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meditation brain injury

Alice C Richer
Background: The U.S. military has seen dramatic increases in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among military personnel due to the nature of modern-day conflicts. Conventional TBI treatment for secondary brain injuries has suboptimal success rates, and patients, families, and healthcare professionals are increasingly turning to alternative medicine treatments. Objective: Effective treatments for the secondary injury cascades that occur after an initial brain trauma are unclear at this time. The goal of successful treatment options for secondary TBI injuries is to reduce oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inflammation while supporting mitochondrial functions and repair of membranes, synapses, and axons...
August 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
Imre Cikajlo, Ursa Cizman Staba, Suzana Vrhovac, Frances Larkin, Mark Roddy
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there has been a marked increase in stress and anxiety, also among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Access to psychology services is limited, with some estimates suggesting that over 50% of sufferers are not accessing the existing services available to them for reasons such as inconvenience, embarrassment, or stigmatization concerns around mental health. Health service providers have increasingly been turning to drug-free therapies, such as mindfulness programs, as complementary treatments...
June 5, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
E Bulzacka, S Lavault, A Pelissolo, C Bagnis Isnard
OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction...
February 2018: L'Encéphale
Ian H Stanley, Thomas E Joiner, Craig J Bryan
Research has demonstrated a robust link between traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and suicide risk. Yet, few studies have investigated factors that account for this link. Utilizing a clinical sample of deployed military personnel, this study aimed to examine a serial meditation model of anger and depression in the association of mild TBI and suicide risk. A total of 149 military service members referred for evaluation/treatment of a suspected head injury at a military hospital participated in the present study (92...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Philip P Foster
It is hypothesized that the topology of brain networks is constructed by connecting nodes which may be continuously remodeled by appropriate training. Efficiency of physical and/or mental training on the brain relies on the flexibility of networks' architecture molded by local remodeling of proteins and synapses of excitatory neurons producing transformations in network topology. Continuous remodeling of proteins of excitatory neurons is fine-tuning the scaling and strength of excitatory synapses up or down via regulation of intra-cellular metabolic and regulatory networks of the genome-transcriptome-proteome interface...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
René Pelletier, Johanne Higgins, Daniel Bourbonnais
Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries...
November 2015: Physical Therapy
M C Bushnell, L K Case, M Ceko, V A Cotton, J L Gracely, L A Low, M H Pitcher, C Villemure
Much evidence from pain patients and animal models shows that chronic pain does not exist in a vacuum but has varied comorbidities and far-reaching consequences. Patients with long-term pain often develop anxiety and depression and can manifest changes in cognitive functioning, particularly with working memory. Longitudinal studies in rodent models also show the development of anxiety-like behavior and cognitive changes weeks to months after an injury causing long-term pain. Brain imaging studies in pain patients and rodent models find that chronic pain is associated with anatomical and functional alterations in the brain...
April 2015: Pain
Mark P Jensen, Leslie H Sherlin, Felipe Fregni, Ann Gianas, Jon D Howe, Shahin Hakimian
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments...
December 2014: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Jennie Ponsford, Mark Bayley, Catherine Wiseman-Hakes, Leanne Togher, Diana Velikonja, Amanda McIntyre, Shannon Janzen, Robyn Tate
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury, due to its diffuse nature and high frequency of injury to frontotemporal and midbrain reticular activating systems, may cause disruption in many aspects of attention: arousal, selective attention, speed of information processing, and strategic control of attention, including sustained attention, shifting and dividing of attention, and working memory. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for the management of attentional problems...
July 2014: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Sandra B Chapman, Raksha A Mudar
Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease...
2014: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Maulik P Purohit, Rebecca Erwin Wells, Ross Zafonte, Roger B Davis, Gloria Y Yeh, Russell S Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychiatric symptoms affect 37% of US adults and present in many important diagnoses including posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and chronic pain. However, these symptoms are difficult to treat with standard treatments, and patients may seek alternative options. In this study, we examined the use of mind-body therapies by adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms. METHOD: We compared mind-body therapy use (biofeedback, energy healing, meditation, guided imagery, yoga, deep-breathing exercises, hypnosis, progressive relaxation therapy, qigong, and tai chi) between adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms (anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches, memory deficits, attention deficits, and excessive daytime sleepiness) in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (N = 23,393)...
