwent 76 serial MR imaging examinations before and during treatment for posterior fossa tumours...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748342/non-canonical-idh1-and-idh2-mutations-a-clonal-and-relevant-event-in-an-italian-cohort-of-gliomas-classified-according-to-the-2016-world-health-organization-who-criteria
#2
Michela Visani, Giorgia Acquaviva, Gianluca Marucci, Alexandro Paccapelo, Antonella Mura, Enrico Franceschi, Daniela Grifoni, Annalisa Pession, Giovanni Tallini, Alba A Brandes, Dario de Biase
According to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system, assessment of exon 4 mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 genes (IDH1 or IDH2) is an essential step in the characterization of gliomas. The p.R132H mutation is the most frequent alteration in IDH genes, however other non-canonical IDH mutations can be identified. The aim of this study is to investigate in depth the prevalence of non-R132H IDH ("non-canonical") mutations in brain tumors classified according to the 2016 WHO scheme and their clonal distribution in neoplastic cells...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744829/early-initiation-of-chemoradiation-following-index-craniotomy-is-associated-with-decreased-survival-in-high-grade-glioma
#3
Jay K Nathan, Amanda L Brezzell, Michelle M Kim, Denise Leung, D Andrew Wilkinson, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper
The Stupp protocol of post-resection external beam radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide is the standard of care for patients with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma, with expanded use in anaplastic astrocytoma. However, the optimal interval between surgery and these adjuvant therapies, and its impact on survival, is unknown. To investigate this, de-identified claims from a large, private health insurance database were queried to identify adult patients who underwent index craniotomy for resection of a supratentorial neoplasm during the period 2005-2014 and began postoperative radiation and temozolomide within 13 weeks of surgery...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741227/posterior-fossa-pilomyxoid-astrocytoma-with-spontaneous-hemorrhage-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Jintao He, Xiang Li, Wanchun Zhu, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECT: The tumor described in this report was unique because of its involvement with a posterior fossa spontaneous hemorrhage in a pediatric patient; such a case has never been previously described in cases of pilomyxoid astrocytomas and also rarely found in those of pilocytic astrocytomas. METHODS: This report studied a rare case of posterior fossa pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) with critical and dangerous spontaneous hemorrhage. A 7-year-old girl appeared at the outpatient clinic with sudden headache and vomiting...
July 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740448/evaluation-of-brain-edema-formation-defined-by-mri-after-linac-based-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#5
Maciej Harat, Andrzej Lebioda, Judyta Lasota, Roman Makarewicz
BACKGROUND: Peri-lesional edema is a serious and well-known complication of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Here we evaluated edema risk after SRS and assessed its formation and resolution dynamics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 107 patients underwent SRS for heterogeneous diagnoses: 34 (29%) with arteriovenous malformations, 38 (35%) with meningiomas, 16 (15%) with metastatic tumors, 16 (15%) with acoustic neuromas, 3 with (3%) cavernomas, and 2 (2%) each with anaplastic astrocytomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740446/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-of-gliomas-grades-ii-and-iii-a-study-of-perilesional-tumor-infiltration-tumor-grades-and-subtypes-at-clinical-presentation
#6
Anna F Delgado, Markus Fahlström, Markus Nilsson, Shala G Berntsson, Maria Zetterling, Sylwia Libard, Irina Alafuzoff, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Anja Smits, Elna-Marie Larsson
BACKGROUND: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) allows for assessment of diffusion influenced by microcellular structures. We analyzed DKI in suspected low-grade gliomas prior to histopathological diagnosis. The aim was to investigate if diffusion parameters in the perilesional normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) differed from contralesional white matter, and to investigate differences between glioma malignancy grades II and III and glioma subtypes (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas)...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737579/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-targeted-imaging-with-18f-dcfpyl-in-high-grade-gliomas
#7
Roberto Andres Salas Fragomeni, Joshua R Menke, Matthias Holdhoff, Clare Ferrigno, John Joseph Laterra, Lilja B Solnes, Mehrbod S Javadi, Zsolt Szabo, Martin G Pomper, Steven P Rowe
High-grade gliomas (World Health Organization grade III-IV) are highly lethal primary brain tumors. Imaging modalities, including MRI and FDG PET, provide a limited ability to differentiate treatment effects (such as radiation necrosis) from recurrent or residual tumor. As the first step in validating the applicability of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted imaging in high-grade gliomas, we evaluated the ability of the PSMA-targeted small molecule [F]DCFPyL (2-(3-(1carboxy-5-(6-[F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl)-ureido)-pentanedioic acid) to image high-grade gliomas in a series of 3 prospectively recruited patients...
