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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029265/preclinical-testing-of-a-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-endotracheal-tube-coated-with-an-innate-immune-synthetic-mimic
#1
Marjan M Hashemi, John Rovig, Jordan Bateman, Brett S Holden, Tomasz Modelzelewski, Iliana Gueorguieva, Martin von Dyck, Ronald Bracken, Carl Genberg, Shenglou Deng, Paul B Savage
Background: Endotracheal tubes provide an abiotic surface on which bacteria and fungi form biofilms, and the release of endotoxins and planktonic organisms can cause damaging inflammation and infections. Objectives: Ceragenins are small molecule mimics of antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activity, and a ceragenin may be used to provide antimicrobial protection to the abiotic surface of an endotracheal tube. Methods: A hydrogel film, containing CSA-131, was generated on endotracheal tubes...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029256/multicentre-validation-of-4-well-azole-agar-plates-as-a-screening-method-for-detection-of-clinically-relevant-azole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus
#2
Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Paul E Verweij, Johan W Mouton, Katrien Lagrou, Joseph Meletiadis
Objectives: Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is emerging worldwide. Reference susceptibility testing methods are technically demanding and no validated commercial susceptibility tests for moulds currently exist. In this multicentre study a 4-well azole-containing screening agar method was evaluated using clinically relevant isolates. Methods: Forty WT and 39 cyp51A mutant A. fumigatus [G54 (n = 10), M220 (n = 10), TR34/L98H (n = 9) and TR46/Y121F/T289A (n = 10)] were tested individually and as simulated mixed samples (sampling 4 WT and 1 mutant colonies)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028998/high-cryptococcal-antigen-titers-in-blood-are-predictive-of-subclinical-cryptococcal-meningitis-among-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Rachel M Wake, Erika Britz, Charlotte Sriruttan, Ivy Rukasha, Tanvier Omar, David C Spencer, Jeremy S Nel, Sello Mashamaite, Adeboye Adelekan, Tom M Chiller, Joseph N Jarvis, Thomas S Harrison, Nelesh P Govender
Background: High mortality rates among asymptomatic cryptococcal antigen (CrAg)-positive patients identified through CrAg screening, despite pre-emptive fluconazole, may be due to undiagnosed cryptococcal meningitis. Methods: Symptoms were reviewed in CrAg-positive patients identified through screening 19,233 individuals with CD4 cell counts < 100 cells/µL at 17 clinics and 3 hospitals in Johannesburg from September 2012 until September 2015, and 2 of these hospitals until June 2016...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028140/report-of-12-cases-with-tracheobronchial-mucormycosis-and-a-review
#4
Ruoxi He, Chengping Hu, Yongjun Tang, Huaping Yang, Liming Cao, Ruichao Niu
OBJECTIVES: Tranchobronchial mucormycosis is a rare and invasive pulmonary mucormycosis involving the tracheobronchial tree. DATA SOURCE: at a 3500-bed tertiary care center. STUDY SELECTION: This was a retroactive study of 12 cases of tranchobronchial mucormycosis diagnosed in our hospital, and 48 cases that were previously reported in the English literature. RESULTS: Rhizopus was the predominant species of pathogen (66...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028000/influence-of-resistance-breeding-in-common-bean-on-rhizosphere-microbiome-composition-and-function
#5
Lucas William Mendes, Jos M Raaijmakers, Mattias de Hollander, Rodrigo Mendes, Siu Mui Tsai
The rhizosphere microbiome has a key role in plant growth and health, providing a first line of defense against root infections by soil-borne pathogens. Here, we investigated the composition and metabolic potential of the rhizobacterial community of different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars with variable levels of resistance to the fungal root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox). For the different bean cultivars grown in two soils with contrasting physicochemical properties and microbial diversity, rhizobacterial abundance was positively correlated with Fox resistance...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027638/fluconazole-versus-mould-active-triazoles-for-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-adult-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-clinical-outcome-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#6
Yan Wang, Yuanming Xing, Lu Chen, Ti Meng, Ying Li, Jiao Xie, Limei Chen, Yalin Dong, Weihua Dong
This study evaluated the clinical and cost-effectiveness of prophylactic use of fluconazole versus mould-active triazoles (voriconazole and posaconazole) in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A decision analytical model was developed with inputs from a 7-year retrospective study (2009-2016) of 103 consecutive adult patients with ALL who received antifungal prophylaxis. Information on the administration of antifungal agents, clinical outcomes, and costs were collected. One-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027030/diagnostic-accuracy-of-fungal-identification-in-histopathology-and-cytopathology-specimens
#7
V L Kung, R D Chernock, C-A D Burnham
