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Candida spp.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340465/variability-in-the-clinical-distributions-of-candida-species-and-the-emergence-of-azole-resistant-non-candida-albicans-species-in-public-hospitals-in-the-midwest-region-of-brazil
#1
Karine Mattos, Luana Carbonera Rodrigues, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Pedro Fernando Diniz, Luiza Inahê Marques, Adriana Almeida Araujo, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
INTRODUCTION: Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS: Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330691/bis-guanylhydrazones-as-efficient-anti-candida-compounds-through-dna-interaction
#2
Jelena Lazić, Vladimir Ajdačić, Sandra Vojnovic, Mario Zlatović, Marina Pekmezovic, Selene Mogavero, Igor Opsenica, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic
Candida spp. are leading causes of opportunistic mycoses, including life-threatening hospital-borne infections, and novel antifungals, preferably aiming targets that have not been used before, are constantly needed. Hydrazone- and guanidine-containing molecules have shown a wide range of biological activities, including recently described excellent antifungal properties. In this study, four bis-guanylhydrazone derivatives (BG1-4) were generated following a previously developed synthetic route. Anti-Candida (two C...
January 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330184/microbiomes-in-dishwashers-analysis-of-the-microbial-diversity-and-putative-opportunistic-pathogens-in-dishwasher-biofilm-communities
#3
Prem Krishnan Raghupathi, Jerneja Zupančič, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Samuel Jacquiod, Kurt Houf, Mette Burmølle, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Søren J Sørensen
Extreme habitats are not only limited to natural environments, but also apply to man-made systems, for instance household appliances such as dishwashers. Limiting factors, such as high temperatures, high and low pH, high NaCl concentrations, presence of detergents and shear force from water during washing cycles define the microbial survival in this extreme system. Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers were investigated using next generation sequencing...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325916/proanthocyanidin-polymeric-tannins-from-stryphnodendron-adstringens-are-effective-against-fluconazole-resistant-candida-spp-and-treat-vaginal-candidiasis
#4
Aline Luiza Duarte de Freitas, Vanessa Kaplum, Diego Conrado Pereira Rossi, Leandro Buffoni Roque da Silva, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Kelly Ishida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville is popularly used as anti-inflammatory, astringent and in the treatment of wounds and vaginal infections. Several pharmacological activities have been scientifically proven by "in vitro" and "in vivo" experimental assays for antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoan, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins from the Stryphnodendron adstringens steam bark with antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro are also active against planktonic and biofilm cells of Candida non-albicans (CNA, including fluconazole-resistant isolates) and are capable of controlling Candida vaginitis in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322386/independent-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-candidemia-on-italian-internal-medicine-wards
#5
Francesco Sbrana, Emanuela Sozio, Matteo Bassetti, Andrea Ripoli, Filippo Pieralli, Anna Maria Azzini, Alessandro Morettini, Carlo Nozzoli, Maria Merelli, Sebastiano Rizzardo, Giacomo Bertolino, Davide Carrara, Claudio Scarparo, Ercole Concia, Francesco Menichetti, Carlo Tascini
Candida is an increasing cause of bloodstream infection and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study is to analyze risk factors for short-term mortality in patients with bloodstream Candida spp. infections admitted to Internal Medicine Wards (IMWs). This was a retrospective case-control study between January 2012 and December 2014 from four University Hospitals in Italy, where patients with candidemia dying within 30 days from diagnosis were matched to control cases with candidemia who survived in the same period of time...
January 10, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320984/prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-uropathogens-from-cases-of-urinary-tract-infections-uti-in-shashemene-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#6
Wubalem Desta Seifu, Alemayehu Desalegn Gebissa
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains to be one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in developing countries. And a widespread use of antibiotics against uropathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant species. A laboratory based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shashemene referral hospital to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens. METHODS: We have collected 384 clean catch mid-stream urine samples from all suspected UTI outpatients using sterile screw capped container...
