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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031049/heart-valve-scaffold-fabrication-bioinspired-control-of-macro-scale-morphology-mechanics-and-micro-structure
#1
Antonio D'Amore, Samuel K Luketich, Giuseppe M Raffa, Salim Olia, Giorgio Menallo, Antonino Mazzola, Flavio D'Accardi, Tamir Grunberg, Xinzhu Gu, Michele Pilato, Marina V Kameneva, Vinay Badhwar, William R Wagner
Valvular heart disease is currently treated with mechanical valves, which benefit from longevity, but are burdened by chronic anticoagulation therapy, or with bioprosthetic valves, which have reduced thromboembolic risk, but limited durability. Tissue engineered heart valves have been proposed to resolve these issues by implanting a scaffold that is replaced by endogenous growth, leaving autologous, functional leaflets that would putatively eliminate the need for anticoagulation and avoid calcification. Despite the diversity in fabrication strategies and encouraging results in large animal models, control over engineered valve structure-function remains at best partial...
October 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994769/isolation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood
#2
Prashanth Ravishankar, M Alejandra Zeballos, Kartik Balachandran
The existence of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in peripheral blood and its involvement in vasculogenesis was first reported by Ashara and colleagues(1). Later, others documented the existence of similar types of EPCs originating from bone marrow(2)(,)(3). More recently, Yoder and Ingram showed that EPCs derived from umbilical cord blood had a higher proliferative potential compared to ones isolated from adult peripheral blood(4)(,)(5)(,)(6). Apart from being involved in postnatal vasculogenesis, EPCs have also shown promise as a cell source for creating tissue-engineered vascular and heart valve constructs(7)(,)(8)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948327/abnormal-longitudinal-growth-of-the-aorta-in-children-with-familial-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#3
Holly Nadorlik, Jessica L Bowman, Sara Fitzgerald-Butt, May Ling Mah, Kim L McBride, John P Kovalchin, Vidu Garg
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common type of congenital heart defect (CHD) and is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular complications including valve calcification and ascending aortopathy (AscAo), predominantly occurring in adulthood. While a limited number of genetic etiologies for BAV have been defined, family members of affected individuals display BAV along with other left-sided CHD. This has led to guidelines from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology that recommend echocardiographic screening of first-degree relatives of affected adults...
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911943/heterozygous-deletion-of-akt1-rescues-cardiac-contractility-but-not-hypertrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines
#4
Rajika Roy, Maike Krenz
Noonan Syndrome with Multiple Lentigines (NSML) is associated with congenital heart disease in form of pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Genetically, NSML is primarily caused by mutations in the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Importantly, certain SHP2 mutations such as Q510E can cause a particularly severe form of HCM with heart failure in infancy. Due to lack of insight into the underlying pathomechanisms, an effective custom-tailored therapy to prevent heart failure in these patients has not yet been found...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893026/superior-vena-cava-as-gateway-to-heart-metastatic-breast-carcinoma-causing-ball-in-a-loop-metastasis-to-right-atrium
#5
Harpreet Singh Sandhu, Sampath Kumar Mahadevappa Mahendrakar, Sulaiman Sadruddin Ladhani, Azizullah Hafizullah Khan, Yunus Shafi Loya
Breast carcinoma is the most common invasive cancer in women worldwide. It metastasizes commonly to bone, lungs, regional lymph nodes and brain. Cardiac metastasis of lung and breast cancers is a known but rare complication of advanced disease with tumour metastasising to pericardium via the locoregional lymphatic system. Here we present a case of 59-year-old female presenting with right upper limb oedema, facial puffiness and features of Superior Vena Cava (SVC) syndrome 15 years after mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy for carcinoma of the right breast...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884516/removing-vessel-constriction-on-the-embryonic-heart-results-in-changes-in-valve-gene-expression-morphology-and-hemodynamics
#6
Vinal Menon, John Eberth, Lorain Junor, Alexander J Potts, Marwa Belhaj, Donald J DiPette, Michael Jenkins, Jay D Potts
BACKGROUND: The formation of healthy heart valves throughout embryonic development is dependent on both genetic and epigenetic factors. Hemodynamic stimuli are important epigenetic regulators of valvulogenesis, but the resultant molecular pathways that control valve development are poorly understood. Here, we describe how the heart and valves recover from the removal of a partial constriction (banding) of the OFT/ventricle junction (OVJ) that temporarily alters blood flow velocity through the embryonic chicken heart (HH stage 16/17)...