Tools to diagnose fungal infection are microscopic examination, antigen or antibody-based detection tests, molecular diagnostics, and culture, with culture being the "gold standard" for species-level identification. Although these methods are commonly used in concert and yield concordant results, in some cases tissue is not available for culture, and/or different methodologies yield discrepant results. These discrepancies may be clinically significant, causing confusion and inappropriate or delayed initiation of antifungals...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026868/antifungal-susceptibility-testing-practices-at-acute-care-hospitals-enrolled-in-the-national-healthcare-safety-network-united-states-2011-2015
#8
Snigdha Vallabhaneni, Mathew Sapiano, Lindsey M Weiner, Shawn R Lockhart, Shelley Magill
We assessed availability of antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) at nearly 4000 acute care hospitals enrolled in the National Healthcare Safety Network. In 2015, 95% offered any AFST, 28% offered AFST at their own laboratory or at an affiliated medical center, and 33% offered reflexive AFST. Availability of AFST improved from 2011 to 2015, but substantial gaps exist in the availability of AFST.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026627/marked-peripheral-eosinophilia-due-to-prolonged-administration-of-posaconazole
#9
Maher Alharbi, Rae-Kiran Jhinger, Terence Wuerz, Andrew Walkty
Introduction. Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal that is used in the treatment of a variety of fungal infections, as well as in the management of mucormycosis (on an off-label basis). Eosinophilia associated with exposure to azole antifungals has been described rarely in the literature. Case presentation. A 31-year-old male on peritoneal dialysis (PD) for end-stage renal disease, secondary to diabetic nephropathy, presented to hospital with abdominal pain after a trip to St Lucia. He was taken to the operating room, where the PD catheter was removed and an abdominal-wall abscess was debrided...
June 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026306/enhanced-antifungal-activity-of-voriconazole-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-against-candida-albicans-with-a-dimorphic-switching-model
#10
Baocheng Tian, Qi Yan, Juan Wang, Chen Ding, Sixiang Sai
Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices and forms biofilms. Due to the minimal activity of current antifungals against biofilms, new drugs or drug-delivery systems to treat these persistent infections are urgently needed. In the present investigation, voriconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Vrc-NLCs) were formulated for enhanced drug-delivery efficiency to C. albicans to increase the antifungal activity of Vrc and to improve the treatment of infectious Candida diseases. Vrc-NLCs were prepared by a hot-melt, high-pressure homogenization method, and size distribution, ζ-potential, morphology, drug-encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and physical stability were characterized...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025780/cryptococcus-neoformans-osteomyelitis-and-intramuscular-abscess-in-a-liver-transplant-patient
#11
Sonia Maria Poenaru, Rymon Rofaiel, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important pathogen that can cause severe illness and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We highlight here the case of a 53-year-old man presenting to hospital 4 years postliver transplant with fever, acute renal failure and a medial thigh lesion. Initially treated as bacterial sepsis, the patient failed to improve on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Further investigations revealed disseminated cryptococcemia complicated by patellar osteomyelitis and an intramuscular abscess. Unfortunately, although the patient initially showed signs of clinical improvement after starting standard antifungal agents, he deteriorated and died secondary to acute renal failure...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025674/green-synthesis-of-zno-and-cu-doped-zno-nanoparticles-from-leaf-extracts-of-abutilon-indicum-clerodendrum-infortunatum-clerodendrum-inerme-and-investigation-of-their-biological-and-photocatalytic-activities
#12
Shakeel Ahmad Khan, Farah Noreen, Sadia Kanwal, Ahsan Iqbal, Ghulam Hussain
In the present study, green synthesis and determination of the antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and photocatalytic properties of the resultant Cu-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NAPs) were carried out. A superficial method (solution combustion method) was employed for the synthesis of un-doped ZnO NAPs from aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum, and synthesis of Cu-doped ZnO NAPs from aqueous extracts of Clerodendrum infortunatum (M1 NAPs) and Clerodendrum inerme (M2 NAPs). The synthesized un-doped ZnO, M1 and M2 NAPs were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques like Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024919/graphene-oxide-gold-nanorods-for-chemo-photothermal-treatment-and-controlled-release-of-doxorubicin-in-mice-tumor
#13
M Shahnawaz Khan, Sunil Pandey, Mukesh L Bhaisare, Gangaraju Gedda, Abou Talib, Hui-Fen Wu
Graphene oxide (GO) is a close derivative of graphene has unlocked many pivotal steps in drug delivery due to their inherent biocompatibility, excellent drug loading capacity, and shows antibacterial, antifungal properties etc. We used a novel plant material called Gum arabic (GA) to increase the solubility of GO as well as to chemically reduce it in the solution. GA functionalized GO (fGO) exhibited increased absorption in near infra-red region (NIR) which was exploited in photothermal therapy for cancer. In order to understand the shape and size effect of GO which may affect their rheological properties, we have conjugated them with gold nanorods (GNRs) using in situ synthesis of GO@GNRs via seed mediated method...
