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Medical mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656841/from-phaeohyphomycosis-to-disseminated-chromoblastomycosis-a-retrospective-study-of-infections-caused-by-dematiaceous-fungi
#1
E Thomas, A Bertolotti, A Barreau, J Klisnick, P Tournebize, G Borgherini, N Zemali, J Jaubert, G Jouvion, S Bretagne, S Picot
OBJECTIVE: Infections caused by dematiaceous fungi are more common in tropical and subtropical areas. We aimed to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of case patients diagnosed at a University Hospital located on an Indian Ocean island. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective study of infections caused by dematiaceous fungi diagnosed at the University Hospital of Saint-Pierre, Reunion, from 2000 to 2015. Mycological identifications were performed at the National Reference Center for Invasive Mycosis and Antifungal Agents (Paris)...
April 12, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642408/mucormycosis-battle-with-the-deadly-enemy-over-a-five-year-period-in-india
#2
Jagdish Chander, Mandeep Kaur, Nidhi Singla, R P S Punia, Surinder K Singhal, Ashok K Attri, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Alberto M Stchigel, Jose F Cano-Lira, Josep Guarro
Mucormycosis is an emerging opportunistic fungal infection. Increasing immunocompromization, widespread use of antibacterial and antifungal agents (such as voriconazole prophylaxis), carcinomas, transplantation and lifestyle diseases such as diabetes are the main contributors to this situation. The predominant clinical manifestations of mucormycosis vary from host to host, with rhino-orbital-cerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal infections being the most common. In India, the prevalence of mucormycosis is approximately 0...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601109/fungal-diseases-in-children-and-adolescents-in-a-referral-centre-in-bogota-colombia
#3
Alvarado Zulma, Pereira Claudia
A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at a dermatology referral centre in Bogotá to estimate the frequencies and aetiologies of mycoses in the population under 18 years of age attending the medical mycology laboratory over a 13-year period (2000-2012). A total of 1337 samples from 1221 patients were evaluated, involving direct examination and culture for 1279 samples, direct examination alone for 50 and culture alone for 8. During the study period, dermatophytosis was diagnosed via culture in 537 cases (40...
March 30, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544767/diagnosis-and-management-of-aspergillus-diseases-executive-summary-of-the-2017-escmid-ecmm-ers-guideline
#4
A J Ullmann, J M Aguado, S Arikan-Akdagli, D W Denning, A H Groll, K Lagrou, C Lass-Flörl, R E Lewis, P Munoz, P E Verweij, A Warris, F Ader, M Akova, M C Arendrup, R A Barnes, C Beigelman-Aubry, S Blot, E Bouza, R J M Brüggemann, D Buchheidt, J Cadranel, E Castagnola, A Chakrabarti, M Cuenca-Estrella, G Dimopoulos, J Fortun, J-P Gangneux, J Garbino, W J Heinz, R Herbrecht, C P Heussel, C C Kibbler, N Klimko, B J Kullberg, C Lange, T Lehrnbecher, J Löffler, O Lortholary, J Maertens, O Marchetti, J F Meis, L Pagano, P Ribaud, M Richardson, E Roilides, M Ruhnke, M Sanguinetti, D C Sheppard, J Sinkó, A Skiada, M J G T Vehreschild, C Viscoli, O A Cornely
The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538737/black-yeasts-in-the-omics-era-achievements-and-challenges
#5
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
Black yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538733/developing-collaborative-works-for-faster-progress-on-fungal-respiratory-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371791/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-model-for-studying-aspergillus-fumigatus
#7
REVIEW
Hadeel Saeed Al-Maliki, Suceti Martinez, Patrick Piszczatowski, Joan W Bennett
Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model organism that offers essential insights into developmental and cellular processes shared with humans, which has been adapted for large scale analysis of medically important microbes and to test the toxicity of heavy metals, industrial solvents and other poisonous substances. We here give a brief review of the use of the Drosophila model in medical mycology, discuss the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the opportunistic human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and give a brief summary of what is known about the toxicity of some common fungal VOCs...
