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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735356/evaluation-of-anthelmintic-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activity-of-chenopodium-album
#1
Bashir A Lone, M Z Chishti, Fayaz Ahmad Bhat, Hidayatullah Tak, Suhaib A Bandh, Abida Khan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Chenopodium album against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and some pathogenic microbes. A worm motility inhibition assay was used for in vitro study, and a faecal egg count reduction assay was used for an in vivo study. Various concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 μg/ml of the extract were subjected to antimicrobial screening by disc diffusion method against four selected bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas multocida and Escherichia coli) and two fungal (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) strains in order to estimate the medicinal potential of the herb...
July 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734712/-candidemia-in-pediatrics-species-distribution-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#2
Luciana B Guzzetti, Cecilia M Vescina, M Florencia Gil, Blanca M Gatti
Serious infections caused by Candida yeasts are frequent in the hospital population. Due to differences in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility testing depending on the geographic area and the type of patient, it is important to study the epidemiology of each institution. For this purpose, we conducted a retrospective, descriptive study on the occurrence of candidemia in the Children's Hospital "Superiora Sor María Ludovica" of the city of La Plata. In a 6-year period (2010-2015), 177 candidemia episodes were recorded...
July 19, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733329/the-antifungal-activity-of-the-peptide-periplanetasin-2-derived-from-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#3
JiEun Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
The cockroach, which is a household insect, is an established model organism in research. Periplanetasin-2, derived from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, exerted potent antifungal effect against pathogenic fungi without causing hemolysis. Periplanetasin-2 induced oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Periplanetasin-2 also caused apoptosis by exposure of phosphatidylserine and fragmentation of DNA, exerted in a concentration-dependent manner. Hence, we investigated the mitochondrial apoptotic mechanism of periplanetasin-2 in Candida albicans After treatment with periplanetasin-2, we observed mitochondrial depolarization and calcium accumulation...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730719/anticandidal-activity-of-extracts-and-a-novel-compound-amnomopin-isolated-from-petriella-setifera
#4
Amani S Awaad, Nour K Al-Aonazi, Monerah R Al-Othman, Mohamed E Zain, Reham M El-Meligy, Nabil El-Sayed
A novel triterpenoidal compound named 'amnomopin' (3β-diglucoside-5,12-28-oic acid), which is named IUPAC as 3-O-(2' ➔ 1″diglucoside)1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,9,10,11,12,12a,12b,13,14b-octadecahydro-10-hydroxy-2,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptamethylpicene-4a-carboxylic acid, was isolated from the extract Petriella setifera. The total alcoholic extract of P. setifera showed a great activity against clinically isolated Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida famata, Candida glabrata, Candida inconspicua, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida norvegensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis...
July 20, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729856/biological-significance-of-marine-actinobacteria-of-east-coast-of-andhra-pradesh-india
#5
Alapati Kavitha, Handanahal S Savithri
An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725901/zinc-binding-sites-in-pra1-a-zincophore-from-candida-albicans
#6
Dorota Łoboda, Magdalena Rowińska-Żyrek
The aim of this work is to understand the interactions of Zn(ii) with Pra1, a zincophore from Candida albicans, one of the most common causes of serious fungal infections in humans. Pra1 is a 299 amino acid protein, secreted from the fungus to specifically bind Zn(ii) and deliver it to a transmembrane zinc transporter, Zrt1. We take the first step towards understanding the bioinorganic chemistry of this process, by pointing out the Zn(ii) binding sites in Pra1 and understanding the thermodynamics of such interactions...
July 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725151/chemical-constituents-of-helichrysum-italicum-roth-g-don-essential-oil-and-their-antimicrobial-activity-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-filamentous-fungi-and-candida-albicans
#7
Bouzid Djihane, Nouioua Wafa, Soltani Elkhamssa, De Haro Juan Pedro, Angeles Esteban Maria, Zerroug Mohamed Mihoub
The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w) and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%). The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722286/fighting-fungus-with-a-laser-and-a-hose-management-of-a-giant-candida-albicans-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-lead-vegetation-with-simultaneous-angiovac-aspiration-and-laser-sheath-lead-extraction
#8
Brandon M Jones, Oussama Wazni, Susan J Rehm, Mehdi H Shishehbor
Infections involving internal cardiac devices can be very challenging to treat, and almost universally require complete device extraction for successful management. Of the pathogens that cause device-related endocarditis, fungi such as Candida albicans are notoriously difficult to manage because of their propensity to produce large vegetations and the need for long-term treatment with potentially toxic medications. Furthermore, individuals who develop fungal, device-associated endocarditis are typically among the most complex patients, with significant comorbidities that place them at high risk for open heart procedures such as surgical device extraction...