January 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315506/optimization-of-voriconazole-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-adults
#7
Naveen Mangal, Issam Hamadeh, Meghan J Arwood, Larisa H Cavallari, Tanay S Samant, Kenneth P Klinker, Jurgen Bulitta, Stephan Schmidt
Therapeutic concentrations of voriconazole in invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are ensured using drug monitoring approach, which relies on attainment of steady state pharmacokinetics. For voriconazole, time to reach steady state can vary from 5-7 days, not optimal for critically ill patients. We developed a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model-based approach to predict doses which can maximize the net benefit (probability of efficacy - probability of adverse events) and ensure therapeutic concentrations, early on during treatment...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314762/opportunistic-infections-in-patients-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#8
Ada Redondo-Benito, Adrian Curran, Ana Villar-Gomez, Ernesto Trallero-Araguas, Andreu Fernández-Codina, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Jose Ángel Rodrigo-Pendás, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan
AIM: To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of opportunistic infection (OI) in a cohort of patients with inflammatory myopathies, and compare mortality rates between those with and without OIs. METHODS: In total, 204 patients from our myositis cohort were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced an OI during the period 1986-2014. The patients' clinical characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes were systematically recorded...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307753/tetraglochin-cristatum-britton-roth-a-medicinal-plant-from-the-argentinean-highlands-with-potential-use-in-vaginal-candidiasis
#9
María Alejandra Moreno, Susana Córdoba, Iris Catiana Zampini, María Rosa Alberto, M E Fatima Nader-Macias, Jorge Sayago, Alberto Burgos-Edwards, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, María Inés Isla
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Argentinean medicinal plant Tetraglochin cristatum (Britton) Rothm is used in traditional medicine by inhabitants from Argentinean northwestern highlands (Puna) to treat candidiasis and as anti-inflammatory. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the potential of the crude drug as an anti-Candida agent with anti-inflammatory properties. The bioactivity and phytochemical composition of a dry extract of the plant was investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hydroalcoholic dry extract from T...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305546/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-accelerate-phenotest%C3%A2-bc-kit-for-rapid-identification-and-phenotypic-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-using-morphokinetic-cellular-analysis
#10
Preeti Pancholi, Karen C Carroll, Blake W Buchan, Raymond C Chan, Neelam Dhiman, Bradley Ford, Paul A Granato, Amanda T Harrington, Diana R Hernandez, Romney M Humphries, Matthew R Jindra, Nathan A Ledeboer, Shelley A Miller, A Brian Mochon, Margie A Morgan, Robin Patel, Paul C Schreckenberger, Paul D Stamper, Patricia J Simner, Nancy E Tucci, Cynthia Zimmerman, Donna M Wolk
We describe results from a multicenter study evaluating the Accelerate Pheno™ system, a first of its kind diagnostic system that rapidly identifies common bloodstream pathogens from positive blood cultures within 90 minutes and determines bacterial phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results within ∼seven h. A combination of fresh clinical and seeded blood cultures were tested and results from the Accelerate Pheno™ system were compared to VITEK® 2 for identification (ID) and broth microdilution or disk diffusion for AST...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304214/biofilms-and-beyond-expanding-echinocandin-utility
#11
Emily L Larkin, Sharvari Dharmaiah, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Echinocandins have been in use for over 15 years, starting with the first approval in 2001. Current trends, such as increasing resistance to fluconazole and shifts toward non-albicans spp. of Candida, suggest a growing role for echinocandins, as reflected by recent (2016) updates to guidelines that recommend echinocandins as first-line treatment for candidaemia. The efficacy, tolerability, and safety of echinocandins and their target site of action (1,3-β-d-glucan synthesis) have prompted research into potential new uses, such as for treatment of biofilm infections, MDR Candida auris and dermatophytes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304210/overview-of-antifungal-dosing-in-invasive-candidiasis
#12
Federico Pea, Russell E Lewis
In the past, most antifungal therapy dosing recommendations for invasive candidiasis followed a 'one-size fits all' approach with recommendations for lowering maintenance dosages for some antifungals in the setting of renal or hepatic impairment. A growing body of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic research, however now points to a widespread 'silent epidemic' of antifungal underdosing for invasive candidiasis, especially among critically ill patients or special populations who have altered volume of distribution, protein binding and drug clearance...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304207/changes-in-the-epidemiological-landscape-of-invasive-candidiasis
#13
Frederic Lamoth, Shawn R Lockhart, Elizabeth L Berkow, Thierry Calandra
The epidemiology of invasive candidiasis has evolved in recent years, warranting a review of the changes and the implications for current and future diagnosis and treatment. The overall burden of invasive candidiasis remains high, particularly in the expanding populations of patients at risk of opportunistic infection, such as the elderly or immunosuppressed. Progressive shifts from Candida albicans to non-albicans Candida spp. have been observed globally. The recent emergence of novel, multiresistant species, such as Candida auris, amplifies the call for vigilance in detection and advances in treatment...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302624/chemical-composition-and-antifungal-effect-of-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-allium-tripedale-tvautv-against-candida-species
#14
M Shirani, A Samimi, H Kalantari, M Madani, A Kord Zanganeh
Background and Purpose: Treatment of life-threatening fungal infections caused by Candida species has become a major problem. Candida spp. are the most important causative agents of candidiasis. Allium tripedale is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used to treat infections. In the present study, we aimed to determine the chemical compounds and antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of A. tripedale against different species of Candida. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed to identify the possible bioactive components of this extract by using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)...
