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Heart valve growth

Emanuela S Fioretta, Petra E Dijkman, Maximilian Y Emmert, Simon P Hoerstrup
Heart valve replacement is often the only solution for patients suffering from valvular heart disease. However, currently available valve replacements require either life-long anti-coagulation or are associated with valve degeneration and calcification. Moreover, they are suboptimal for young patients, because they do not adapt to the somatic growth. Tissue-engineering has been proposed as a promising approach to fulfill the urgent need for heart valve replacements with regenerative and growth capacity. This review will start with an overview on the currently available valve substitutes and the techniques for heart valve replacement...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Subendu Sarkar, Seema Chopra, Manoj Kumar Rohit, Dibyajyoti Banerjee, Anuradha Chakraborti
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major cause of cardiac related mortality and morbidity in the developing countries due to poor diagnosis and lack of proper therapeutics. The definite reason of heart valve injury during RHD is poorly understood. Valvular endothelial cells play an important role in pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the regulation of vitamin D (calciferol) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) results in the functional changes in endothelial cells. However, the crosstalk between vitamin D and VEGF in the pathogenesis of RHD is not yet unfurled...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Peter E Hammer, Erin G Roberts, Sitaram M Emani, Pedro J Del Nido
OBJECTIVES: Neither heart valve repair methods nor current prostheses can accommodate patient growth. Normal aortic and pulmonary valves have 3 leaflets, and the goal of valve repair and replacement is typically to restore normal 3-leaflet morphology. However, mammalian venous valves have bileaflet morphology and open and close effectively over a wide range of vessel sizes. We propose that they might serve as a model for pediatric heart valve reconstruction and replacement valve design...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Elizabeth S Ellent, Ronald Chong-Yik, Abdul Mukhtadir Khan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac angiosarcomas are an extremely rare tumor with an incidence of only 0.056%. Diagnosing this rare tumor becomes even more difficult as the presentation of cardiac angiosarcomas varies based on anatomic location. Depending on the tumor's proximity to valves, symptoms may be more consistent with heart failure, while growth throughout the conduction system may produce arrhythmias. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a young male with a significant tumor burden of cardiac angiosarcoma in his lungs whose symptoms included pleuritic chest pain and hemoptysis...
2016: Ochsner Journal
Tilly Eldridge, Łukasz Łangowski, Nicola Stacey, Friederike Jantzen, Laila Moubayidin, Adrien Sicard, Paul Southam, Richard Kennaway, Michael Lenhard, Enrico S Coen, Lars Østergaard
Fruits exhibit a vast array of different 3D shapes, from simple spheres and cylinders to more complex curved forms; however, the mechanism by which growth is oriented and coordinated to generate this diversity of forms is unclear. Here, we compare the growth patterns and orientations for two very different fruit shapes in the Brassicaceae: the heart-shaped Capsella rubella silicle and the near-cylindrical Arabidopsis thaliana silique. We show, through a combination of clonal and morphological analyses, that the different shapes involve different patterns of anisotropic growth during three phases...
September 15, 2016: Development
Jianliang Zhou, Jingli Ding, Bin'en Nie, Shidong Hu, Zhigang Zhu, Jia Chen, Jianjun Xu, Jiawei Shi, Nianguo Dong
Tissue engineered heart valve is a promising alternative to current heart valve surgery, for its capability of growth, repair, and remodeling. However, extensive development is needed to ensure tissue compatibility, durability and antithrombotic potential. This study aims to investigate the biological effects of multi-signal composite material of polyethyl glycol-cross-linked decellularized valve on adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells. Group A to E was decellularized valve leaflets, composite material of polyethyl glycol-cross-linked decellularized valves leaflets, vascular endothelial growth factor-composite materials, Arg-Gly-Asp peptide-composite materials and multi-signal modified materials of polyethyl glycol-cross-linked decellularized valve leaflets, respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
J C Tantchou Tchoumi, J C Ambassa, G Butera
The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of valvular lesions, the mortality and the challenges in five years follow-up in children with post-rheumatic valvulopathies in natural history in St. Elizabeth Catholic General hospital Shisong, cardiac centre. This retrospective analysis included 270 patients aged between 5 and 16 years old suffering from post-rheumatic valvulopathies who consulted in the cardiac centre from July 2008 through July 2013. Postrheumatic valvulopathies were diagnosed according to the World heart federation criteria...
