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Hiv inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921220/increased-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-a-marker-of-ongoing-inflammation-and-better-neurocognitive-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#1
Josué Pérez-Santiago, Michelli F De Oliveira, Susanna R Var, Tyler R C Day, Steven P Woods, Sara Gianella, Sanjay R Mehta
Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#2
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#3
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906007/what-happens-to-cardiovascular-system-behind-the-undetectable-level-of-hiv-viremia
#4
REVIEW
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Paolo Pavone, Pietro Vittozzi, Gabriella De Girolamo, Ivan Schietroma, Sara Serafino, Noemi Giustini, Vincenzo Vullo
Despite the combined antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life of HIV infected patients, the survival of these patients is always decreased compared with the general population. This is the consequence of non-infectious illnesses including cardio vascular diseases. In fact large studies have indicated an increased risk of coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction even in HIV patients on cART. In HIV infected patients several factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular problems: life-style, metabolic parameters, genetic predisposition, viral factors, immune activation, chronic inflammation and side effects of antiretroviral therapy...
April 27, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903071/reduced-levels-and-bioactivity-of-endogenous-protease-cathepsin-d-in-genital-tract-secretions-of-postmenopausal-women
#5
Mariel Jais, Naji Younes, Stacey Chapman, Susan Cu-Uvin, Mimi Ghosh
PROBLEM: HIV infections are increasing in older adult populations. Although it is known that the HIV/AIDS epidemics affect women disproportionately, little is known regarding immune responses in reproductive tract of postmenopausal women, specifically regarding endogenous proteases that modulate inflammation, tissue remodeling and wound healing. METHOD OF STUDY: Levels and bioactivity of endogenous proteases Cathepsin B, D, G, and Neutrophil Elastase were measured in cervical vaginal lavage collected from 20 HIV-negative pre- and postmenopausal women...
November 30, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899301/role-for-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-signalling-pathway-in-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-tdf-induced-renal-damage-in-rats
#6
Hemalatha Ramamoorthy, Premila Abraham, Bina Isaac, Dhayakani Selvakumar
Nephrotoxicity due to tenofovir treatment of HIV patients has been reported. However, the mechanism of tenofovir nephrotoxicity is not clear. NFκB is an important proinflammatory transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in oxidative stress-induced inflammation. We hypothesized that NFκB proinflammatory signalling pathway may play a role in tenofovir induced renal damage. Renal damage was induced in adult male Wistar rats by the oral administration of 600 mg/kg body wt. daily for 5 consecutive weeks...
November 27, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898732/chemokine-levels-in-the-penile-coronal-sulcus-correlate-with-hiv-1-acquisition-and-are-reduced-by-male-circumcision-in-rakai-uganda
#7
Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul
Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898308/emerging-biopharmaceuticals-from-marine-actinobacteria
#8
REVIEW
Syed Shams Ul Hassan, Komal Anjum, Syed Qamar Abbas, Najeeb Akhter, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Umber Tasneem
Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897054/high-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-reproductive-tract-of-women-with-bv-and-engaging-in-intravaginal-douching-a-cross-sectional-study-of-participants-in-the-women-interagency-hiv-study-wihs
#9
Maria Luisa Alcaide, Violeta J Rodriguez, Megan R Brown, Suresh Pallikkuth, Kristopher Arheart, Octavio Martinez, Margaret Roach, Raina Fichorova, Deborah L Jones, Savita Pahwa, Margaret A Fischl
High levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract suggest mucosal vulnerability and increased risk of HIV and STI acquisition. Intravaginal douching is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) in women in the US, and both douching and BV are linked to HIV and STI acquisition. This study evaluates inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract to increase understanding of the effects of both BV and intravaginal douching to the vaginal mucosa. A cross-sectional study of participants in the Miami WIHS investigated 72 reproductive age women (45 HIV+ and 27 high-risk HIV-) who completed intravaginal douching questionnaires and underwent collection of vaginal swabs and cervicovaginal lavages (CVL)...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896669/detection-of-autoantibodies-to-dsf70-ledgfp75-in-mexican-hispanics-using-multiple-complementary-assay-platforms
#10
Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado, Eduardo Gómez-Bañuelos, Rosa Elena Navarro-Hernández, Oscar Pizano-Martinez, Adan Saldaña-Millán, Efrain Chavarria-Avila, Lorena Gonzalez-Rosas, Lilia Andrade-Ortega, Miguel Angel Saavedra, Olga Lidia Vera-Lastra, Luis Javier Jara, Gabriel Medrano-Ramírez, Claudia Cruz-Reyes, Ignacio García-De la Torre, Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Lisiane Maria Enriconi-Dos Anjos, Anamika Basu, Roger Albesa, Michael Mahler, Carlos A Casiano
PURPOSE: Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) targeting the dense fine speckled antigen DFS70, also known as lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), are attracting attention due to their low frequency in systemic rheumatic diseases but increased frequency in clinical laboratory referrals and healthy individuals (HI). These ANA specifically recognize the stress protein DFS70/LEDGFp75, implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, and inflammation. While their frequency has been investigated in various ethnic populations, there is little information on their frequency among Hispanics/Latinos...
