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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668124/a-reduced-dose-of-fluconazole-as-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-a-hla-identical-sibling
#1
B Sarina, J Mariotti, S Bramanti, L Morabito, R Crocchiolo, A Rimondo, F Tordato, D Pocaterra, E Casari, Chiara De Philippis, C Carlo-Stella, A Santoro, L Castagna
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a common side effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), resulting in increased non relapse mortality (NRM) and reduced overall survival (OS) rates. 75-days of Fluconazole 400 mg/day represents the standard primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) after allo-SCT, especially for low-risk transplants. However, the ideal dosage of fluconazole has never been tested. METHODS: Here we report the experience of our institution on 113 consecutive patients receiving an allo-SCT from a HLA identical sibling between 1999 and 2015, where PAP consisted of fluconazole 100 mg/day only during the pre-engraftment phase...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668068/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-in-the-swiss-transplant-cohort-study
#2
D Neofytos, O Chatzis, D Nasioudis, E Boely Janke, T Doco Lecompte, C Garzoni, C Berger, A Cussini, K Boggian, N Khanna, O Manuel, N J Mueller, C van Delden
BACKGROUND: There is lack of recent multicenter epidemiological data on invasive aspergillosis (IA) among solid organ transplant recipient (SOTr) in the mold-acting antifungal era. We describe the epidemiology and outcomes of IA in a contemporary cohort of SOTr using the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. METHODS: All consecutive SOTr with proven or probable IA between 01.05.2008 and 31.12.2014 were included. A case-control study to identify IA predictors was performed: 1-case was matched with 3-controls based on SOT type, transplant center, and time post-SOT...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667451/chemical-composition-of-the-essential-oils-of-centaurea-tomentella-hand-mazz-and-c-haussknechtii-boiss-asteraceae-collected-wild-in-turkey-and-their-activity-on-microorganisms-affecting-historical-art-craft
#3
Maurizio Bruno, Aurora Modica, Giorgia Catinella, Cem Canlı, Tülin Arasoglu, Sezgin Çelik
In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts of Centaurea tomentella Hand.-Mazz. and C. haussknechtii Boiss. collected in Turkey was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of C. tomentella L. were hexadecanoic acid (19.7%), caryophyllene oxide (6.6%) and spathulenol (4.8%) whereas C. haussknechtii was rich in hexadecanoic acid (26.2%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (19.3%), heptacosane (5.3%) and nonacosane (5.1%). Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical art craft, were also determined...
April 18, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667425/synthesis-and-antifungal-evaluation-of-pca-amide-analogues
#4
Chuan Qin, Di-Ya Yu, Xu-Dong Zhou, Min Zhang, Qing-Lai Wu, Jun-Kai Li
To improve the physical and chemical properties of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and find higher antifungal compounds, a series of PCA amide analogues were designed and synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, HRMS, and X-ray. Most compounds showed some antifungal activities in vitro. Particularly, compound 3d exhibited inhibition effect against Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra with EC50 value of 28.7 μM and compound 3q exhibited effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC50 value of 24.5 μM, more potently active than that of the positive control PCA with its EC50 values of 37...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667033/tri11-tri3-and-tri4-genes-are-required-for-trichodermin-biosynthesis-of-trichoderma-brevicompactum
#5
Xuping Shentu, Jiayi Yao, Xiaofeng Yuan, Linmao He, Fan Sun, Kozo Ochi, Xiaoping Yu
Trichoderma brevicompactum and T. arundinaceum both can synthesize trichodermin with strong antifungal activity and high biotechnological value. The two Trichoderma species have a tri cluster, which includes seven genes (tri14, tri12, tri11, tri10, tri3, tri4, and tri6) that encode transport and regulatory enzymes required for the biosynthesis of trichodermin. Here, we isolated T. brevicompactum 0248 transformants with disrupted tri11, tri4, or tri3 gene. We also described the effect of tri11, tri3, or tri4 deletion on the expression of other genes in the tri cluster...