August 17, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Torsten Christ, Benjamin Claus, Nadine Woythal, Simon Dushe, Volkmar Falk, Herko Grubitzsch
Background The Ross procedure is an established method to treat aortic valve disease, offering excellent hemodynamic characteristics, growth potential, low risk of thromboembolism and no need for anticoagulation. Limitation of homograft quality and availability led to the use of different stentless xenografts. Long-term outcome and implications are yet to be addressed. Methods Forty five adult patients (mean age 38.8 ± 9.6 years) with aortic valve stenosis and/or insufficiency, who underwent the Ross procedure between 1995 and 2002 were identified for long-term evaluation...
August 10, 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Yoshie Sakasai, Akinobu Sasaki, Osamu Shigeta, Yasuaki Tsumagari, Hidekazu Tsuneoka, Masako Misaki, Noriyuki Takeyasu
A 77-year-old woman presented with a 3-week history of low grade fever, appetite loss and dizziness. An electrocardiogram showed complete heart block. Echocardiography demonstrated severe aortic valve stenosis and a mass of probable vegetation 2 cm in diameter on the atrioventricular septum in the right atrium (RA), but no obvious intra-cardiac fistula. There was no growth of organism in blood cul tures. In the 4th week after admission, a harsh and continuous cardiac murmur was detected for the 1st time. Portable echocardiography revealed disappearance of the mass in the RA, and showed an intra-cardiac shunt from the left ventricle( LV) to RA...
August 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Daniel Alejandro Lerman, Sai Prasad, Nasri Alotti
OBJECTIVE: Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody and novel antiresorptive agent that works by binding receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) and inhibiting the signaling cascade that causes osteoclast maturation, activity, and survival. We aimed to elucidate the effect of Denosumab in the process of spontaneous and induced calcification in an in vitro porcine valvular interstitial cells (VICs) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VICs were extracted from fresh porcine hearts by serial collagenase digestion...
January 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Research
George T Nicholson, Michael S Kelleman, Caridad M De la Uz, Ricardo H Pignatelli, Nancy A Ayres, Christopher J Petit
OBJECTIVE: Shone's syndrome is a complex consisting of mitral valve stenosis in addition to left ventricle outflow obstruction. There are a few studies evaluating the long-term outcomes in this population. We sought to determine the long-term outcomes in our paediatric population with Shone's syndrome and the factors associated with left heart growth. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with Shone's syndrome with biventricular circulation treated between 1978 and 2010 were reviewed...
July 26, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Mostafa Samak, Javid Fatullayev, Anton Sabashnikov, Mohamed Zeriouh, Bastian Schmack, Mina Farag, Aron-Frederik Popov, Pascal M Dohmen, Yeong-Hoon Choi, Thorsten Wahlers, Alexander Weymann
Ventricular hypertrophy is an ominous escalation of hemodynamically stressful conditions such as hypertension and valve disease. The pathophysiology of hypertrophy is complex and multifactorial, as it touches on several cellular and molecular systems. Understanding the molecular background of cardiac hypertrophy is essential in order to protect the myocardium from pathological remodeling, or slow down the destined progression to heart failure and cardiomyopathy. In this review we highlight the most important molecular aspects of cardiac hypertrophic growth in light of the currently available published research data...