July 22, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721058/clinical-patterns-and-outcomes-of-status-epilepticus-in-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#8
Hatem S Shehata, Hadeer Mahmoud AbdelGhaffar, Mohammed Nasreldin, Alaa Elmazny, Ahmed Abdelalim, Asmaa Sabbah, Nevin M Shalaby
INTRODUCTION: Refractory epilepsy is a common clinical manifestation in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), which can be complicated by many life-threatening conditions, such as status epilepticus (SE). However, very few reports mention the patterns and semiology of SE in those patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SE in TSC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational, prospective study was carried out on 36 Egyptian children with definite TSC...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717891/surgery-for-spinal-intramedullary-tumors-technique-outcome-and-factors-affecting-resectability
#9
Sherif Rashad, Amr Elwany, Ahmed Farhoud
Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) are relatively infrequent lesions with ependymomas and astrocytomas representing the most common types. Microsurgical resection is established as the treatment of choice for these challenging lesions. We reviewed the surgical outcome of 29 cases operated for IMSCTs by the same surgeon between 2009 and 2015. The median follow-up period was 31 months, and all patients were followed up at least for 1 year. Among these 29 cases, 5 patients were previously operated for partial resection elsewhere...
July 17, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714013/glioblastoma-entities-express-subtle-differences-in-molecular-composition-and-response-to-treatment
#10
Joana Balça-Silva, Diana Matias, Anália Do Carmo, Luiz Gustavo Dubois, Ana Cristina Gonçalves, Henrique Girão, Nathalie Henriques Silva Canedo, Ana Helena Correia, Jorge Marcondes De Souza, Ana Bela Sarmento-Ribeiro, Maria Celeste Lopes, Vivaldo Moura-Neto
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a grade IV astrocytoma. GBM patients show resistance to chemotherapy such as temozolomide (TMZ), the gold standard treatment. In order to simulate the molecular mechanisms behind the different chemotherapeutic responses in GBM patients we compared the cellular heterogeneity and chemotherapeutic resistance mechanisms in different GBM cell lines. We isolated and characterized a human GBM cell line obtained from a GBM patient, named GBM11. We studied the GBM11 behaviour when treated with Tamoxifen (TMX) that, among other functions, is a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, alone and in combination with TMZ in comparison with the responses of U87 and U118 human GBM cell lines...
July 7, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711227/oncogenic-activities-of-idh1-2-mutations-from-epigenetics-to-cellular-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Laurence M Gagné, Karine Boulay, Ivan Topisirovic, Marc-Étienne Huot, Frédérick A Mallette
Gliomas and leukemias remain highly refractory to treatment, thus highlighting the need for new and improved therapeutic strategies. Mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), are frequently encountered in astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas, as well as in acute myeloid leukemias; however, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these mutations promote tumorigenesis remain to be fully characterized. Gain-of-function mutations in IDH1/2 have been shown to stimulate production of the oncogenic metabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), which inhibits α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent enzymes...
July 12, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708937/malignant-central-nervous-system-tumors-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-15-39-years-old-in-14-southern-eastern-european-registries-and-the-us-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-program-mortality-and-survival-patterns
#12
Marios K Georgakis, Paraskevi Papathoma, Anton Ryzhov, Snezana Zivkovic-Perisic, Sultan Eser, Łukasz Taraszkiewicz, Mario Sekerija, Tina Žagar, Luis Antunes, Anna Zborovskaya, Joana Bastos, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Anna Demetriou, Domenic Agius, Rajko M Strahinja, Marios Themistocleous, Maria Tolia, Spyridon Tzanis, George A Alexiou, Panagiotis G Papanikolaou, Panagiotis Nomikos, Maria Kantzanou, Nick Dessypris, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eleni T Petridou
BACKGROUND: Unique features and worse outcomes have been reported for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years old). The aim of this study was to explore the mortality and survival patterns of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors among AYAs in Southern-Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison with the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. METHODS: Malignant CNS tumors diagnosed in AYAs during the period spanning 1990-2014 were retrieved from 14 population-based cancer registries in the SEE region (n = 11,438)...
