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Age-related heart valve changes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887725/a-calcified-polymeric-valve-for-valve-in-valve-applications
#1
Ahmad Falahatpisheh, Daisuke Morisawa, Taraz T Toosky, Arash Kheradvar
The prevalence of aortic valve stenosis (AS) is increasing in the aging society. More recently, novel treatments and devices for AS, especially transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have significantly changed the therapeutic approach to this disease. Research and development related to TAVR require testing these devices in the calcified heart valves that closely mimic a native calcific valve. However, no animal model of AS has yet been available. Alternatively, animals with normal aortic valve that are currently used for TAVR experiments do not closely replicate the aortic valve pathology required for proper testing of these devices...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756541/growth-and-maturation-of-heart-valves-leads-to-changes-in-endothelial-cell-distribution-impaired-function-decreased-metabolism-and-reduced-cell-proliferation
#2
Lindsey J Anstine, Chris Bobba, Samir Ghadiali, Joy Lincoln
Risk factors of heart valve disease are well defined and prolonged exposure throughout life leads to degeneration and dysfunction in up to 33% of the population. While aortic valve replacement remains the most common need for cardiovascular surgery particularly in those aged over 65, the underlying mechanisms of progressive deterioration are unknown. In other cardiovascular systems, a decline in endothelial cell integrity and function play a major role in promoting pathological changes, and while similar mechanisms have been speculated in the valves, studies to support this are lacking...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707468/does-sudden-unexplained-nocturnal-death-syndrome-remain-the-autopsy-negative-disorder-a-gross-microscopic-and-molecular-autopsy-investigation-in-southern-china
#3
Liyong Zhang, David J Tester, Di Lang, Yili Chen, Jinxiang Zheng, Rui Gao, Robert F Corliss, Shuangbo Tang, John W Kyle, Chao Liu, Michael J Ackerman, Jonathan C Makielski, Jianding Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To look for previously unrecognized cardiac structural abnormalities and address the genetic cause for sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS). METHODS: Data for 148 SUNDS victims and 444 controls (matched 1:3 on sex, race, and age of death within 1 year) were collected from Sun Yat-sen University from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2014, to search morphological changes. An additional 17 patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS) collected from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, served as a comparative disease cohort...
November 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670128/percutaneous-pulmonary-valve-implantation-associated-ventricular-tachycardia-in-congenital-heart-disease
#4
Robert W Loar, Athar M Qureshi, Christina Y Miyake, Santiago O Valdes, Jeffrey J Kim, Caridad M De la Uz
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) is utilized for dysfunctional right ventricular outflow tracts (RVOT) to relieve obstruction, regurgitation, and RV dysfunction. PPVI has not been reported to induce arrhythmias. This study is the first to report the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) after PPVI. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients who had PPVI at a single institution. All patients were admitted after PPVI for overnight telemetry monitoring...
December 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587216/-surgical-pathology-analysis-of-the-causes-of-failure-of-48-bioprosthetic-heart-valves-in-40-chinese-cases
#5
X J Duan, H Y Wang, J P Xu, L Li, H Y Xu, Q Z Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathological changes and related factors leading to failure of bioprosthetic valves. METHODS: The surgical explanted bioprosthetic valves in Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College from January 2006 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Calcification, cusp tears, pannus and infectious endocarditis of bioprosthetic valves were evaluated by gross examination, X ray photography and histopathological analysis...
September 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568118/the-functional-significance-of-paradoxical%C3%A2-low-gradient-aortic%C3%A2-valve%C3%A2-stenosis-hemodynamic-findings-during-cardiopulmonary-exercise%C3%A2-testing
#6
Candelas Pérez Del Villar, Raquel Yotti, María Ángeles Espinosa, Enrique Gutiérrez-Ibañes, Alicia Barrio, María José Lorenzo, Pedro Luis Sánchez Fernández, Yolanda Benito, Raquel Prieto, Esther Pérez David, Pablo Martínez-Legazpi, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Javier Bermejo
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the functional impact of paradoxical low-gradient aortic stenosis (PLGAS) and clarify whether the relevance of the valvular obstruction is related to baseline flow. BACKGROUND: Establishing the significance of PLGAS is particularly challenging. METHODS: Twenty symptomatic patients (77 ± 6 years of age; 17 female subjects) with PLGAS (mean gradient 28 ± 6 mm Hg; aortic valve area 0.8 ± 0...
August 20, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556316/mitral-valve-prolapse-in-pregnancy
#7
Shi-Min Yuan, Song-Li Yan
Mitral valve prolapse is a benign condition. Mitral regurgitation is only complicated in patients with severe mitral valve prolapse. Women with mitral valve prolapse in the absence of other cardiovascular disorders tolerate pregnancy well and do not develop remarkable cardiac complications. Nevertheless, serious complications of mitral valve prolapse, including arrhythmia, infective endocarditis and cerebral ischemic events, can be present in pregnancy. Debates remain with regard to the use of prophylactic antibiotics and β-blockers in the pregnant women with mitral valve prolapse...