April 17, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666708/nonphotodynamic-roles-of-methylene-blue-display-of-distinct-antimycobacterial-and-anticandidal-mode-of-actions
#6
Rahul Pal, Moiz A Ansari, Venkata Saibabu, Shrayanee Das, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed
Significance of methylene blue (MB) in photodynamic therapy against microbes is well established. Previously, we have reported the antifungal potential of MB against Candida albicans . The present study attempts to identify additional antimicrobial effect of MB against another prevalent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We explored that MB is efficiently inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium at 15.62  μ g/ml albeit in bacteriostatic manner similar to its fungistatic nature. We uncovered additional cell surface phenotypes (colony morphology and cell sedimentation rate) which were impaired only in Mycobacterium ...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666080/eye-for-an-eye-near-fatal-outcome-of-fungal-infection-in-a-young-diabetic-girl
#7
Fedja I Vos, Sietze Reitsma, Gwijde F J P M Adriaensen, Wytske J Fokkens
In this report, we describe the case of a young, diabetic girl with ketoacidosis who suffered sudden loss of vision of the right eye. The loss of vision was caused by an invasive rhino-orbital-cerebral fungal infection (mucormycosis) with extensive periorbital thrombosis. Despite maximal antifungal and surgical treatment (including exenteration of the right orbit), the clinical situation deteriorated. It was only after overcoming the difficulties of managing her hyperglycaemia that the patient's condition stabilised and her life was saved...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666076/histoplasma-meets-crohn-s-disease-a-rare-case-of-new-onset-ascites
#8
Charles Robert Bosshardt, John Gnann, Nilesh Lodhia
A 53-year-old man with Crohn's disease treated with adalimumab was hospitalised with abdominal pain, fatigue, fever and chills. CT scan of the abdomen showed chronic thickening of the terminal ileum and cecum and new-onset ascites. Further studies revealed weakly positive urine and serum histoplasma antigen. Laparoscopy revealed metastatic caking of the omentum and abdominal wall; peritoneal biopsy demonstrated organisms morphologically consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum No dissemination outside of the peritoneal cavity was evident...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665644/biodistribution-of-free-and-encapsulated-99m-tc-fluconazole-in-an-infection-model-induced-by-candida-albicans
#9
Danielle Nogueira de Assis, Raquel Silva Araújo, Leonardo Lima Fuscaldi, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Candida spp is an etiologic agent of fungal infections in hospitals and resistance to treatment with antifungals has been extensively reported. Thus, it is very important to develop formulations that increase effectiveness with low toxicity. In this sense, nanocarriers have been investigated, once they modify drug biodistribution profile. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the biodistribution of free and encapsulated 99m Tc-fluconazole into nanocapsules (NCs) in an experimental immunosuppressed murine model of Candida albicans infection...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665423/evaluation-of-four-calcium-channel-blockers-as-fluconazole-resistance-inhibitors-in-candida-glabrata
#10
Lina M Alnajjar, Nailya R Bulatova, Rula M Darwish
OBJECTIVES: In this study we aimed to evaluate the ability of four calcium channel blockers, verapamil, diltiazem, nicardipine and nifedipine to enhance sensitivity of Candida glabrata strains to fluconazole. METHODS: The synergistic antifungal effect was examined by checkerboard method; fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) was determined. Time-kill curve method was used for the most promising combination to further evaluate the synergetic effects. RESULTS: nicardipine showed additive effect with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible-dose-dependent strains (DSY565 and CBS138) known to express efflux pumps but not against fluconazole-sensitive strains...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664457/aspergillus-sinusitis-complicated-with-meningitis-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions-in-immunocompetent-patient
#11
Ahmad AlHaj Houssen, Fahad Algreeshah
This is a case of a 33-year-old male complaining of severe headache, neck pain, photophobia, vomiting and high-grade fever of several days. He had history of nasal polyp removal and recurrent sinusitis in the last 8 years. On examination: conscious with glasco coma scale (GCS) 15/15 and normal limbs strength but with positive Babinski sign. For further observation, he was admitted and full work-up was done. Even though full empirical antibiotics were started, there was no immediate improvement and he deteriorated dramatically developing ocular deficit, hydrocephalus and lower level of consciousness with multiple infarctions found at different areas in brain...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663936/animal-models-of-aspergillosis
#12
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Carolyn Cray
Aspergillosis is an airborne fungal disease caused by Aspergillus spp., a group of ubiquitous molds. This disease causes high morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals. The growing importance of this infection over recent decades has created a need for practical and reproducible models of aspergillosis. The use of laboratory animals provides a platform to understand fungal virulence and pathophysiology, assess diagnostic tools, and evaluate new antifungal drugs. In this review, we describe the fungus, various Aspergillus-related diseases in humans and animals and various experimental animal models...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663882/key-updates-on-the-chemistry-and-biological-roles-of-thiazine-scaffold-a-review
#13
Shalki Choudhary, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Om Silakari
Nitrogen and sulphur based heterocyclic molecules have gained significant attention owing to their broad spectrum pharmacological profiles. Thiazine is one of such promising scaffolds which has been widely utilized in the synthesis of compounds that possess interesting biological profile including anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial, antipsychotic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antiviral activities. The current review focus on the chemistry of thiazine and its derivatives along with potential pharmacological activities reported for them in scientific literature...
