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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521545/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-a-promising-medication-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Ioannis E Vasileiadis, Christos A Goudis, Pinelopi T Giannakopoulou, Tong Liu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disorder that primarily affects the lungs and is characterized not only by local pulmonary, but also by systemic inflammation which promotes the development of extrapulmonary and cardiovascular co-morbidities. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) are widely used drugs in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, with growing evidence suggesting potential benefits in COPD patients. The purpose of this review is to describe the correlation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with COPD pathophysiology and to present the latest data regarding the potential role of RAS blockers in COPD...
March 9, 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349667/comparison-of-enalapril-candesartan-and-intralesional-triamcinolone-in-reducing-hypertrophic-scar-development-an-experimental-study
#2
Canser Yilmaz Demir, Muhammet Eren Ersoz, Remzi Erten, Omer Faruk Kocak, Yilmaz Sultanoglu, Yildiray Basbugan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of oral enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I), oral candesartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and intralesional corticosteroid treatments in reducing scar formation. METHODS: Twenty male rabbits were divided into five study groups: A (sham), B (control), C (ACE-I), D (ARB) and E (intralesional corticosteroid). The rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was used. The hypertrophic scars were photographed and analyzed with the program ImageJ quantitatively to determine the degree of collagen fibers...
April 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246770/a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-aspirin-use-and-progression-of-emphysema-like-lung-characteristics-on-ct-imaging-the-mesa-lung-study
#3
Carrie P Aaron, Joseph E Schwartz, Eric A Hoffman, Elsa Angelini, John H M Austin, Mary Cushman, David R Jacobs, Joel D Kaufman, Andrew Laine, Lewis J Smith, Jie Yang, Karol E Watson, Russell P Tracy, R Graham Barr
BACKGROUND: Platelet activation reduces pulmonary microvascular blood flow and contributes to inflammation; these factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema. We hypothesized that regular use of aspirin, a platelet inhibitor, would be associated with a slower progression of emphysema-like lung characteristics on CT imaging and a slower decline in lung function. METHODS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) enrolled participants 45 to 84 years of age without clinical cardiovascular disease from 2000 to 2002...
December 12, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155324/angiotensin-receptor-blocker-irbesartan-reduces-stress-induced-intestinal-inflammation-via-at1a-signaling-and-ace2-dependent-mechanism-in-mice
#4
Maimaiti Yisireyili, Yasuhiro Uchida, Koji Yamamoto, Takayuki Nakayama, Xian Wu Cheng, Tadashi Matsushita, Shigeo Nakamura, Toyoaki Murohara, Kyosuke Takeshita
Stress is associated with pathophysiology of both irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have anti-inflammatory properties via inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II)/Ang II type I receptor axis (AT1). Inhibition of the classical RAS pathway is also involved in upregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), which activates the Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway to counteract inflammatory signaling and acts as a partner of the amino acid transporter, B0 AT-1, to absorb tryptophan for regulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis...
March 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105751/real-life-use-of-neurohormonal-antagonists-and-loop-diuretics-in-chronic-heart-failure-analysis-of-serial-biomarker-measurements-and-clinical-outcome
#5
Milos Brankovic, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Nick van Boven, Olivier Manintveld, Tjeerd Germans, Jasper Brugts, Kadir Caliskan, Victor Umans, Alina Constantinescu, Isabella Kardys
We determined the temporal effects of neurohormonal antagonists and loop diuretics on serially assessed (3-monthly) cardiorenal biomarkers, functional status, and clinical outcomes in 250 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) with reduced ejection fraction. In blood, we measured NT-proBNP, troponin T, C-reactive protein, creatinine, cystatin C; in urine, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and kidney-injury-molecule-1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) were inversely associated with cardiac impairment, inflammation, and renal tubular damage, but not with glomerular dysfunction...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260186/efficacy-of-zofenopril-vs-irbesartan-in-combination-with-a-thiazide-diuretic-in-hypertensive-patients-with-multiple-risk-factors-not-controlled-by-a-previous-monotherapy-a-review-of-the-double-blind-randomized-z-studies
#6
REVIEW
Stefano Omboni, Ettore Malacco, Claudio Napoli, Pietro Amedeo Modesti, Athanasios Manolis, Gianfranco Parati, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Claudio Borghi
Combinations between an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) are among the recommended treatments for hypertensive patients uncontrolled by monotherapy. Four randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies with a similar design, including 1469 hypertensive patients uncontrolled by a previous monotherapy and with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor, compared the efficacy of a combination of a sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor (zofenopril at 30 or 60 mg) or an ARB (irbesartan at 150 or 300 mg) plus HCTZ 12...