June 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Vernon A Barnes, John L Rigg, Jennifer J Williams
Active duty U.S. Army Service Members previously diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were selected from review of patient records in the Traumatic Brain Injury Clinic at the Department of Defense Eisenhower Army Medical Center at Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia. Patients agreed to practice the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique for 20 minutes twice a day for the duration of a 2-month follow-up period. Three cases are presented with results that show the feasibility of providing TM training to active duty soldiers with PTSD in a Department of Defense medical facility...
July 2013: Military Medicine
Gordon Muir Giles, Karen Scott, David Manchester
Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of in-patient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury...
2013: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Mark P Jensen, Leslie H Sherlin, Robert L Askew, Felipe Fregni, Gregory Witkop, Ann Gianas, Jon D Howe, Shahin Hakimian
OBJECTIVE: To (1) evaluate the effects of a single session of four non-pharmacological pain interventions, relative to a sham tDCS procedure, on pain and electroencephalogram- (EEG-) assessed brain oscillations, and (2) determine the extent to which procedure-related changes in pain intensity are associated with changes in brain oscillations. METHODS: 30 individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain were given an EEG and administered measures of pain before and after five procedures (hypnosis, meditation, transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS], neurofeedback, and a control sham tDCS procedure)...
October 2013: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Kristin M Pearson-Fuhrhop, Erin Burke, Steven C Cramer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The fields of clinical genetics and pharmacogenetics are rapidly expanding. Genetic factors have numerous associations with injury and with treatment effects in the setting of neural plasticity and recovery. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is reviewed that established genetic variants, as well as some more recently described variants, are related to outcome after neural injury and in some cases are useful for predicting clinical course. In many cases, the interaction of genetics with clinical factors such as experience and therapy may be important...
December 2012: Current Opinion in Neurology
Shaohua Wang, Yang Yuan, Wenqing Xia, Fengfei Li, Yan Huang, Yi Zhou, Yijing Guo
Our previous research highlighted an inconsistency with Notch1 signaling-related compensatory neurogenesis after chronic mild stress (CMS) in rodents suffering from cerebral ischemia, which continue to display post-stroke depressive symptoms. Here, we hypothesize that CMS aggrandized ischemia-related apoptosis injury and worsened synaptic integrity via gamma secretase-meditated Notch1 signaling. Adult rats were exposed to a CMS paradigm after left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Open-field and sucrose consumption testing were employed to assess depression-like behavior...
2012: PloS One
B Johansson, H Bjuhr, L Rönnbäck
OBJECTIVE: Patients who suffer from mental fatigue after a stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a drastically reduced capacity for work and for participating in social activities. Since no effective therapy exists, the aim was to implement a novel, non-pharmacological strategy aimed at improving the condition of these patients. METHODS: This study tested a treatment with mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). The results of the programme were evaluated using a self-assessment scale for mental fatigue and neuropsychological tests...
2012: Brain Injury: [BI]
Thomas J Martin, Nancy L Buechler, Susy A Kim, Eric E Ewan, Ruoyu Xiao, Steven R Childers
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain alters opioid self-administration in rats. The brain regions altered in the presence of neuropathic pain mediating these differences have not been identified, but likely involve ascending pain pathways interacting with the limbic system. The amygdala is a brain region that integrates noxious stimulation with limbic activity. METHODS: μ-Opioid receptors were blocked in the amygdala using the irreversible antagonist, β-funaltrexamine, and the antiallodynic and reinforcing effects of heroin were determined in spinal nerve-ligated rats...
March 2011: Anesthesiology
Amal Al Sayegh, David Sandford, Alan J Carson
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Postconcussion syndrome (PCS) is a term used to describe the complex, and controversial, constellation of physical, cognitive and emotional symptoms associated with mild brain injury. At the current time, there is a lack of clear, evidence-based treatment strategies. In this systematic review, the authors aimed to evaluate the potential efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and other psychological treatments in postconcussion symptoms. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched up to November 2008 for studies of psychological approaches to treatment or prevention of postconcussion syndrome or symptoms...
October 2010: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Emma J Lawrence, Philip K McGuire, Matthew Allin, Muriel Walshe, Vincent Giampietro, Robin M Murray, Larry Rifkin, Chiari Nosarti
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preterm birth influences functional neuronal development in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated adults born very preterm (VPT; < 33 weeks of gestation) using a verbal paired-associate learning task within a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Hippocampi and parahippocampal gyri gray matter volumes were also quantified. RESULTS: Despite similar task performance compared with control participants, VPT adults showed increased brain activation in the left parahippocampal and precentral gyri during Encoding, and in the precentral gyrus during Recall...
June 2010: Journal of Pediatrics
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