March 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289430/design-synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationship-studies-of-novel-tetrazole-antifungal-agents-with-potent-activity-broad-antifungal-spectrum-and-high-selectivity
#15
Anran Qian, Yazhou Zheng, Ruilian Wang, Jianhai Wei, Yongmei Cui, Xufeng Cao, Yushe Yang
In this letter, we report our efforts to design, synthesize and evaluate biological activities of a series of novel hybridized compounds containing 1-tetrazole and 4-pyridinyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-one. An analysis of structure-activity data indicates that the target compounds with bulky and hydrophobic side chains exhibited stronger activities against the Candida spp and Cryptococcus neoformans tested than those of fluconazole and racemic VT-1161. Furthermore, 13k and 13ad were active against Microsporum gypseum, which was resistant to racemic VT-1161...
December 20, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283454/design-development-and-optimization-of-a-transungual-duple-nail-lacquer-for-onychomycosis-therapy
#16
Nazia Hasan, Manvi Singh, Sufiyanu Sulaiman, Shyamasree Nandy, Mridu Dudeja, Asgar Ali, Zeenat Iqbal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250055/the-microbiome-of-potentially-malignant-oral-leukoplakia-exhibits-enrichment-for-fusobacterium-leptotrichia-campylobacter-and-rothia-species
#17
Abdrazak Amer, Sheila Galvin, Claire M Healy, Gary P Moran
Oral leukoplakia presents as a white patch on the oral mucosa and is recognized as having significant malignant potential. Although colonization of these patches with Candida albicans is common, little is known about the bacterial microbiota of these patches. In the current study we analyzed the microbiome of oral leukoplakia in 36 patients compared to healthy mucosal tissue from the same patients and healthy control subjects to determine if specific microbial enrichments could be identified early in the malignant process that could play a role in the progression of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245249/characteristics-of-culture-positive-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-hematologic-diseases-comparison-between-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-non-fumigatus-aspergillus-species
#18
Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee, Jae-Ki Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, Si-Hyun Kim, Sun Hee Park, Su-Mi Choi, Jung-Hyun Choi, Jin-Hong Yoo, Yeon-Joon Park, Jong-Wook Lee
While the epidemiology and clinical differences of various Candida spp. has been relatively well-identified, data regarding invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by different Aspergillus spp. are insufficient.We aimed to determine the epidemiology of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and to compare the characteristics and outcomes of Aspergillus fumigatus IPA with those of non-fumigatus IPA in patients with hematologic diseases. All consecutive cases of IPA from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242837/the-human-gut-microbial-metabolome-modulates-fungal-growth-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway
#19
Carlos García, Faiza Tebbji, Michelle Daigneault, Ning-Ning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Adnane Sellam
Candida albicans is well known as a major human fungal pathogen, but it is also a permanent resident of healthy gastrointestinal tracts. Recent studies have shown that the human gut microbial metabolome represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules with a significant degree of chemical diversity. Some of these bioactive molecules may have useful antivirulence activities. For instance, intestinal bacterial species belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family were found to secrete molecules that attenuate Salmonella pathogenicity and repress the expression of virulence genes...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237446/trichomoniasis-and-associated-co-infections-of-the-genital-tract-among-pregnant-women-presenting-at-two-hospitals-in-ghana
#20
Richard H Asmah, Harriet N A Blankson, Kekeli A Seanefu, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Georgina Awuah-Mensah, Momodou Cham, Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi
BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted pathogen worldwide. Among pregnant women, the infection may cause adverse birth outcomes such as premature rupture of membranes and premature labour. In view of the paucity of information relating to TV among Ghanaian pregnant women, this study investigated its prevalence and associated co-infections among pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swabs were obtained from 99 pregnant women using sterile cotton swab sticks...
December 13, 2017: BMC Women's Health
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