December 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362778/oral-medications-to-treat-toenail-fungal-infection
#8
Sanne Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Kate L Hawke, Mieke L van Driel
Clinical Question: Which oral antifungal medication is associated with the highest clinical (ie, normal appearance of the toenail) and mycological (negative culture, microscopy, or both) cure rates vs placebo or other antifungals when used to treat fungal infections? Bottom Line: Both terbinafine and azole-based medications were associated with higher clinical and mycological cure rates compared with placebo (high-quality evidence). Azoles were associated with lower cure rates than terbinafine when compared directly...
January 23, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261004/exploring-and-exploiting-the-connection-between-mitochondria-and-the-virulence-of-human-pathogenic-fungi
#9
Surbhi Verma, Viplendra P S Shakya, Alexander Idnurm
Mitochondria are best known for their role in the production of ATP; however, recent research implicates other mitochondrial functions in the virulence of human pathogenic fungi. Inhibitors of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase or the electron transport chain are successfully used to combat plant pathogenic fungi, but similar inhibition of mitochondrial functions has not been pursued for applications in medical mycology. Advances in understanding mitochondrial function relevant to human pathogenic fungi are in four major directions: 1) the role of mitochondrial morphology in virulence, 2) mitochondrial genetics, with a focus on mitochondrial DNA recombination and mitochondrial inheritance 3) the role of mitochondria in drug resistance, and 4) the interaction of mitochondria with other organelles...
January 1, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240863/long-term-follow-up-of-onychomycosis-patients-treated-with-efinaconazole
#10
Richard A Pollak, Carla Ilie
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a common disease that remains difficult to treat despite the introduction of new topical agents. Clinical trials on efinaconazole and tavaborole included 48 weeks' daily treatment regimens with a 4-week follow-up. It has been suggested that either a longer treatment regimen or longer follow-up would lead to even better results, primarily due to the time taken for the diseased nail to grow out, especially in those patients with more severe disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a longer follow-up period on the efficacy of efinaconazole 10% topical solution in patients with moderate-to-severe onychomycosis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191631/-clinical-problems-in-medical-mycology-problem-number-52
#11
Fernando Messina, Roxana Depardo, Ricardo Negroni, Mercedes Romero, Laura Walker, Alicia Arechavala, Emmanuel Marín, Cristina Canteros, Gabriela Santiso
The case of a 60 year old woman with hemoptysis and a thin-walled cavitary lesion at the upper lobe of the right lung is presented. The woman presented at the Mycology Unit of the Muñiz Hospital in Buenos Aires City 3 months after the beginning of her clinical manifestations. A hyaline micelial fungus with chlamido-arthroconidias was isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage. Immunodiffusion and counter-immnunoelectrophoresis with coccidioidin and histoplasmin rendered positive results against both antigents, and skin tests with coccidioidin and histoplasmin were also positive with strong reactions...
January 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187717/-a-case-of-liver-dysfunction-requiring-hospital-admission-after-taking-oral-itraconazole-for-the-treatment-of-kerion-celsi
#12
Eri Ikeda, Soko Watanabe, Mizuki Sawada, Junya Ninomiya, Itaru Dekio, Sumiko Ishizaki, Mariko Fujibayashi, Masaru Tanaka, Takashi Harada
  67-year-old female patient developed drug-induced liver dysfunction after taking oral itraconazole (ITCZ) for the treatment of kerion celsi. Red papules appeared on the temporal area of the patient one month prior to her visit to our clinic. The patient presented with a nodule with yellow crust, erosion, infiltration, and hair loss on the area. Diagnosis of kerion celsi caused by Trichophyton rubrum was made from clinical, pathological, and mycological findings. Laboratory data showed normal liver function, and the patient was not taking any other medication, thus, daily oral ITCZ 100 mg was started...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169813/-clinical-problems-in-medical-mycology-problem-number-51
#13
Mercedes Romero, Fernando Messina, Emmanuel Marín, Alicia Arechavala, Ricardo Negroni, Roxana Depardo, Laura Walker, Andrés Benchetrit, Gabriela Santiso
A 48 year-old immunocompetent woman, who had a nodular lesion in the neck and a dense infiltrate at the lower lobe of the left lung, presented at the Mycology Unit of Muñiz Hospital of Buenos Aires City. The pulmonary infiltrate disappeared spontaneously 3 months later. The histopathological study of the nodular lesion showed capsulated yeasts (mucicarmin and alcian blue positive stains) compatible with Cryptococcus. The mycological study of a new sample, obtained by a nodular puncture, allowed the isolation of yeasts, identified as Cryptococcus gattii (VGII)...