April 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453127/a-prospective-5-year-study-of-the-frequency-of-arrhythmias-during-serial-exercise-testing-and-clinical-follow-up-after-melody-valve-implant
#8
Bryant Priromprintr, Michael J Silka, Jonathan Rhodes, Anjan S Batra
BACKGROUND: Although percutaneous Melody valve implant has become an accepted alternative to surgical pulmonary valve replacement in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), the benefit regarding frequency and severity of arrhythmias remains undefined. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the impact of Melody valve implant on the type and frequency of arrhythmias during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and subsequent clinical outcome. METHODS: As part of the phase I Melody valve clinical trial, 136 patients with CHD underwent prospective serial evaluation including CPET prior to, 6 months after, and annually for 5 years...
July 21, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440307/association-of-thoracic-aorta-calcium-score-with-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis-after-aortic-valve-replacement
#9
In-Jeong Cho, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Ran Heo, In-Cheol Kim, Ji Min Sung, Byung-Chul Chang, Chi Young Shim, Geu-Ru Hong, Namsik Chung
BACKGROUND: Substantial aortic calcification is known to be associated with aortic stiffening and subsequent left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. This study examined whether the thoracic aorta calcium score (TACS) is related to LV hypertrophy and whether it leads to an adverse prognosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) after aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients (mean age, 64 ± 11 years) with isolated severe AS who underwent noncontrast computed tomography of the entire thoracic aorta and who received AVR...
July 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266493/-the-multicenter-study-on-the-registration-and-follow-up-of-low-anticoagulation-therapy-for-the-heart-valve-operation-in-china
#10
L Dong, Y K Shi, J P Xu, E Y Zhang, J C Liu, Y X Li, Y M Ni, Q Yang, T Han, B Fu, J Chen, L Ren, S L Wei, H Chen, K X Liu, F X Yu, J S Liu, M D Xiao, S M Wu, K L Zhang, H L Huang, S L Jiang, C H Qiao, C S Wang, Z Y Xu, X M Zhou, D J Wang, L X Ni, Y B Xiao, S L Jiang, G M Zhang, G Y Liang, S Y Yang, P Bo, Q J Zhong, J B Zhang, X Zhang, Y B Zhu, X Teng, P Zhu, F Huang, Y M Xiao, G Q Cao, H Tian, L M Xia, F L Lu, Y Q Liu, D X Liu, H Xu, Y Yuan, M Li, C Chang, X C Wu, Z Xu, P Guo, Y J Bai, W B Xue, X Y Jiang, Z H Na, Q Y Zeng, H Cai, Y L Wang, R Xiong, S Jin, X M Zheng, D Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the optimal anticoagulation methods and monitoring strategy for Chinese patients undergoing heart valve replacement, which is potentially quite different from western populations. METHODS: In this multicenter prospective cohort study, the anticoagulation and monitoring strategy data was acquired from 25 773 in-hospital patients in 35 medical centers and 20 519 patients in outpatient clinic in 11 medical centers from January 1st, 2011 to December 31th, 2015...
May 24, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256439/-clinical-treatment-of-infective-endocarditis-with-vegetations-in-pregnant-women-and-the-outcomes-of-gestation
#11
L Chu, J Zhang, Y N Li, X Meng, Y Y Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical treatment of infective endocarditis with vegetations in pregnant women and the outcomes of the gestation. METHODS: Nine cases of pregnant women diagnosed as infective endocarditis with vegetations in Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2001 to October 2015 were enrolled in retrospective analysis. Consultations were held by doctors from department of obstetrics, anesthesiology, cardiology, cardial surgery and extracorporeal circulation to decide the individualized treatment plan for the 9 cases of pregnant women after admissions...
May 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252876/observed-change-in-peak-oxygen-consumption-after-aortic-valve-replacement-and-its-predictors
#12
Van Doan Tuyet Le, Gunnar Vagn Hagemann Jensen, Lars Kjøller-Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the change in peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) and determine its outcome predictors after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS: Patients with AS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction who were referred for single AVR had cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to and 9 months post-AVR. Predictors of outcome for pVO2 were determined by multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses. A significant change in pVO2 was defined as a relative change that was more than twice the coefficient of repeatability by test-retest (>10%)...