April 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#7
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667708/drug-treatment-of-hypertension-focus-on-vascular-health
#8
REVIEW
Alan C Cameron, Ninian N Lang, Rhian M Touyz
Hypertension, the most common preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death, is a growing health burden. Serious cardiovascular complications result from target organ damage including cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, ischaemic heart disease and renal failure. While many systems contribute to blood pressure (BP) elevation, the vascular system is particularly important because vascular dysfunction is a cause and consequence of hypertension. Hypertension is characterised by a vascular phenotype of endothelial dysfunction, arterial remodelling, vascular inflammation and increased stiffness...
October 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220755/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-modifies-the-pharmacological-effects-of-angiotensin-receptor-blockade-in-experimental-renal-fibrosis
#10
Maarten A de Jong, Katarina Mirkovic, Rik Mencke, Joost G Hoenderop, René J Bindels, Marc G Vervloet, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands, Jacob van den Born, Gerjan Navis, Martin H de Borst
Background: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) retards progression of chronic kidney disease. Yet, in many patients, the renoprotective effect is incomplete. A high circulating level of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with an impaired response to RAAS blockade-based therapy in clinical studies. Therefore, we addressed whether administration of recombinant fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) interferes with the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment in a mouse model of renal fibrosis [unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)]...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014752/altered-expression-of-angiotensinogen-and-mediators-of-angiogenesis-in-ileal-crohn-s-disease
#11
Georgia E Hume, James D Doecke, Ning Huang, Elizabeth V Fowler, Ian S Brown, Lisa A Simms, Graham L Radford-Smith
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Angiotensin II (AII) is a powerful splanchnic vasoconstrictor with pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic properties. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AII Receptor Antagonists (ARBs) are therapeutic in animal models of colitis. The aim of this case-control study is to determine the expression of angiotensinogen and related genes in human ileal Crohn's disease. METHODS: Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we measured mRNA expression levels of angiotensinogen (AGT), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1α and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM; CD146) in 101 human samples (69 biopsy, 12 resection) from affected ileum (inflamed CD cases, n=36) and unaffected ileum (non-inflamed CD cases, n=45 and controls, n=20)...
March 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009050/dual-inhibition-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-and-endothelin-1-in-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Radko Komers, Horacio Plotkin
Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a pivotal role in treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, reversal of the course of CKD or at least long-term stabilization of renal function are often difficult to achieve, and many patients still progress to end-stage renal disease. New treatments are needed to enhance protective actions of RAAS inhibitors (RAASis), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and improve prognosis in CKD patients...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26141470/angiotensin-inhibition-is-associated-with-preservation-of-t-cell-and-monocyte-function-and-decreases-multiple-organ-failure-in-obese-trauma-patients
#13
Robert D Winfield, Robert E Southard, Isaiah R Turnbull, Kelly Bochicchio, Stacey Reese, Bradley D Freeman, Grant V Bochicchio
BACKGROUND: Obese patients are more prone to post-injury multiple organ failure (MOF). Obesity pathophysiology includes an adipose-tissue-derived, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system affecting inflammatory responses via leukocyte angiotensin receptors. We hypothesized that obese patients receiving pre-injury angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy would have decreased MOF and differences in immune cell frequencies. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury trauma-related database...
August 2015: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25666495/novel-raas-agonists-and-antagonists-clinical-applications-and-controversies
#14
REVIEW
Cesar A Romero, Marcelo Orias, Matthew R Weir
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates blood pressure homeostasis and vascular injury and repair responses. The RAAS was originally thought to be an endocrine system critically important in regulating blood pressure homeostasis. Yet, important local forms of the RAAS have been described in many tissues, which are mostly independent of the systemic RAAS. These systems have been associated with diverse physiological functions, but also with inflammation, fibrosis and target-organ damage. Pharmacological modulation of the RAAS has brought about important advances in preventing morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease...