July 19, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720834/chemical-inhibitors-of-candida-albicans-hyphal-morphogenesis-target-endocytosis
#9
Hagit Bar-Yosef, Nora Vivanco Gonzalez, Shay Ben-Aroya, Stephen J Kron, Daniel Kornitzer
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, typically found as a benign commensal yeast living on skin and mucosa, but poised to invade injured tissue to cause local infections. In debilitated and immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans may spread to cause life-threatening systemic infections. Upon contact with serum and at body temperature, C. albicans performs a regulated switch to filamentous morphology, characterized by emergence of a germ tube from the yeast cell followed by mold-like growth of branching hyphae...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720726/mitochondrial-cochaperone-mge1-is-involved-in-regulating-susceptibility-to-fluconazole-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-candida-species
#10
Liesbeth Demuyser, Erwin Swinnen, Alessandro Fiori, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Kevin Vestrepen, Patrick Van Dijck
MGE1 encodes a yeast chaperone involved in Fe-S cluster metabolism and protein import into the mitochondria. In this study, we identified MGE1 as a multicopy suppressor of susceptibility to the antifungal fluconazole in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We demonstrate that this phenomenon is not exclusively dependent on the integrity of the mitochondrial DNA or on the presence of the drug efflux pump Pdr5. Instead, we show that the increased dosage of Mge1 plays a protective role by retaining increased amounts of ergosterol upon fluconazole treatment...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720316/pigeons-and-their-droppings-as-reservoirs-of-candida-and-other-zoonotic-yeasts
#11
Inmaculada Rosario Medina, Lorena Román Fuentes, Miguel Batista Arteaga, Fernando Real Valcárcel, Félix Acosta Arbelo, Daniel Padilla Del Castillo, Soraya Déniz Suárez, Otilia Ferrer Quintana, Belinda Vega Gutiérrez, Freddy Silva Sergent, Begoña Acosta-Hernández
BACKGROUND: The importance of pigeons as reservoirs and carriers of Cryptococcus neoformans and other species of this genus is well-known; however, less is known about their role as reservoirs and carriers of other yeasts that impact public health. AIMS: The present study was performed on Gran Canaria Island to define yeasts other than Cryptococcus spp. that have been reported to impact public health and which could be carried by pigeons. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 83 pigeon lofts (Columba livia); moreover, 331 crop samples, 331 cloacal samples and 174 dropping samples were collected...
July 15, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712894/antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-host-defense-peptides-clavanins-and-ll-37-in-vitro-an-endodontic-perspective
#12
Stella Maris F Lima, Mirna S Freire, Ana Luisa O Gomes, Ana Paula C Cantuária, Flávia Rodrigues P Dutra, Beatriz S Magalhães, Maurício Gonçalves C Sousa, Ludovico Migliolo, Jeeser A Almeida, Octávio L Franco, Taia Maria B Rezende
Endodontic treatment is mainly based on root canal disinfection and its failure may be motivated by microbial resistance. Endodontic therapy can be benefitted by host defense peptides (HDPs), which are multifunctional molecules that act against persistent infection and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory activity of several HDPs, namely clavanin A, clavanin A modified (MO) and LL-37, compared to intracanal medication Ca(OH)2. HDPs and Ca(OH)2 were evaluated by: (1) antimicrobial assays against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis, (2) cytotoxicity assays and (3) cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW 264...
July 14, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712126/evidence-of-an-abnormal-epithelial-barrier-in-active-untreated-and-corticosteroid-treated-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#13
Dagmar Simon, Basile Page, Monique Vogel, Christian Bussmann, Carine Blanchard, Alex Straumann, Hans-Uwe Simon
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease characterized by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and an eosinophil-predominant inflammation. This study has aimed to investigate whether the recently observed sensitization to Candida albicans in EoE patients is owing to pre-existing disease and its underlying abnormal epithelial barrier or, alternatively, is linked to corticosteroid (CS) therapy. METHODS: Medical histories, as well as serum and tissue samples of 60 EoE patients (15 CS-naive, 45 with current or previous CS therapy) and 20 controls, stored in the Swiss Eosinophilic Esophagitis Database (SEED) and Biobank, were analyzed...
