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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667708/drug-treatment-of-hypertension-focus-on-vascular-health
#2
Alan C Cameron, Ninian N Lang, Rhian M Touyz
Hypertension, the most common preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death, is a growing health burden. Serious cardiovascular complications result from target organ damage including cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, ischaemic heart disease and renal failure. While many systems contribute to blood pressure (BP) elevation, the vascular system is particularly important because vascular dysfunction is a cause and consequence of hypertension. Hypertension is characterised by a vascular phenotype of endothelial dysfunction, arterial remodelling, vascular inflammation and increased stiffness...
September 26, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220755/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-modifies-the-pharmacological-effects-of-angiotensin-receptor-blockade-in-experimental-renal-fibrosis
#4
Maarten A de Jong, Katarina Mirkovic, Rik Mencke, Joost G Hoenderop, René J Bindels, Marc G Vervloet, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands, Jacob van den Born, Gerjan Navis, Martin H de Borst
BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) retards progression of chronic kidney disease. Yet, in many patients, the renoprotective effect is incomplete. A high circulating level of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with an impaired response to RAAS blockade-based therapy in clinical studies. Therefore, we addressed whether administration of recombinant fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) interferes with the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment in a mouse model of renal fibrosis [unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)]...
May 24, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014752/altered-expression-of-angiotensinogen-and-mediators-of-angiogenesis-in-ileal-crohn-s-disease
#5
Georgia E Hume, James D Doecke, Ning Huang, Elizabeth V Fowler, Ian S Brown, Lisa A Simms, Graham L Radford-Smith
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Angiotensin II (AII) is a powerful splanchnic vasoconstrictor with pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic properties. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AII Receptor Antagonists (ARBs) are therapeutic in animal models of colitis. The aim of this case-control study is to determine the expression of angiotensinogen and related genes in human ileal Crohn's disease. METHODS: Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we measured mRNA expression levels of angiotensinogen (AGT), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1α and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM; CD146) in 101 human samples (69 biopsy, 12 resection) from affected ileum (inflamed CD cases, n=36) and unaffected ileum (non-inflamed CD cases, n=45 and controls, n=20)...
March 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009050/dual-inhibition-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-and-endothelin-1-in-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Radko Komers, Horacio Plotkin
Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a pivotal role in treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, reversal of the course of CKD or at least long-term stabilization of renal function are often difficult to achieve, and many patients still progress to end-stage renal disease. New treatments are needed to enhance protective actions of RAAS inhibitors (RAASis), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and improve prognosis in CKD patients...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26141470/angiotensin-inhibition-is-associated-with-preservation-of-t-cell-and-monocyte-function-and-decreases-multiple-organ-failure-in-obese-trauma-patients
#7
Robert D Winfield, Robert E Southard, Isaiah R Turnbull, Kelly Bochicchio, Stacey Reese, Bradley D Freeman, Grant V Bochicchio
BACKGROUND: Obese patients are more prone to post-injury multiple organ failure (MOF). Obesity pathophysiology includes an adipose-tissue-derived, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system affecting inflammatory responses via leukocyte angiotensin receptors. We hypothesized that obese patients receiving pre-injury angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy would have decreased MOF and differences in immune cell frequencies. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury trauma-related database...
August 2015: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25666495/novel-raas-agonists-and-antagonists-clinical-applications-and-controversies
#8
REVIEW
Cesar A Romero, Marcelo Orias, Matthew R Weir
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates blood pressure homeostasis and vascular injury and repair responses. The RAAS was originally thought to be an endocrine system critically important in regulating blood pressure homeostasis. Yet, important local forms of the RAAS have been described in many tissues, which are mostly independent of the systemic RAAS. These systems have been associated with diverse physiological functions, but also with inflammation, fibrosis and target-organ damage. Pharmacological modulation of the RAAS has brought about important advances in preventing morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease...