April 16, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663565/risk-factors-for-early-invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#14
Yehonatan Pasternak, Shiri Rubin, Efraim Bilavsky, Yael Mozer-Glassberg, Itzhak Levy, Elhanan Nahum, Eran Rom, Michael Gurevich, Haim Ben-Zvi, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) post-liver transplantation are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality;however, studies reporting on these infections in the pediatric population are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of IFIs in pediatric liver transplant recipients during the early post-transplantation period (≤3 months). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected for all pediatric liver transplant recipients registered in a national transplantation center from 2004-2014...
April 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663282/the-frozen-brain-state-of-cryptococcus-gattii-a-globe-trotting-tropical-neurotropic-fungus
#15
Paul T Akins, Brian Jian
Initially reported in tropical regions, Cryptococcus gattii infection is now diagnosed globally. METHODS: case report; Literature review. Although initial reports described outbreaks of pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) disease in tropical regions such as Australia and New Guinea, it is now clear that Cryptococcus gattii is a global, neurotropic pathogen. In contrast with C. neoformans, C. gattii patients are more likely to present with cryptococcomas in the brain and lungs and are often HIV negative...
April 16, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662118/polyketides-from-two-chaetomium-species-and-their-biological-functions
#16
He Li, Zhong-Bin Liao, Dan Tang, Wen-Bo Han, Qiang Zhang, Jin-Ming Gao
Four new secondary metabolites, chaetosemins G-J (1-4), along with 11 known ones (5-15) were isolated from the culture of C. seminudum C208 and Chaetomium sp. C521. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses. These metabolites were evaluated in vitro for antifungal, antioxidant, toxicity, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Chaetosemin J (4) and monaschromone (5) significantly inhibited the growth of four plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Magnaporthe oryzae, and Gibberella saubinettii with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values ranging from 6...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661910/myeloid-cell-deficiency-of-p38%C3%AE-p38%C3%AE-protects-against-candidiasis-and-regulates-antifungal-immunity
#17
Dayanira Alsina-Beauchamp, Alejandra Escós, Pilar Fajardo, Diego González-Romero, Ester Díaz-Mora, Ana Risco, Miguel A Martín-Serrano, Carlos Del Fresno, Jorge Dominguez-Andrés, Noelia Aparicio, Rafal Zur, Natalia Shpiro, Gordon D Brown, Carlos Ardavín, Mihai G Netea, Susana Alemany, Juan J Sanz-Ezquerro, Ana Cuenda
Candida albicans is a frequent aetiologic agent of sepsis associated with high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Developing new antifungal therapies is a medical need due to the low efficiency and resistance to current antifungal drugs. Here, we show that p38γ and p38δ regulate the innate immune response to C. albicans We describe a new TAK1-TPL2-MKK1-ERK1/2 pathway in macrophages, which is activated by Dectin-1 engagement and positively regulated by p38γ/p38δ. In mice, p38γ/p38δ deficiency protects against C...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661606/potential-effect-of-2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol-thymol-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole-against-clinical-isolates-of-candida-albicans-c-glabrata-and-c-krusei
#18
A Sharifzadeh, A R Khosravi, H Shokri, H Shirzadi
Limitations of antifungals used in the treatment of candidiasis, as the development of resistant strains, are known by the scientific community. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol (thymol) in combination with fluconazole (FLZ) against clinical Candida strains. The antifungal activity of thymol along with FLZ was evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 broth microdilution method. In addition, synergism was observed for clinical strains of Candida spp...
April 14, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661513/cinnamon-a-systematic-review-of-adverse-events
#19
REVIEW
Mahdie Hajimonfarednejad, Mohadeseh Ostovar, Mohammad Javad Raee, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Johannes Gottfried Mayer, Mojtaba Heydari
Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661466/endobronchial-topical-amphotericin-b-instillation-for-pulmonary-chromomycosis-after-lung-transplantation-a-case-report
#20
H Mitomo, A Sakurada, Y Matsuda, H Notsuda, T Watanabe, H Oishi, H Niikawa, S Maeda, M Noda, T Sado, T Amemiya, Y Yoshida, T Kikuchi, K Kamei, Y Okada
We report a very rare case of pulmonary chromomycosis caused by Scedosporium prolificans that developed after lung transplantation and was successfully treated with endobronchial topical amphotericin B instillation. The subject was a woman in her 50s with a history of bilateral lobar lung transplantation from living donors for idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Eight years after the lung transplantation, chest radiography X-ray and computed tomography showed an abnormal shadow in the right lung. Bronchoscopic findings showed obstruction by a fungal component at the laterobasal bronchus B9...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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