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Candida spp.

Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
J Denis, M-P Ledoux, Y Nivoix, R Herbrecht
Triazoles compounds are first-line agents for the treatment of invasive fungal diseases. Isavuconazole is the most recent triazole compound, approved in 2015 by the FDA and the EMA to treat invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We reviewed here the in vitro activity of isavuconazole against a vast spectrum of species. Isavuconazole MICs were evaluated using CLSI, EUCAST or Etest methods, with no significant differences between the technics. Low MIC50 and MIC90 (<1μg/mL) were described for isavuconazole against the majority of Candida spp...
March 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
S Salari, N Sadat Seddighi, P Ghasemi Nejad Almani
OBJECTIVE: Biofilm formation ability is one of the major virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of Candida species. Biofilms produced by Candida spp. cause complicated treatments and contribute to increasing unpleasant mortality rates. Nanoparticles of Fe3 O4 (Fe3 O4 -NPs) are considered due to their magnetic and biochemical properties, as well as their low costs. The purpose of present study was to determine biofilm formation ability in different Candida strains and evaluation of anti-biofilm effect of Fe3 O4 -NPs compared with FLC...
March 5, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Frank Schwab, Christine Geffers, Michael Behnke, Petra Gastmeier
OBJECTIVE: Mortality due to intensive care unit (ICU) acquired primary blood stream infections (PBSI) is related primarily to patient co-morbidities, types of pathogens and quality of care. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of various types of pathogen on ICU mortality. METHODS: Data from the German National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System of patients with PBSI from 2006 to 2015 was used for this analysis. A BSI is primary when the pathogen recognized is not related to an infection on another site...
2018: PloS One
Laura Chasseriaud, Joana Coulon, Philippe Marullo, Warren Albertin, Marina Bely
Non-Saccharomyces yeast species, naturally found in grape must, may impact wine quality positively or negatively. In this study, a mixture of five non-Saccharomyces species (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia spp., Starmerella bacillaris (formerly called Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia kluyveri), mimicking the composition of the natural non-Saccharomyces community found in grape must, was used for alcoholic fermentation. The impact of CO2 saturation of the grape juice was studied first on this mixture alone, and then in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
March 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ann W Plum, Anthony J Mortelliti, Ronald E Walsh
Abscesses in the head and neck frequently have odontogenic sources. As bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns may change over time and based on location, we describe the current common bacteria found in odontogenic abscesses, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, and differences in each between pediatric and adult patients in Upstate New York. This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent drainage of odontogenic abscesses (n = 131) from 2002 to 2012 at an academic institution. The medical records were reviewed for results of abscess cultures, comorbidities, and drainage procedures...
January 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
A I Kryukov, N L Kunel'skaya, V Ya Kunel'skaya, A Yu Ivoilov, A B Turovskiy, G B Shadrin, A I Machulin
This article deals with the modern approaches to the diagnostics and treatment of fungal ear infection depending on the localization of the inflammatory process and the species of the causative fungal agent with special reference to the factors underlying the development of otomycosis under the present-day conditions based on the results of the analysis of the studies carried out during the period from 2010 to 2014. The materials of the examination of 2152 patients who applied for the medical care to various clinical departments of the Institute and were found to present with chronic inflammatory ear pathology were available for the analysis...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Rozina Ambachew Geremew, Beyene Moges Agizie, Abate Assefa Bashaw, Mengistu Endris Seid, Addisu Gize Yeshanew
Background: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) is a major global cause of acute illness, infertility, long-term disability and death, with serious medical and psychological consequences to millions of men, women and infants. Moreover, in Ethiopia, epidemiological studies on STI among STI clinic clients are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted between April and August 2014 among STI clinic clients in Gondar Town hospitals and health centers...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Nora Renz, Sabrina Cabric, Christian Morgenstern, Michael A Schuetz, Andrej Trampuz
INTRODUCTION: Bone healing disturbance following fracture fixation represents a continuing challenge. We evaluated a novel fully automated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using sonication fluid from retrieved orthopedic hardware to diagnose infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective diagnostic cohort study, explanted orthopedic hardware materials from consecutive patients were investigated by sonication and the resulting sonication fluid was analyzed by culture (standard procedure) and multiplex PCR (investigational procedure)...
February 21, 2018: Injury
Arthur J Morris, Karen Rogers, Wendy P McKinney, Sally A Roberts, Joshua T Freeman
OBJECTIVES: We have reviewed the susceptibility results of local yeast isolates performed 2001-2015 to record the impact of recently updated interpretive criteria, and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs), for yeast species. METHODS: Testing was performed using Sensititre® YeastOne® and results interpreted following CLSI criteria or YeastOne derived ECVs. RESULTS: 2345 isolates were tested; 62% were from sterile body sites or tissue. Application of the new CLSI interpretative criteria for fluconazole increased the proportion of non-susceptible isolates of C...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Usha Yadav, Mohd Ashraf Khan
The GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) biosynthetic pathway is a multistep conserved pathway in eukaryotes that culminates in the generation of GPI glycolipid which in turn anchors many proteins (GPI-APs) to the cell surface. In spite of the overall conservation of the pathway, there still exist subtle differences in the GPI pathway of mammals and other eukaryotes which holds a great promise so far as the development of drugs/inhibitors against specific targets in the GPI pathway of pathogens is concerned. Many of the GPI structures and their anchored proteins in pathogenic protozoans and fungi act as pathogenicity factors...