July 16, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709803/an-ocular-commensal-protects-against-corneal-infection-by-driving-an-interleukin-17-response-from-mucosal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#14
Anthony J St Leger, Jigar V Desai, Rebecca A Drummond, Abirami Kugadas, Fatimah Almaghrabi, Phyllis Silver, Kumarkrishna Raychaudhuri, Mihaela Gadjeva, Yoichiro Iwakura, Michail S Lionakis, Rachel R Caspi
Mucosal sites such as the intestine, oral cavity, nasopharynx, and vagina all have associated commensal flora. The surface of the eye is also a mucosal site, but proof of a living, resident ocular microbiome remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of ocular surface disease to reveal that commensals were present in the ocular mucosa and had functional immunological consequences. We isolated one such candidate commensal, Corynebacterium mastitidis, and showed that this organism elicited a commensal-specific interleukin-17 response from γδ T cells in the ocular mucosa that was central to local immunity...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704490/the-synthetic-killer-peptide-kp-impairs-candida-albicans-biofilm-in-vitro
#15
Simona Paulone, Andrea Ardizzoni, Arianna Tavanti, Serena Piccinelli, Cosmeri Rizzato, Antonella Lupetti, Bruna Colombari, Eva Pericolini, Luciano Polonelli, Walter Magliani, Stefania Conti, Brunella Posteraro, Claudio Cermelli, Elisabetta Blasi, Samuele Peppoloni
Candida albicans is a commensal organism, commonly inhabiting mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, as a part of the resident microbiota. However, in susceptible hosts, especially hospitalized and/or immunocompromised patients, it may cause a wide range of infections. The presence of abiotic substrates, such as central venous or urinary catheters, provides an additional niche for Candida attachment and persistence, particularly via biofilm development. Furthermore, Candida biofilm is poorly susceptible to most antifungals, including azoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703118/cholelithiasis-always-infected
#16
Tomasz Matyjas, Krzysztof Kaczka, Henryk Witas, Tomasz Płoszaj, Katarzyna Matyjas, Lech Pomorski
This study aims to present results regarding the presence and identification of bacterial strains found in bile and gallstones located in the gallbladder and bile ducts in patients operated on due to cholelithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacterial culture was evaluated in 92 patients. There were 54 women (59%) and 38 men (41%) who underwent surgery on account of cholelithiasis and /or gallstones in bile ducts between 2013 and 2014. Bile and gallstone samples were cultured intraoperatively for bacteria; bacterial strains were identified, and their sensitivity to antibiotics was determined...
June 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703001/synthesis-and-structural-revision-of-the-fungal-tetramic-acid-metabolite-spiroscytalin
#17
Karl Kempf, Oxana Kempf, Manuel Orozco, Ursula Bilitewski, Rainer Schobert
Spiroscytalin, a natural 3-spirotetramic acid of hitherto uncertain absolute configuration, was synthesized for the first time by a one-pot Knoevenagel-IMDA reaction of an l-phenylalanine-derived tetramic acid and (R)-2-methyl-deca-6E,8E-dienal. Its absolute configuration was assigned by the known configurations of the starting compounds and by NOESY correlations. Its identity with the natural isolate was proved by the comparison of the NMR and circular dichroism spectra and of the specific optical rotations...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702011/bridging-the-gap-to-non-toxic-fungal-control-lupinus-derived-blad-containing-oligomer-as-a-novel-candidate-to-combat-human-pathogenic-fungi
#18
Ana M Pinheiro, Alexandra Carreira, Thomas A K Prescott, Ricardo B Ferreira, Sara A Monteiro
The lack of antifungal drugs with novel modes of action reaching the clinic is a serious concern. Recently a novel antifungal protein referred to as Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) has received regulatory approval as an agricultural antifungal agent. Interestingly its spectrum of antifungal activity includes human pathogens such as Candida albicans, however, its mode of action has yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that BCO exerts its antifungal activity through inhibition of metal ion homeostasis which results in apoptotic cell death in C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701506/modelling-the-host-pathogen-interactions-of-macrophages-and-candida-albicans-using-game-theory-and-dynamic-optimization
#19
Sybille Dühring, Jan Ewald, Sebastian Germerodt, Christoph Kaleta, Thomas Dandekar, Stefan Schuster
The release of fungal cells following macrophage phagocytosis, called non-lytic expulsion, is reported for several fungal pathogens. On one hand, non-lytic expulsion may benefit the fungus in escaping the microbicidal environment of the phagosome. On the other hand, the macrophage could profit in terms of avoiding its own lysis and being able to undergo proliferation. To analyse the causes of non-lytic expulsion and the relevance of macrophage proliferation in the macrophage-Candida albicans interaction, we employ Evolutionary Game Theory and dynamic optimization in a sequential manner...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701466/methionine-synthase-is-localized-to-the-nucleus-in-pichia-pastoris-and-candida-albicans-and-to-the-cytoplasm-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
Umakant Sahu, Hunsur R Vinod Kumar, Shankar S Kapnoor, Raghu Bhagavat, Nagasuma Chandra, Pundi N Rangarajan
Methionine synthase (MS) catalyzes methylation of homocysteine, the last step in the biosynthesis of methionine, which is essential for the regeneration of tetrahydrofolate and biosynthesis of S-adenosyl methionine. Here, we report that MS is localized to the nucleus of Pichia pastoris and Candida albicans but cytoplasmic in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeP. pastoris strain carrying a deletion of MET6 gene encoding MS (Ppmet6) exhibits methionine as well as adenine auxotrophy indicating that MS is required for methionine as well as adenine biosynthesis...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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