September 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024057/increasing-candidemia-incidence-from-2004-to-2015-with-a-shift-in-epidemiology-in-patients-pre-exposed-to-antifungals
#14
Berdieke Goemaere, Pierre Becker, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Johan Maertens, Isabel Spriet, Marijke Hendrickx, Katrien Lagrou
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is an important health problem in immunocompromised patients with an epidemiology varying with region, period and patient population involved. OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of candidemia and the associated species distribution over a 12-year period at a large tertiary care centre in Belgium were analysed. The trend in incidence in the intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs was investigated as well as the influence of antifungal exposure on the species distribution...
October 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023758/biological-activities-of-agave-by-products-and-their-possible-applications-in-food-and-pharmaceuticals
#15
REVIEW
Julio Cesar López-Romero, Jesús Fernando Ayala-Zavala, Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar, Etna Aida Peña-Ramos, Humberto González-Ríos
Agave leaves are considered a by-product of alcoholic beverage production (tequila, mezcal and bacanora) because they are discarded during the production process, despite accounting for approximately 50 % of the total plant weight. These by-products constitute a potential source of Agave extracts rich in bioactive compounds, such as saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenes, and possess different biological effects, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo tests (e.g., antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, antiparasitic, and anticancer activity)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023454/antifungal-defense-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-is-mediated-by-blocking-adhesion-and-nutrient-depletion
#16
Daniela Mailänder-Sánchez, Christina Braunsdorf, Christian Grumaz, Christoph Müller, Stefan Lorenz, Philip Stevens, Jeanette Wagener, Betty Hebecker, Bernhard Hube, Franz Bracher, Kai Sohn, Martin Schaller
Candida albicans is an inhabitant of mucosal surfaces in healthy individuals but also the most common cause of fungal nosocomial blood stream infections, associated with high morbidity and mortality. As such life-threatening infections often disseminate from superficial mucosal infections we aimed to study the use of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in prevention of mucosal C. albicans infections. Here, we demonstrate that LGG protects oral epithelial tissue from damage caused by C. albicans in our in vitro model of oral candidiasis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023419/synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-novel-z-and-e-verbenone-oxime-esters
#17
Qiong Hu, Gui-Shan Lin, Wen-Gui Duan, Min Huang, Fu-Hou Lei
Twenty-seven (Z)- and (E)-verbenone derivatives bearing an oxime ester moiety were designed and synthesized in search of novel bioactive molecules. Their structures were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal and herbicidal activities of the target compounds were preliminarily evaluated. As a result, compound (E)-4n (R = β-pyridyl) exhibited excellent antifungal activity with growth inhibition percentages of 92.2%, 80.0% and 76.3% against Alternaria solani, Physalospora piricola, and Cercospora arachidicola at 50 µg/mL, showing comparable or better antifungal activity than the commercial fungicide chlorothalonil with growth inhibition of 96...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023411/scientific-study-of-gentiana-kurroo-royle
#18
REVIEW
Bhat Mohd Skinder, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Abdul Hamid Wani
The present investigation was carried out to review and highlight the potential phytochemicals and medicinal phenomena of the critically endangered medicinal plant, Gentiana kurroo Royle of the western and north-western Himalayas. The medicinal plant is heavily exploited for root and rhizome. Due to its endemic nature and the high rate of exploitation from its natural habitat, this species had become critically endangered. The phytochemical screening of the plant revealed that the plant contains some vital phyto-constituents (iridoids, xanthones, C-glucoxanthone mangiferin, and C-glucoflavones) that have a medicinal value for various acute and chronic diseases...
October 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023124/synthesis-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-fire-ant-venom-alkaloid-based-2-methyl-6-alkyl-%C3%AE-1-6-piperideines
#19
Yujie Yan, Yu An, Xiaozhong Wang, Yingqi Chen, Melissa R Jacob, Babu L Tekwani, Liyan Dai, Xing-Cong Li
The first synthesis of 2-methyl-6-pentadecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (1), a major alkaloid of the piperideine chemotype in fire ant venoms, and its analogues, 2-methyl-6-tetradecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (2) and 2-methyl-6-hexadecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (3), was achieved by a facile synthetic method starting with glutaric acid (4) and urea (5). Compound 1 showed in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans with IC50 values of 6.6 and 12.4 μg/mL, respectively, and antibacterial activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with an IC50 value of 19...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023003/antioxidant-and-biological-activities-of-proteinaceous-extract-from-algerian-glycine-max-plant
#20
Nassima Soussi, Saad Moulay, Khaldoun Bachari, Yamina Benmiri
OBJECTIVE: Glycine max is commonly used in Algeria for treatment of anemia deficiency and osteoporosis, it ranks first in terms of vegetal proteins. The experiment was aimed at characterizing the proteinaceous Glycine max extract and evaluating its antioxidant, biological and hematological potential. METHODOLOGY: Extraction of proteinaceous materials from Glycine max plant was undertaken using water and n-hexane as extracting media. The isolation of proteins from the crude materials was done, providing the use of ammonium sulfate...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
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