April 2015: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25441222/the-predictive-role-of-markers-of-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-on-the-course-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-type-1-diabetes
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hussein A Rajab, Nathaniel L Baker, Kelly J Hunt, Richard Klein, Patricia A Cleary, John Lachin, Gabriel Virella, Maria F Lopes-Virella
AIMS: This study was undertaken to determine whether levels of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers in serum samples collected at baseline in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort could predict the development of retinopathy. METHODS: Levels of clotting/fibrinolysis, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers were measured in 1391 subjects with type 1 diabetes to determine whether their levels predicted increased risk to develop or accelerate progression of retinopathy during 16years of follow-up...
January 2015: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25016365/angiotensin-receptor-1-blockade-reduces-secretion-of-inflammation-associated-cytokines-from-cultured-human-carotid-atheroma-and-vascular-cells-in-association-with-reduced-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-expression-and-activation
#16
Paula Clancy, Simon A Koblar, Jonathan Golledge
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have suggested that angiotensin II (AII) receptor type 1 (ATR1) blocking drugs (ARBs) have anti-inflammatory effects however the mechanisms responsible are poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in ARB induced anti-inflammatory effects within human carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: Atheroma samples obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were cultured with and without ATR1 (irbesartan), ERK1/2 (PD98059), AII ([Sar(1), Ile(8)]-AII) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 (DX600) blockade...
September 2014: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24949962/the-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-for-pain-control
#17
COMMENT
A H Jan Danser, Praveen Anand
All well-known deleterious effects of angiotensin (Ang) II, including vasoconstriction, inflammation, water and salt retention, and vascular remodeling, are mediated via its type 1 (AT1) receptor. This explains why AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and inhibitors of Ang II synthesis, such as ACE inhibitors and renin inhibitors, are beneficial for cardiovascular disease. Yet, Ang II has a second receptor, the Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor, the function of which, even after over 20 years of research, remains largely unknown...
June 19, 2014: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24891935/alcohol-induced-hypertension-mechanism-and-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Kazim Husain, Rais A Ansari, Leon Ferder
Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies established the association between high alcohol consumption and hypertension. However the mechanism through which alcohol raises blood pressure remains elusive. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed such as an imbalance of the central nervous system, impairment of the baroreceptors, enhanced sympathetic activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increased cortisol levels, increased vascular reactivity due to increase in intracellular calcium levels, stimulation of the endothelium to release vasoconstrictors and loss of relaxation due to inflammation and oxidative injury of the endothelium leading to inhibition of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production...
May 26, 2014: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24809923/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-incidence-and-correlates-of-recurrence-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#19
REVIEW
Kuljit Singh, Kristin Carson, Zafar Usmani, Gagandeep Sawhney, Ranjit Shah, John Horowitz
AIM: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a disorder of myocardial inflammation induced by high catecholamine levels and is associated with acute complications. In the long-term TTC is associated with a risk of single or multiple recurrences, but risk of such occurrences is not clear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and consolidate the evidence on the incidence and clinical correlates of cases of TTC recurrence. METHODS: A comprehensive search of four major databases (EMBASE, OVID Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar) was performed from their inception to first week of Jan 2014...
July 1, 2014: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24712763/serum-cholesterol-levels-and-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Mehmet Aydin, Ibrahim Susam, Baris Kilicaslan, Münevver Dereli, Mustafa Sacar, Oner Ozdogan
BACKGROUND: Post-operative atrial fibrillation is an important complication after coronary bypass surgery. As inflammation and oxidative stress were makedly encountered in the etiology, high cholesterol was also defined to provoke atrial fibrillation. In this present study, the relationship between postoperative atrial fibrillation and preoperative serum lipid levels were evaluated. METHODS: A total of 100 patients, who were operated at the department of Cardiovascular Surgery of our hospital were included to the study analysis...
2014: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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