2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Carine Le Goff, Curtis Rogers, Wilfried Le Goff, Graziella Pinto, Damien Bonnet, Maya Chrabieh, Olivier Alibeu, Patrick Nistchke, Arnold Munnich, Capucine Picard, Valérie Cormier-Daire
Cardiospondylocarpofacial (CSCF) syndrome is characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly with carpal-tarsal fusion and extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis, cardiac septal defects with valve dysplasia, and deafness with inner ear malformations. Whole-exome sequencing identified heterozygous MAP3K7 mutations in six distinct CSCF-affected individuals from four families and ranging in age from 5 to 37 years. MAP3K7 encodes transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which is involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 signaling pathway...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Fraser D Rubens, Yen-Yen Gee, Janet M C Ngu, Li Chen, Ian G Burwash
OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the effect of 2 contemporary pericardial valves on left ventricular mass regression and clinical outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS: Patients were followed postoperatively in a dedicated valve clinic. A propensity score was derived for each patient and used to adjust all analyses. Longitudinal analysis was performed using a repeated measures growth curve model. Survival analysis was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Victor M Fresco, Christine B Kern, Moosa Mohammadi, Waleed O Twal
Fibulin-1 (FBLN1) is a member of a growing family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins that includes eight members and is involved in cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, and differentiation. FBLN1 has also been implicated in embryonic heart and valve development and in the formation of neural crest-derived structures, including aortic arch, thymus, and cranial nerves. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is a member of a large family of growth factors, and its functions include neural crest cell (NCC) maintenance, specifically NCC migration as well as patterning of structures formed from NCC such as outflow tract and cranial nerves...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kyung Eun Lee, Joo Hee Kim, Jee Eun Chung, Gwan Yung Lee, Yoon Jeong Cho, Byung Chul Chang, Hye Sun Gwak
BACKGROUND: Various complications lead to reoperation in patients who undergo prosthetic valve replacement where inflammatory process could be involved. The goals of this study were to identify risk factors that correlate with reoperation in patients with prosthetic heart valves and to investigate the relationship between reoperation and inflammatory gene polymorphisms. RESULTS: The study included 228 patients from the EwhA-Severance Treatment Group of Warfarin...
2016: SpringerPlus
Jinghao Zheng, Botao Gao, Zhongqun Zhu, Guocheng Shi, Zhiwei Xu, Jinfen Liu, Xiaomin He
OBJECTIVES: The optimal surgical strategies for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) are still not well established. This study reviewed our 15-year experience in the management of PAIVS. METHODS: Between July 1999 and June 2014, 170 patients were treated for PAIVS in our heart centre. Based on the morphology of the right ventricle (RV), age and surgical approaches, the patients were divided into two groups: the one-stage surgery group (n = 33) and the staged surgery group (n = 137), in which patients received definitive repair, including biventricular repair, 1...
July 1, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Yasushi Kurihara, Daisuke Tachibana, Natsuko Yokoi, Kayoko Nakagawa, Kohei Kitada, Masami Hayashi, Sakika Yanai, Hiroko Katayama, Akihiro Hamuro, Takuya Misugi, Kazuharu Tanaka, Mitsuru Fukui, Masayasu Koyama
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the time intervals of each component of cardiac flow velocity waveforms (FVWs) in fetuses with fetal growth restriction (FGR) and to compare these with those of normal fetuses using reference ranges. METHODS: The durations of atrioventricular (AV) valve opening (AVVO), AV valve closure (AVVC), total E- (total-E) and A- (total-A) waves, total ejection time (total-ET), acceleration time (acc-E for E-wave, acc-A for A-wave, and acc-ET for ejection time), and deceleration time (dec-E for E-wave, dec-A for A-wave, and dec-ET for ejection time) were measured in fetuses with FGR...
August 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Ahmed G Nomir, Yuto Takeuchi, Junji Fujikawa, Ashraf A El Sharaby, Satoshi Wakisaka, Makoto Abe
Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a rare congenital disorder that is characterized by abnormal hair growth and skeletal deformities. These result in sparse hair, short stature, and early onset of joint problems. Recent reports have shown that a relatively high proportion of patients with TRPS exhibit a broad range of congenital heart defects. To determine the regulation of Trps1 transcription in vivo, we generated novel transgenic mice, which expressed Cre recombinase under the murine Trps1 proximal promoter sequence (Trps1-Cre)...
July 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Ole De Backer, Ngai H V Luk, Niels T Olsen, Peter S Olsen, Lars Søndergaard
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the choice of treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis in the era of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Eastern Denmark. BACKGROUND: Until the early 21st century, the only therapeutic option for aortic valve stenosis was surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), but this has changed with the introduction of TAVR. METHODS: Using the East Denmark Heart Registry, the evolution of AVR over time was studied for the period 2005 to 2015...
June 13, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
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