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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220115/hiv-prevention-where-it-is-needed-most-comparison-of-strategies-for-the-geographical-allocation-of-interventions
#1
Sarah-Jane Anderson, Peter D Ghys, Regina Ombam, Timothy B Hallett
INTRODUCTION: A strategic approach to the application of HIV prevention interventions is a core component of the UNAIDS Fast Track strategy to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. Central to these plans is a focus on high-prevalence geographies, in a bid to target resources to those in greatest need and maximize the reduction in new infections. Whilst this idea of geographical prioritization has the potential to improve efficiency, it is unclear how it should be implemented in practice. There are a range of prevention interventions which can be applied differentially across risk groups and locations, making allocation decisions complex...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219242/behavioural-assessment-unit-improves-outcomes-for-patients-with-complex-psychosocial-needs
#2
George Braitberg, Marie Gerdtz, Susan Harding, Steven Pincus, Michelle Thompson, Jonathan Knott
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the impact of a new model of care for patients presenting to the ED with acute behavioural disturbance. METHODS: This pre-/post-intervention study involved creating a dedicated, highly resourced six bed unit, the behavioural assessment unit (BAU). Co-located with the ED at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, the unit was designed to fast-track the admission of patients affected by intoxication, mental illness or psychosocial crisis and provide front-loaded interventions...
December 8, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212781/analysis-of-drug-development-paradigms-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#3
Denis L Jardim, Debora de Melo Gagliato, Francis J Giles, Razelle Kurzrock
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have unique toxicities and response kinetics compared to cytotoxics and gene-targeted anti-cancer agents. We investigated the impact of innovative/accelerated immunotherapy drug development/approval models on the accuracy of safety and efficacy assessments by searching the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Initial phase I trials for each agent were reviewed and safety and efficacy data compared to that found in later trials leading to regulatory approvals of the same agents...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209980/predictors-of-increased-length-of-hospital-stay-following-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-from-the-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program
#4
Reid Fletcher, Rebecca Deal, John Kubasiak, Alfonso Torquati, Philip Omotosho
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure in the USA. Identifying preoperative risk factors for prolonged postoperative hospital stay will help appropriately select patients for fast-track protocols and avoid costly readmissions. To date, there has been no large national database analysis of risk factors for prolonged length of stay following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. METHODS: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy procedures reported to the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between 2009 and 2012 were reviewed...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209162/characterization-of-cochlear-vestibular-and-cochlear-vestibular-electrically-evoked-compound-action-potentials-in-patients-with-a-vestibulo-cochlear-implant
#5
T A K Nguyen, Samuel Cavuscens, Maurizio Ranieri, Konrad Schwarz, Nils Guinand, Raymond van de Berg, Thomas van den Boogert, Floor Lucieer, Marc van Hoof, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Herman Kingma, Silvestro Micera, Angelica Perez Fornos
The peripheral vestibular system is critical for the execution of activities of daily life as it provides movement and orientation information to motor and sensory systems. Patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction experience a significant decrease in quality of life and have currently no viable treatment option. Vestibular implants could eventually restore vestibular function. Most vestibular implant prototypes to date are modified cochlear implants to fast-track development. These use various objective measurements, such as the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP), to supplement behavioral information...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208509/the-use-of-an-intraarticular-catheter-on-fast-track-primary-knee-arthroplasty-is-it-a-step-forward
#6
L Cáceres-Sánchez, J B García-Benítez, V Coronado-Hijón, M Montero-Pariente
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the efficacy in post-operative pain control of the intraarticular catheter compared to the epidural catheter after primary total knee arthroplasty. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Randomised clinical trial consisting of two groups of patients. A control group with intradural anaesthesia and an intraoperative epidural catheter (ropivacaine) and an intervention group using the same anaesthetic technique and an intraarticular catheter with an elastomeric pump (ropivacaine+dexketoprofen)...
December 2, 2017: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204497/decreased-risk-of-knee-buckling-with-adductor-canal-block-versus-femoral-nerve-block-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Ryan R Thacher, Thomas R Hickernell, Matthew J Grosso, Roshan Shah, Herbert J Cooper, Robert Maniker, Anthony Robin Brown, Jeffrey Geller
Background: Femoral nerve (FNB) and adductor canal blocks (ACB) are used in the setting of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but neither has been demonstrated to be clearly superior. Although dynamometer studies have shown ACBs spare perioperative quadriceps function when compared to FNBs, ACBs have been widely adopted in orthopaedic surgery without significant evidence that they decrease the risk of perioperative falls. Methods: All patients who received single-shot FNB (129 patients) or ACB (150 patients) at our institution for unilateral primary TKA from April 2014 to September 2015 were retrospectively reviewed for perioperative falls or near-falls during physical therapy and inpatient care...