April 2015: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25441222/the-predictive-role-of-markers-of-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-on-the-course-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-type-1-diabetes
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hussein A Rajab, Nathaniel L Baker, Kelly J Hunt, Richard Klein, Patricia A Cleary, John Lachin, Gabriel Virella, Maria F Lopes-Virella
AIMS: This study was undertaken to determine whether levels of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers in serum samples collected at baseline in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort could predict the development of retinopathy. METHODS: Levels of clotting/fibrinolysis, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers were measured in 1391 subjects with type 1 diabetes to determine whether their levels predicted increased risk to develop or accelerate progression of retinopathy during 16years of follow-up...
January 2015: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25016365/angiotensin-receptor-1-blockade-reduces-secretion-of-inflammation-associated-cytokines-from-cultured-human-carotid-atheroma-and-vascular-cells-in-association-with-reduced-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-expression-and-activation
#10
Paula Clancy, Simon A Koblar, Jonathan Golledge
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have suggested that angiotensin II (AII) receptor type 1 (ATR1) blocking drugs (ARBs) have anti-inflammatory effects however the mechanisms responsible are poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in ARB induced anti-inflammatory effects within human carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: Atheroma samples obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were cultured with and without ATR1 (irbesartan), ERK1/2 (PD98059), AII ([Sar(1), Ile(8)]-AII) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 (DX600) blockade...
September 2014: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24949962/the-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-for-pain-control
#11
COMMENT
A H Jan Danser, Praveen Anand
All well-known deleterious effects of angiotensin (Ang) II, including vasoconstriction, inflammation, water and salt retention, and vascular remodeling, are mediated via its type 1 (AT1) receptor. This explains why AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and inhibitors of Ang II synthesis, such as ACE inhibitors and renin inhibitors, are beneficial for cardiovascular disease. Yet, Ang II has a second receptor, the Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor, the function of which, even after over 20 years of research, remains largely unknown...
June 19, 2014: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24891935/alcohol-induced-hypertension-mechanism-and-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Kazim Husain, Rais A Ansari, Leon Ferder
Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies established the association between high alcohol consumption and hypertension. However the mechanism through which alcohol raises blood pressure remains elusive. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed such as an imbalance of the central nervous system, impairment of the baroreceptors, enhanced sympathetic activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increased cortisol levels, increased vascular reactivity due to increase in intracellular calcium levels, stimulation of the endothelium to release vasoconstrictors and loss of relaxation due to inflammation and oxidative injury of the endothelium leading to inhibition of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production...
May 26, 2014: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24809923/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-incidence-and-correlates-of-recurrence-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#13
REVIEW
Kuljit Singh, Kristin Carson, Zafar Usmani, Gagandeep Sawhney, Ranjit Shah, John Horowitz
AIM: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a disorder of myocardial inflammation induced by high catecholamine levels and is associated with acute complications. In the long-term TTC is associated with a risk of single or multiple recurrences, but risk of such occurrences is not clear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and consolidate the evidence on the incidence and clinical correlates of cases of TTC recurrence. METHODS: A comprehensive search of four major databases (EMBASE, OVID Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar) was performed from their inception to first week of Jan 2014...
July 1, 2014: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24712763/serum-cholesterol-levels-and-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Mehmet Aydin, Ibrahim Susam, Baris Kilicaslan, Münevver Dereli, Mustafa Sacar, Oner Ozdogan
BACKGROUND: Post-operative atrial fibrillation is an important complication after coronary bypass surgery. As inflammation and oxidative stress were makedly encountered in the etiology, high cholesterol was also defined to provoke atrial fibrillation. In this present study, the relationship between postoperative atrial fibrillation and preoperative serum lipid levels were evaluated. METHODS: A total of 100 patients, who were operated at the department of Cardiovascular Surgery of our hospital were included to the study analysis...
2014: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24602801/targeting-inflammation-new-therapeutic-approaches-in-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd
#15
REVIEW
Daniela Impellizzeri, Emanuela Esposito, James Attley, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, features that are closely associated with nuclear factor (NF-κB) activation, play a key role in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several animal models and clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy to improve glomerular/tubulointerstitial damage, reduce proteinuria, and decrease CKD progression, but CKD treatment still represents a clinical challenge...