February 27, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
J N Vieira, A M Feijó, M E Bueno, C L Gonçalves, R G Lund, J F Mendes, J P V Villarreal, M M Villela, P S Nascente
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida species between a non-hospitalized and a hospitalized population. For this purpose, samples of saliva were sampled through sterile swabs, moistened in peptone water and rubbed in the oral cavity of 140 individuals, from which, 70 were hospitalized patients from the Medical Clinic of a Teaching Hospital and the other 70 were non-hospitalized subjects. All saliva samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose agar added with Chloramphenicol and incubated at 36 °C for 48 hours...
February 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
N Pinder, L H Pelzl, G Walther, J Backhaus, O Kurzai, T Hoppe-Tichy
BACKGROUND: Ready to use caspofungin infusion bags are centrally prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital of Heidelberg, for economic reasons and possibly occurring problems with drug shortages. The aim of this study was a quality control of the in-house preparation of caspofungin infusion bags and the preparation process. Caspofungin concentration with regard to chemical stability and antifungal activity of caspofungin preparations were defined as quality parameters. METHODS: Three caspofungin infusion bags (50 mg in 100 mL 0...
April 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Ming-Chi Li, Tsung C Chang, Hung-Mo Chen, Chi-Jung Wu, Shu-Li Su, Susan S-J Lee, Po-Lin Chen, Nan-Yao Lee, Ching-Chi Lee, Chia-Wen Li, Ling-Shan Syue, Wen-Chien Ko
We evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using VITEK MS (IVD database) and an oligonucleotide array based on the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) and ITS-2 sequences of rRNA genes for the identification of Candida spp. from blood cultures. Five-hundred and twelve consecutive bloodstream yeast isolates were collected daily and initially identified by the phenotypic automated method (VITEK YBC or VITEK2 YST card). Inconsistent results were confirmed by D1-D2 region of 28S rRNA genes and ITSs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marco Fiore, Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Vincenzo Schiavone, Maria Caterina Pace
Fungal infections of the liver, most commonly caused by Candida spp., often occur in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with chemotherapy. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to be the main origin of dissemination of Candida ; mucositis and neutropenia facilitate the spread of Candida from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. Hepatic involvement due to other fungi is a less common infectious complication in this setting. Fungal infections represent a less common cause of hepatic abscesses in non-oncohematologic population and the trend appears to be decreasing in recent years...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
P A Reuken, W Kruis, C Maaser, N Teich, J Büning, J C Preiß, R Schmelz, T Bruns, S Fichtner-Feigl, A Stallmach
Background: Intra-abdominal abscesses (IAA) are common life threatening complications in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In addition to interventional drainage and surgical therapy, empirical antibiotic therapy represents a corner stone of treatment but contemporary data on microbial spectra and antimicrobial resistance are scarce. Methods: We recruited 105 patients with CD and IAA from 9 German centers for a prospective registry in order to characterize the microbiological spectrum, resistance profiles, antibiotic therapy and outcome...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Fernando Chaves, José Garnacho-Montero, José Luis Del Pozo, Emilio Bouza, José Antonio Capdevila, Marina de Cueto, M Ángeles Domínguez, Jaime Esteban, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Marta Fernández Sampedro, Jesús Fortún, María Guembe, Leonardo Lorente, Jose Ramón Paño, Paula Ramírez, Miguel Salavert, Miguel Sánchez, Jordi Vallés
Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) constitute an important cause of hospital-acquired infection associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. The aim of these guidelines is to provide updated recommendations for the diagnosis and management of CRBSI in adults. Prevention of CRBSI is excluded. Experts in the field were designated by the two participating Societies (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica and the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias)...
February 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
E Robledo-Leal, L G Rivera-Morales, M P Sangorrín, G M González, G Ramos-Alfano, J M Adame-Rodriguez, J M Alcocer-Gonzalez, E T Arechiga-Carvajal, C Rodriguez-Padilla
Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP...
February 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Subramanian Muthamil, Vivekanandham Amsa Devi, Boopathi Balasubramaniam, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
Candida species are opportunistic fungal pathogens, which are known for their biofilm associated infections on implanted medical devices in clinical settings. Broad spectrum usage of azole groups and other antifungal agents leads to the occurrence of drug resistance among Candida species. Most of the antifungal agents have failed to treat the biofilm mediated Candida infections. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Dodonaea viscosa and Hyptis suoveolens methanolic leaf extracts and characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, and Zeta potential analysis...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Dahmani Amani, Noumi Emira, Trabelsi Ismail, Eddouzi Jamel, Sanglard Dominique, Del Campo Rosa, Snoussi Mejdi
The virulence properties of Candida spp. presents in landfill leachate still unknown until today and they constitutes a serious source of potential danger for humans. We investigate the antifungal susceptibility, production of hydrolytic enzymes and biofilm formation on polystyrene as well as glass in Candida spp. strains isolated from a landfill leachate treatment station in Borj Chakir (Tunisia). 37 yeast strains were isolated belonging to the following species: C. robusta, C. lusitaniae, C. tropicalis, C...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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