December 2017: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202644/outpatient-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#8
Stephan B W Vehmeijer, Henrik Husted, Henrik Kehlet
As a result of the introduction of fast-track programs, the length of hospital stay after arthroplasty has decreased to a point where some patients meet the discharge criteria on the day of surgery. In several studies, well-established fast-track centers have demonstrated the feasibility of outpatient procedures in selected patients. However, in literature the term "outpatient" is sometimes also used for patients who spend one or more nights in hospital. We therefore propose to use "outpatient" solely for patients who are discharged to their own home on the day of surgery and do not have an overnight stay at either the hospital or another non-home facility...
December 5, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198872/a-randomized-non-inferiority-trial-of-adductor-canal-block-for-analgesia-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-single-injection-versus-catheter-technique
#9
Steven Lee, Nirooshan Rooban, Himat Vaghadia, Andrew N Sawka, Raymond Tang
BACKGROUND: Adductor canal blocks (ACBs) provide effective analgesia following total knee arthroplasty. We hypothesized that ACB single injection plus intravenous (IV) dexamethasone (Dex) shows non-inferiority to catheter, while ACB single injection does not. METHODS: One hundred eighty patients were randomized and 177 analyzed from among 1 of 3 ACB interventions: (1) 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL; (2) 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL plus IV Dex 8 mg; (3) 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL followed by continuous infusion of 0...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197366/characteristics-and-outcome-in-patients-with-non-specific-symptoms-and-signs-of-cancer-referred-to-a-fast-track-cancer-patient-pathway-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Sara Falk Jørgensen, Pernille Ravn, Søren Thorsen, Signe Westring Worm
BACKGROUND: In 2012 a new cancer patient pathway for patients with non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer (NSSC-CPP) was introduced in Denmark. Limited information is available about the patients referred to the NSSC-CPP and the investigational course. The aim was to describe the population and the investigational course, estimate the prevalence of cancer and one-year mortality, and identify factors associated with a subsequent cancer diagnosis in patients referred to the NSSC-CPP...
December 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196199/midt-term-results-after-fast-track-prophylactic-carotid-surgery-program-the-risk-of-overlooking-occult-cancer
#11
Liv Schoellhammer, Alan Owen-Falkenberg, Bo Gottschalksen, Saeid Shahidi
BACKGROUND: Most guidelines recommend fast-track carotid endarterectomy (CEA) within 14 days of the last ischemic event. Long-term survival after fast-track CEA is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the fast-track CEA program in our region was associated with a reduced or increased 2-year survival and overall complication rate in our population. METHODS: Prospective 2-year follow-up in patients after the implementation of a fast-track CEA program during a period of 3½ years...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190263/scale-up-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-services-for-hiv-prevention-12-countries-in-southern-and-eastern-africa-2013-2016
#12
Jonas Z Hines, Onkemetse Conrad Ntsuape, Kananga Malaba, Tiruneh Zegeye, Kennedy Serrem, Elijah Odoyo-June, Rose Kolola Nyirenda, Wezi Msungama, Kondwani Nkanaunena, Jotamo Come, Marcos Canda, Herminio Nhaguiombe, Ella K Shihepo, Brigitte L T Zemburuka, Gram Mutandi, Emmanuel Yoboka, André H Mbayiha, Hilda Maringa, Alfred Bere, J Joseph Lawrence, Gissenge J I Lija, Daimon Simbeye, Kokuhumbya Kazaura, Ramadhani S Mwiru, Stella Alamo Talisuna, Joseph Lubwama, Geoffrey Kabuye, James Exnobert Zulu, Omega Chituwo, Maybin Mumba, Sinokuthemba Xaba, John Mandisarisa, Brittney N Baack, Lawrence Hinkle, Jonathan M Grund, Stephanie M Davis, Carlos Toledo
Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa have the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the world; in 2015, 52% (approximately 19 million) of all persons living with HIV infection resided in these two regions.* Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection among males by approximately 60% (1). As such, it is an essential component of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) strategy for ending acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2030 (2)...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184658/real-time-geometry-aware-augmented-reality-in-minimally-invasive-surgery
#13
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John
The potential of augmented reality (AR) technology to assist minimally invasive surgery (MIS) lies in its computational performance and accuracy in dealing with challenging MIS scenes. Even with the latest hardware and software technologies, achieving both real-time and accurate augmented information overlay in MIS is still a formidable task. In this Letter, the authors present a novel real-time AR framework for MIS that achieves interactive geometric aware AR in endoscopic surgery with stereo views. The authors' framework tracks the movement of the endoscopic camera and simultaneously reconstructs a dense geometric mesh of the MIS scene...