September 7, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859786/effect-of-losartan-on-mitral-valve-changes-after-myocardial-infarction
#7
Philipp E Bartko, Jacob P Dal-Bianco, J Luis Guerrero, Jonathan Beaudoin, Catherine Szymanski, Dae-Hee Kim, Margo M Seybolt, Mark D Handschumacher, Suzanne Sullivan, Michael L Garcia, James S Titus, Jill Wylie-Sears, Whitney S Irvin, Emmanuel Messas, Albert A Hagège, Alain Carpentier, Elena Aikawa, Joyce Bischoff, Robert A Levine
BACKGROUND: After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that profibrotic MV changes post-MI are therapeutically accessible, specifically by losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820030/epidemiology-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-united-states-implications-for-the-perfusion-profession-a-2017-update
#8
Joseph J Sistino, David C Fitzgerald
INTRODUCTION: By analyzing epidemiological trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD), key stakeholders can make informed decisions on the future of disease burden and treatment. Accordingly, the cardiovascular perfusion community would benefit from data that would help predict future professional resource utilization. METHODS: In 2003, the changes in the number of hospital discharges for CVD from 1990 to 2000 were published, based on data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)...
September 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791264/prediction-of-pregnancy-complication-occurrence-using-fetal-cardiac-output-assessments-made-by-ultrasonography-at-20-to-24-weeks-of-gestation
#9
Ji Yeon Lee, Young Li Kim, Ji Eun Jeong, Jun Woo Ahn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of assessment of fetal cardiac output (CO) for the prediction of complications of pregnancy. METHODS: We evaluated 65 fetuses and all of them had a fetal cardiac scan at 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy. To measure CO, diameters (d) of the left right ventricle outflow tract were measured just above the valves. Each left CO (LCO) and right CO (RCO) was derived using the following equation: CO = velocity time integral × π × d(2)/4 × heart rate...
July 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782585/weaving-for-heart-valve-tissue-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Albert Liberski, Nadia Ayad, Dorota Wojciechowska, Radoslaw Kot, Duy M P Vo, Dilibaier Aibibu, Gerald Hoffmann, Chokri Cherif, Katharina Grobelny-Mayer, Marek Snycerski, Helmut Goldmann
Weaving is a resourceful technology which offers a large selection of solutions that are readily adaptable for tissue engineering (TE) of artificial heart valves (HV). The different ways that the yarns are interlaced in this technique could be used to produce complex architectures, such as the three-layer architecture of the leaflets. Once the assembly is complete, growth of cells in the scaffold would occur in the orientation of the yarn, enabling the deposition of extra cellular matrixes proteins in an oriented manner...
August 4, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748765/biomarkers-in-aortic-valve-stenosis-and-their-clinical-significance-in-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#11
Konstantinos Toutouzas, Konstantinos Stathogiannis, George Latsios, Andreas Synetos, Maria Drakopoulou, Vicky Penesopoulou, Archontoula Michelongona, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Aortic valve stenosis is one of the most common valvular heart disorders and the prevalence will rise as the population ages. Once symptomatic, patients with aortic valve stenosis tend to fare worse with high mortality rates. Aortic valve replacement is indicated in these patients and besides the standard surgical replacement; a less invasive approach, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, has gained momentum and has showed promising and solid results in patients with high surgical risk. An important aspect of evaluating patients with aortic valve stenosis is the ability to choose the best possible candidate for the procedure...
July 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745279/paediatric-nanofibrous-bioprosthetic-heart-valve
#12
REVIEW
Mehrdad Namdari, Babak Negahdari, Ali Eatemadi
The search for an optimal aortic valve implant with durability, calcification resistance, excellent haemodynamic parameters and ability to withstand mechanical loading is yet to be met. Thus, there has been struggled to fabricate bio-prosthetics heart valve using bioengineering. The consequential product must be resilient with suitable mechanical features, biocompatible and possess the capacity to grow. Defective heart valves replacement by surgery is now common, this improves the value and survival of life for a lot of patients...