2016: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250873/prevalence-and-correlates-of-valvular-heart-diseases-in-the-elderly-population-in-hubei-china
#13
Chang Shu, Si Chen, Tingting Qin, Zhen Fu, Tucheng Sun, Mingxing Xie, Li Zhang, Nianguo Dong, Ping Yin
We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of valvular heart diseases (VHD) in the elderly population. The participants' personal information, medical history, behavioral habits and clinical status were assessed by questionnaire, while the left ventricular dimensions, function and the presence and severity of VHD were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. This study analyzed the data of 3948 participants who were older than 60 years. Significant VHD was present in 1.93% of participants; the standardized prevalence of VHD among the elderly population in Hubei was 2...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215927/learning-curves-for-transapical-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-the-partner-i-trial-technical-performance-success-and-safety
#14
Rakesh M Suri, Sa'ar Minha, Oluseun Alli, Ron Waksman, Charanjit S Rihal, Lowell P Satler, Kevin L Greason, Rebecca Torguson, Augusto D Pichard, Michael Mack, Lars G Svensson, Jeevanantham Rajeswaran, Ashley M Lowry, John Ehrlinger, Stephanie L Mick, E Murat Tuzcu, Vinod H Thourani, Raj Makkar, David Holmes, Martin B Leon, Eugene H Blackstone
OBJECTIVES: Introduction of hybrid techniques, such as transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TA-TAVR), requires skills that a heart team must master to achieve technical efficiency: the technical performance learning curve. To date, the learning curve for TA-TAVR remains unknown. We therefore evaluated the rate at which technical performance improved, assessed change in occurrence of adverse events in relation to technical performance, and determined whether adverse events after TA-TAVR were linked to acquiring technical performance efficiency (the learning curve)...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005980/no-clinical-effect-of-prosthesis-patient-mismatch-after-transcatheter-versus-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-in-intermediate-and-low-risk-patients-with-severe-aortic-valve-stenosis-at-mid-term-follow-up-an-analysis-from-the-notion-trial
#15
Hans Gustav Hørsted Thyregod, Daniel Andreas Steinbrüchel, Nikolaj Ihlemann, Thuc Anh Ngo, Henrik Nissen, Bo Juel Kjeldsen, Yanping Chang, Peter Bo Hansen, Peter Skov Olsen, Lars Søndergaard
OBJECTIVES: Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for severe aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is common, but less common after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients considered at high risk for death after surgery. The objectives of this study were to determine incidence and clinical effect of PPM after SAVR and TAVR in a primarily low-risk patient group. METHODS: Patients 70 years or older with severe isolated AVS, regardless of predicted operative mortality risk, were consecutively randomized 1:1 to TAVR using a self-expandable bioprosthesis (n = 145) or SAVR (n = 135)...
October 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979307/an-assessment-of-the-safety-hemodynamic-response-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-commonly-used-vasodilator-stressors-in-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis
#16
Nasir Hussain, Waseem Chaudhry, Alan W Ahlberg, Richard S Amara, Ahmed Elfar, Matthew W Parker, John A Savino, Ruwanthi Titano, Milena J Henzlova, William L Duvall
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients are undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement, which often involves assessment of coronary artery disease ischemic burden. The safety and diagnostic accuracy of vasodilator stress agents in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has not been established. METHODS: Patients with severe AS (valve area <1 cm(2)) on echocardiography who underwent vasodilator stress SPECT MPI at two centers were identified...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918310/current-clinical-evidence-on-rapid-deployment-aortic-valve-replacement-sutureless-aortic-bioprostheses
#17
Glenn R Barnhart, Malakh Lal Shrestha
Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. It is caused primarily by age-related degeneration and progressive calcification typically detected in patients 65 years and older. In patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, the average survival rate is only 2 years without appropriate treatment. Approximately one half of all patients die within the first 2 to 3 years of symptom onset. In addition, the age of the patients presenting for aortic valve replacement (AVR) is increased along with the demographic changes...
January 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914991/large-animal-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
H G Tsang, N A Rashdan, C B A Whitelaw, B M Corcoran, K M Summers, V E MacRae
The human cardiovascular system is a complex arrangement of specialized structures with distinct functions. The molecular landscape, including the genome, transcriptome and proteome, is pivotal to the biological complexity of both normal and abnormal mammalian processes. Despite our advancing knowledge and understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through the principal use of rodent models, this continues to be an increasing issue in today's world. For instance, as the ageing population increases, so does the incidence of heart valve dysfunction...
April 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883434/the-fibrosis-cell-death-axis-in-heart-failure
#19
A Piek, R A de Boer, H H W Silljé
Cardiac stress can induce morphological, structural and functional changes of the heart, referred to as cardiac remodeling. Myocardial infarction or sustained overload as a result of pathological causes such as hypertension or valve insufficiency may result in progressive remodeling and finally lead to heart failure (HF). Whereas pathological and physiological (exercise, pregnancy) overload both stimulate cardiomyocyte growth (hypertrophy), only pathological remodeling is characterized by increased deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, termed fibrosis, and loss of cardiomyocytes by necrosis, apoptosis and/or phagocytosis...
March 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26830603/cells-and-extracellular-matrix-interplay-in-cardiac-valve-disease-because-age-matters
#20
REVIEW
Cristiano Spadaccio, Pamela Mozetic, Francesco Nappi, Antonio Nenna, Fraser Sutherland, Marcella Trombetta, Massimo Chello, Alberto Rainer
Cardiovascular aging is a physiological process affecting all components of the heart. Despite the interest and experimental effort lavished on aging of cardiac cells, increasing evidence is pointing at the pivotal role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in cardiac aging. Structural and molecular changes in ECM composition during aging are at the root of significant functional modifications at the level of cardiac valve apparatus. Indeed, calcification or myxomatous degeneration of cardiac valves and their functional impairment can all be explained in light of age-related ECM alterations and the reciprocal interplay between altered ECM and cellular elements populating the leaflet, namely valvular interstitial cells and valvular endothelial cells, is additionally affecting valve function with striking reflexes on the clinical scenario...
March 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
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