October 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183798/altered-membrane-integrity-in-the-progression-of-muscle-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Kevin E McElhanon, Sayak Bhattacharya
Sarcolemmal integrity is orchestrated through the interplay of preserving membrane strength and fast tracking the membrane repair process during an event of compromised membrane fragility. Several molecular players have been identified that act in a concerted fashion to maintain the barrier function of the muscle membrane. Substantial research findings in the field of muscle biology point out the importance of maintaining membrane integrity as a key contributory factor to cellular homeostasis. Innumerable data on the progression of membrane pathology associated with compromised muscle membrane integrity support targeting sarcolemmal integrity in skeletal and cardiac muscle as a model therapeutic strategy to alleviate some of the pathologic conditions...
November 25, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182900/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-for-morbid-obesity-role-of-intraluminal-and-intraperitoneal-postoperative-drainage
#15
G Currò, G Piscitelli, C Lazzara, I Komaei, A Fortugno, G Pinto, F Guccione, A Cogliandolo, A Dattola, S Latteri, G Navarra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bleeding and staple line leak are the most common postoperative complications of LSG. To prevent and/or to promptly identify such complications, conventional peri-operative protocols imply post-operative gastric decompression (NGT) and staple line drain (IAD). Our aim was to evaluate the role of naso-gastric tube (NGT) and intra-abdominal drain (IAD) in preventing and/or facilitating identification and treatment of post-operative complications after sleeve gastrectomy...
July 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182609/variation-in-fast-track-referrals-for-suspected-cancer-by-patient-characteristic-and-cancer-diagnosis-evidence-from-670%C3%A2-000-patients-with-cancers-of-35-different-sites
#16
Y Zhou, S C Mendonca, G A Abel, W Hamilton, F M Walter, S Johnson, J Shelton, L Elliss-Brookes, S McPhail, G Lyratzopoulos
BACKGROUND: In England, 'fast-track' (also known as 'two-week wait') general practitioner referrals for suspected cancer in symptomatic patients are used to shorten diagnostic intervals and are supported by clinical guidelines. However, the use of the fast-track pathway may vary for different patient groups. METHODS: We examined data from 669 220 patients with 35 cancers diagnosed in 2006-2010 following either fast-track or 'routine' primary-to-secondary care referrals using 'Routes to Diagnosis' data...
November 28, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180206/ropivacaine-wound-infiltration-a-fast-track-approach-in-patients-undergoing-thoracotomy-surgery
#17
Zhuqing Rao, Haoming Zhou, Xiongxiong Pan, Jing Chen, Yuting Wang, Zhongyun Wang, Zhengnian Ding
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain impairs enhanced recovery in patients after various surgeries. Local use of ropivacaine has become an effective strategy for postoperative pain management. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of wound infiltration with ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia as a fast-track approach in patients undergoing thoracotomy surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty adult patients with esophageal cancer scheduled for selective thoracotomy surgery were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized, controlled study...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177408/organizing-and-implementing-a-multidisciplinary-fast-track-oncology-clinic
#18
Y L Basta, K M A J Tytgat, H H Greuter, J H G Klinkenbijl, P Fockens, J Strikwerda
Quality problem: Patients with gastrointestinal malignancies often need multiple appointments with different medical specialists, causing waiting times to accrue. Initial assessment: In our hospital, care is organized in a sequential manner, causing long waiting times. To reduce this, a fast track outpatient clinic (FTC) was implemented. Choice of solution: The FTC was organized within the hospital's existing structure. Patient centered care was achieved by ensuring that the medical specialists visit the patient, implementing nurse coordinators and considering patient wishes and co-morbidities when formulating a treatment plan...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172679/in-silico-approach-to-investigate-the-structural-and-functional-attributes-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-variants-reported-in-the-saudi-population
#19
Fatima A Morad, Omran M Rashidi, Saida S Sadath, Faisal A Al-Allaf, Mohammad Athar, Mohamed N Alama, Sherif E Edris, Nabeel S Bondagji, Noor A Shaik, Babajan Banaganapalli, Zuhier Awan
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a metabolic disorder that leads primarily to premature cardiovascular diseases, the main cause of mortality in Saudi Arabia (SA). FH is underreported and underdiagnosed in SA with statistical evidence of high expected prevalence in such a consanguineous community. Lacking knowledge of which and how these alterations are actually impacting lipid metabolism is one of the main reasons why FH is insufficiently diagnosed in the region. The aim of this study was to develop a fast prediction approach using an integrated bioinformatics method for future screening of the potential causative variants from national registries...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171770/emerging-biomarkers-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#20
Julie Nijmeh, Souheil El-Chemaly, Elizabeth P Henske
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease affecting primarily women. LAM is caused by inactivating mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, resulting in hyperactivation of mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Over the past five years, there have been remarkable advances in the diagnosis and therapy of LAM, including the identification of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) as a diagnostic biomarker and the US Food and Drug Administration approval of sirolimus as therapy for LAM...
November 24, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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