August 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718893/association-between-maternal-vascular-murmur-and-the-small-for-gestational-age-fetus-with-abnormal-umbilical-artery-doppler-flow
#13
Diana Riknagel, Richard Farlie, Morten Hedegaard, Peter Humaidan, Johannes J Struijk
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal vascular murmurs (MVMs) and fetal growth restriction (defined as small-for-gestational-age [SGA] fetus) and abnormal Doppler pulsatility index (PI) of the uterine and/or umbilical arteries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of women aged 18 years or older with a singleton pregnancy at 28-34 weeks was conducted at Regional Hospital Viborg, Denmark, between May 1 and August 1, 2013. Ultrasound fetal biometry was performed and the Doppler PI of the umbilical and uterine arteries was determined...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716564/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#14
REVIEW
Hui Gong, Xing Lyu, Qiong Wang, Min Hu, Xiangyu Zhang
Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a special type of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. It is a process that is characterized by the loss of features of endothelial cells and acquisition of specific markers of mesenchymal cells. A variety of stimuli, such as inflammation, growth factors, and hypoxia, regulate EndMT through various signaling pathways and intracellular transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are also involved in this process. Recent studies have identified the essential role of EndMT in the cardiovascular system...
September 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714932/thrombospondins-a-role-in-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
Thrombospondins (TSPs) represent extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins belonging to the TSP family that comprises five members. All TSPs have a complex multidomain structure that permits the interaction with various partners including other ECM proteins, cytokines, receptors, growth factors, etc. Among TSPs, TSP1, TSP2, and TSP4 are the most studied and functionally tested. TSP1 possesses anti-angiogenic activity and is able to activate transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, a potent profibrotic and anti-inflammatory factor...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676926/the-infant-with-aortic-arch-hypoplasia-and-small-left-heart-structures-echocardiographic-indices-of-mitral-and-aortic-hypoplasia-predicting-successful-biventricular-repair
#16
Jennifer M Plymale, Peter C Frommelt, Melodee Nugent, Pippa Simpson, James S Tweddell, Amanda J Shillingford
In infants with aortic arch hypoplasia and small left-sided cardiac structures, successful biventricular repair is dependent on the adequacy of the left-sided structures. Defining accurate thresholds of echocardiographic indices predictive of successful biventricular repair is paramount to achieving optimal outcomes. We sought to identify pre-operative echocardiographic indices of left heart size that predict intervention-free survival in infants with small left heart structures undergoing primary aortic arch repair to establish biventricular circulation (BVC)...
August 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674029/atla-mediates-extracellular-dna-release-which-contributes-to-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-infective-endocarditis
#17
Chiau-Jing Jung, Ron-Bin Hsu, Chia-Tung Shun, Chih-Chieh Hsu, Jean-San Chia
Host factors, such as platelets, have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by oral commensal streptococci, inducing infective endocarditis (IE), but how bacterial components contribute to biofilm formation in vivo is still not clear. We demonstrated previously that an isogenic mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans deficient in autolysin AtlA (ΔatlA) showed a reduced ability to cause vegetation in a rat model of bacterial endocarditis. However, the role of AtlA in bacterial biofilm formation is unclear. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that extracellular DNA (eDNA) was embedded in S...
September 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644382/metal-ion-loaded-nanofibre-matrices-for-calcification-inhibition-in-polyurethane-implants
#18
Charanpreet Singh, Xungai Wang
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s for inhibiting pathological calcification in polyurethane (PU) implants. The hypothesis of using MIs as anti-calcification agents was based on the natural calcium-antagonist role of Mg(2+) ions in human body, and the anti-calcification effect of Fe(3+) ions in bio-prosthetic heart valves has previously been confirmed...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633268/surgical-interventional-hybrid-concept-in-a-newborn-with-borderline-left-heart
#19
Stefan Rupp, Josef Thul, Kerstin Gummel, Markus Khalil, Hakan Akintuerk, Dietmar Schranz
Through a series of complex surgical and interventional procedures including downsizing of an unrestricted atrial septal defect, aortic arch reconstruction, pulmonary artery banding, reversed Potts shunt, and Melody valve in a mitral position, biventricular conversion was successfully achieved in a patient with a distinct borderline left ventricle. By use of these interventional steps, flow-mediated and load-mediated growth of a small left ventricle was observed, highlighting the plasticity of hearts in growing children...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620766/phenotype-transformation-of-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-due-to-applied-shear-stresses-within-a-microfluidic-chip
#20
Xinmei Wang, Joohyung Lee, Mir Ali, Jungkyu Kim, Carla M R Lacerda
Despite valvular heart diseases constituting a significant medical problem, the acquisition of information describing their pathophysiology remains difficult. Due to valvular size, role and location within the body, there is a need for in vitro systems that can recapitulate disease onset and progression. This study combines the development of an in vitro model and its application in the mechanical stimulation of valvular cell transformation. Specifically, porcine aortic valvular interstitial cells (PAVIC) were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices with or without exposure to shear stresses...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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