July 14, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708330/mortality-in-children-with-low-grade-glioma-or-glioneuronal-tumors-a-single-institution-study
#13
Santhosh A Upadhyaya, Yahya Ghazwani, Shengjie Wu, Alberto Broniscer, Fredrick A Boop, Amar Gajjar, Ibrahim Qaddoumi
BACKGROUND: While pediatric low-grade glioma/glioneuronal tumors (LGG/LGGNTs) are considered slow-growing, indolent tumors with excellent long-term prognosis, mortality due to the disease is not unknown. Few studies have addressed the cause of death in this population. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinicopathologic and radiologic data for children 21 years or younger with LGG/LGGNT who died at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between April 1985 and June 2015...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706610/a-novel-variant-of-oct4-entitled-oct4b3-is-expressed-in-human-bladder-cancer-and-astrocytoma-cell-lines
#14
Ensieh M Poursani, Majid Mehravar, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Seyed Javad Mowla, James E Trosko
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing is an important mechanism that regulates gene expression and function in human cells. OCT4, a crucial pluripotency marker in embryonic stem/carcinoma cells generates several spliced variants in different cell types and cancers. The expression of OCT4 in cancers has been challenged in many studies. The existence of several OCT4 spliced variants and absence of specific discriminating primers is the main reason of this controversy. Therefore, using specific primers and discriminating OCT4 variants from each other might help to reduce these discrepancies in carcinogenesis and stem cell researches...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699883/familial-melanoma-astrocytoma-syndrome-synchronous-diffuse-astrocytoma-and-pleomorphic-xanthoastrocytoma-in-a-patient-with-germline-cdkn2a-b-deletion-and-a-significant-family-history
#15
Andrew K Chan, Seunggu J Han, Winward Choy, Daniah Beleford, Manish K Aghi, Mitchel S Berger, Joseph T Shieh, Andrew W Bollen, Arie Perry, Joanna J Phillips, Nicholas Butowski, David A Solomon
Familial melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome is a tumor predisposition syndrome caused by inactivating germline alteration of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 9p21. While some families with germline CDKN2A mutations are prone to development of just melanomas, other families develop both melanomas, astrocytomas, and occasionally other nervous-system neoplasms including peripheral nerve sheath tumors and meningiomas. The histologic spectrum of the astrocytomas that arise as part of this syndrome is not well described, nor are the additional genetic alterations that drive these astrocytomas apart from the germline CDKN2A inactivation...
July 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691414/serum-levels-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-and-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-bfgf-in-children-with-brain-tumours
#16
Grażyna Sobol-Milejska, Agnieszka Mizia-Malarz, Katarzyna Musiol, Jerzy Chudek, Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek, Halina Wos, Marek Mandera
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is a process of new vessel formation originating from the already present vascular network. It plays an important role in the growth and spreading of malignancies, including brain tumours. Process of angiogenesis is characterised by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and release of their soluble forms into circulation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of VEGF and bFGF in children with malignant and benign brain tumours...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690586/modulations-in-the-peripheral-immune-system-of-glioblastoma-patient-is-connected-to-therapy-and-tumor-progression-a-case-report-from-the-immo-glio-01-trial
#17
Paul F Rühle, Nicole Goerig, Roland Wunderlich, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl, Annedore Strnad, Benjamin Frey
Immune responses are important for efficient tumor elimination, also in immune privileged organs such as the brain. Fostering antitumor immunity has therefore become an important challenge in cancer therapy. This cannot only be achieved by immunotherapies as already standard treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy modify the immune system. Consequently, the understanding of how the tumor, the tumor microenvironment, and immune system are modulated by cancer therapy is required for prognosis, prediction, and therapy adaption...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690017/diagnosis-and-treatment-for-pure-aqueductal-tumor
#18
Ryota Tamura, Tomoru Miwa, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
Pure aqueductal tumor (PAT) typically originates from pure aqueductal region and is extremely rare. It is radiographically similar to tectal glioma. We examined two patients with PATs who were diagnosed with pilocytic astrocytoma and rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor. Both cases showed a progressive clinical course. It is important to distinguish between PAT and tectal glioma by radiographic imaging because the treatment strategy is different. While observation is common for tectal gliomas, a biopsy is recommended at the same time of endoscopic third ventriculostomy for PAT with hydrocephalus...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687692/diencephalic-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-failure-to-thrive
#19
Mustafa Tosur, Anca Tomsa, David L Paul
Timely diagnosis of diencephalic syndrome is not often the case for patients presenting with failure to thrive (FTT) because of its rarity and lack of specific symptoms. Herein, we report two cases of diencephalic syndrome (2-year-old girl and 10-month-old boy) presenting with severe emaciation. Both patients had histories of poor weight gain for months despite having good appetites prior to diagnosis. Initial work-up did not reveal the diagnosis. Horizontal nystagmus was noted in both patients: by a neurologist in the first patient and by a family member in the second patient...
July 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687162/altered-expression-of-lysosomal-associated-membrane-protein-1-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Jian Huang, Lei Li, Jianli Liu, Juan Yu, Xiaoxiao Wu, Ying Xu, Ming Ma, Wei Wang, Renya Zhang
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers. LAMP1, major protein components of lysosome, is primarily located on the lysosomal membrane and rarely expressed on the surface of normal cells, playing an important role in the lysosome-mediated physiological processes. Previous studies confirmed that LAMP1 showed high expression in astrocytoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression levels of LAMP1 and to discuss its roles in ESCC...
August 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
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