January 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168557/probiotics-for-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-in-non-pregnant-women
#14
REVIEW
Huan Yu Xie, Dan Feng, Dong Mei Wei, Ling Mei, Hui Chen, Xun Wang, Fang Fang
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is estimated to be the second most common form of infection after bacterial vaginosis. The ability of probiotics in maintaining and recovering the normal vaginal microbiota, and their potential ability to resist Candidas give rise to the concept of using probiotics for the treatment of VVC. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women...
November 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157206/antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-candida-species-isolated-from-the-immunocompromised-patients-admitted-to-ten-university-hospitals-in-iran-comparison-of-colonizing-and-infecting-isolates
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Parisa Badiee, Hamid Badali, Teun Boekhout, Kambiz Diba, Abdolkarim Ghadimi Moghadam, Ali Hossaini Nasab, Hadis Jafarian, Rasoul Mohammadi, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Javad Najafzadeh, Ahmad Shamsizadeh, Jafar Soltani
BACKGROUND: Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. METHODS: In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system...
November 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132742/-statement-in-favor-of-the-foundation-of-the-iberoamerican-society-for-medical-mycology
#16
Guillermo Quindós, Javier Pemán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108709/update-on-actinomucor-elegans-a-mucormycete-infrequently-detected-in-human-specimens-how-combined-microbiological-tools-contribute-efficiently-to-a-more-accurate-medical-care
#17
J Dorin, M D'Aveni, A Debourgogne, M Cuenin, M Guillaso, A Rivier, P Gallet, G Lecoanet, M Machouart
Actinomucor elegans is a fungus belonging to mucormycetes and is still probably underdiagnosed due to misidentification. Based on a recent first case of Actinomucor elegans sinusitis in Europe, in an immunocompromised patient under voriconazole treatment, this paper aims to summarize knowledge about A. elegans mucormycoses. Even if the diagnosis of mucormycosis was made using traditional mycology techniques, precise identification of the fungus could only be achieved using molecular tools. In this observation, the galactomannan dosage was positive until the introduction of treatment and surgical debridement...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082256/examination-of-oral-microbiota-diversity-in-adults-and-older-adults-as-an-approach-to-prevent-spread-of-risk-factors-for-human-infections
#18
Paweł J Zawadzki, Konrad Perkowski, Marcin Padzik, Elżbieta Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Jacek P Szaflik, David Bruce Conn, Lidia Chomicz
The oral cavity environment may be colonized by polymicrobial communities with complex, poorly known interrelations. The aim of this study was to determine oral microbiota diversity in order to prevent the spread of infectious microorganisms that are risk factors for human health complications in patients requiring treatment due to various disabilities. The study examined Polish adults aged between 40 and 70 years; parasitological, microbiological, and mycological data collected before treatment were analyzed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027030/diagnostic-accuracy-of-fungal-identification-in-histopathology-and-cytopathology-specimens
#19
V L Kung, R D Chernock, C-A D Burnham
Tools to diagnose fungal infection are microscopic examination, antigen or antibody-based detection tests, molecular diagnostics, and culture, with culture being the "gold standard" for species-level identification. Although these methods are commonly used in concert and yield concordant results, in some cases tissue is not available for culture, and/or different methodologies yield discrepant results. These discrepancies may be clinically significant, causing confusion and inappropriate or delayed initiation of antifungals...
January 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959791/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-outcomes-of-rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis-a-retrospective-analysis
#20
A Abdollahi, T Shokohi, N Amirrajab, R Poormosa, A M Kasiri, S J Motahari, S M Ghoreyshi, S A Madani, M Nikkhah, M Ghasemi, L Vahedi Larijani, M Didehdar, Z Seifi, N Gholinejad, M Ilkit
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a rare disease with acute and fulminant manifestation. This infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Herein, we reviewed the manifestations, underlying conditions, medical treatments, and surgical interventions in ROCM patients admitted to a tertiary referral center in northern Iran over a seven-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, 15 cases of ROCM were identified from 2007 to 2013 in Bu Ali Sina Hospital, Sari, Iran...
December 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
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