March 2014: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24498202/inhibition-of-renin-angiotensin-axis-may-be-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-developing-venous-thromboembolism-in-patients-with-atherosclerotic-disease
#16
Young Kwang Chae, Danai Khemasuwan, Anastasios Dimou, Stefan Neagu, Lakshmi Chebrolu, Shikha Gupta, Alejandra Carpio, Jongoh Kim, Jeong Hyun Yun, Athanasios Smyrlis, Alan Friedman, William Tester
BACKGROUND: Arterial and venous thrombosis may share common pathophysiology involving the activation of platelets and inflammatory mediators. A growing body of evidence suggests prothrombotic effect of renin angiotensin system (RAS) including vascular inflammation and platelet activation. We hypothesized that the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) plays a role in protecting against venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients atherosclerosis...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24307261/reduction-in-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake-on-serial-cardiac-positron-emission-tomography-is-associated-with-improved-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-in-patients-with-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#17
Michael T Osborne, Edward A Hulten, Avinainder Singh, Alfonso H Waller, Marcio S Bittencourt, Garrick C Stewart, Jon Hainer, Venkatesh L Murthy, Hicham Skali, Sharmila Dorbala, Marcelo F Di Carli, Ron Blankstein
BACKGROUND: Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used to diagnose and monitor cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). It is not known whether a reduction in myocardial inflammation, as measured by FDG uptake, is associated with improvement in LV ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: For 23 patients with CS followed by a total of 90 serial PET exams (median 4 per patient), two physicians blinded to EF quantified the maximum of standardized uptake value (SUV) and volume of inflamed tissue above two distinct thresholds to assess the intensity and extent of FDG uptake on each study...
February 2014: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24003301/microscopic-colitis-is-associated-with-several-concomitant-diseases
#18
Bodil Roth, Jonas Manjer, Bodil Ohlsson
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a disease with intestinal mucosal inflammation causing diarrhea, affecting predominantly middle-aged women. The etiology is unknown, but increased prevalence of autoimmune diseases in these patients has been described, although not compared with controls or adjusted for confounding factors. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of common diseases in patients with MC and controls from the general population. Hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma or bronchitis, ischemia, and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in patients than in controls...
2013: Drug Target Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23969418/angiotensin-receptor-blockers-are-associated-with-reduced-fibrosis-and-interleukin-6-expression-in-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#19
Nancy Côté, Ablajan Mahmut, Dominique Fournier, Marie-Chloé Boulanger, Christian Couture, Jean-Pierre Després, Sylvain Trahan, Yohan Bossé, Sylvain Pagé, Philippe Pibarot, Patrick Mathieu
BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic disorder characterized by the mineralization of the aortic valve and involving fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: In this work we sought to determine if the fibrotic component of the remodeling process of CAVD was related to the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). METHODS: In 477 patients with CAVD, the aortic valve was examined by histology...
2014: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23957374/targeting-the-janus-face-of-the-b2-bradykinin-receptor
#20
REVIEW
Nelly Blaes, Jean-Pierre Girolami
INTRODUCTION: Kinins are main active mediators of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) via bradykinin type 1 inducible (B1R) and type 2 constitutive (B2R) receptors. B2R mediates most physiological bradykinin (BK) responses, including vasodilation, natriuresis, NO, prostaglandins release. AREAS COVERED: The article summarizes knowledge on kinins, B2R signaling and biological functions; highlights crosstalks between B2R and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The double role (Janus face) in physiopathology, namely the beneficial protection of the endothelium, which forms the basis for the therapeutical utilization of B2 receptor agonists, on the one side, and the involvement of B2R in inflammation or infection diseases and in pain mechanisms, which justifies the use of B2R antagonists, on the other side, is extensively analyzed...
October 2013: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
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