December 2017: Auto- Immunity Highlights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892873/evidence-of-disseminated-infection-by-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-hominissuis-in-a-pet-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo
#11
Javier Bezos, Beatriz Álvarez-Carrión, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos, Álvaro Fernández-Manzano, Lucía de Juan, Cristina Huguet, Víctor Briones, Beatriz Romero
The infection caused by the zoonotic opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) was reported for the first time in a pet ferret. Both owners were HIV-positive. Euthanasia of the pet was recommended due to medical reasons and as a preventive action. Disseminated and open tuberculosis lesions were observed in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems of the ferret. Ecographic and radiographic surveys showed a severe generalized lymphadenopathy, strong thickening of the gastric wall and peritoneum layer...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889053/osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women-living-with-hiv
#12
REVIEW
Fionnuala Finnerty, Karen Walker-Bone, Shema Tariq
The widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a life-limiting condition to one with near-normal life expectancy. HIV is associated with an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis, with people living with HIV (PLHIV) potentially experiencing these conditions at a younger age than their HIV-negative counterparts. The mechanisms driving bone disease in HIV are complex and include: an increased prevalence of traditional risk factors; other comorbid conditions; and HIV-associated factors such as viral effects, systemic inflammation, and ART-related factors...
January 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886790/cardiac-disease-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Gerald S Bloomfield, Claudia Leung
Over the last 2 decades human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease requiring long-term management. Aging, antiretroviral therapy, chronic inflammation, and several other factors contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients infected with HIV. In low-income and middle-income countries where antiretroviral therapy access is limited, cardiac disease is most commonly related to opportunistic infections and end-stage manifestations of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, including HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885058/association-between-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-arterial-stiffness-in-children
#14
Justin S Kuilder, Nikmah S Idris, Diederick E Grobbee, Michiel L Bots, Michael Mh Cheung, David Burgner, Nia Kurniati, Cuno Spm Uiterwaal
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and adverse cardiovascular outcome in adults. Early recognition of changes in vascular properties might prove essential in cardiovascular prevention in HIV-infected patients. We investigated the relations between HIV infection and arterial stiffness in children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 51 HIV-infected and 52 healthy children (age 3.2-14...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880829/interleukin-15-il-15-strongly-correlates-with-increasing-hiv-1-viremia-and-markers-of-inflammation
#15
Sanjay Swaminathan, Ju Qiu, Adam W Rupert, Zonghui Hu, Jeanette Higgins, Robin L Dewar, Randy Stevens, Catherine A Rehm, Julia A Metcalf, Brad T Sherman, Michael W Baseler, H Clifford Lane, Tomozumi Imamichi
OBJECTIVE: IL-15 has been postulated to play an important role in HIV-1 infection, yet there are conflicting reports regarding its expression levels in these patients. We sought to measure the level of IL-15 in a large, well characterised cohort of HIV-1 infected patients and correlate this with well known markers of inflammation, including CRP, D-dimer, sCD163 and sCD14. DESIGN AND METHODS: IL-15 levels were measured in 501 people (460 patients with HIV-1 infection and 41 uninfected controls)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875823/biomarkers-and-clinical-indices-of-aging-with-hiv
#16
Kathleen V Fitch, Meghan Noonan Feldpausch, Sara E Dolan Looby
HIV infection may potentiate specific biomarkers that influence the development of premature clinical indices commonly associated with aging. Therefore, predicting mortality outcomes in people living with HIV is extremely important as this population ages. This chapter describes biomarkers associated with inflammation, coagulation, and immune activation in HIV, and reviews the association between specific biomarkers and the development of co-morbid conditions in individuals with HIV. Measures that incorporate specific biomarkers related to HIV infection, designed to predict mortality outcomes in individuals with HIV, are also discussed...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875822/cellular-senescence-immunosenescence-and-hiv
#17
Tamàs Fülöp, Georges Herbein, Andrea Cossarizza, Jacek M Witkowski, Eric Frost, Gilles Dupuis, Graham Pawelec, Anis Larbi
Aging is a complex biological process that leads to several physiological changes. Among these changes, the most striking are those involving the innate and adaptive parts of the immune system. Furthermore, these changes are associated with a low-grade inflammation called inflamm-aging, which is the result of several lifelong antigenic stimulations, including chronic viral infections such as cytomegalovirus. Immunosenescence, concomitantly with inflamm-aging, is considered as the leading cause of age-related diseases including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, and cancer...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875362/relationship-between-hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-inflammatory-markers-and-cerebrovascular-endothelial-function-among-adults-in-urban-china
#18
Felicia C Chow, Yanling Li, Yinghuan Hu, Joy Chan, Huanling Wang, Weihai Xu, Richard W Price, Farzaneh A Sorond, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular risk is increased in people living with HIV infection compared with age-matched uninfected individuals. Cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction related to antiretroviral therapy and inflammation may contribute to higher stroke risk in HIV infection. METHODS: We compared cerebral vasoreactivity-a measure of cerebrovascular endothelial function assessed by the breath holding index (BHI) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound-between virologically suppressed Chinese HIV-infected individuals followed in an HIV clinic in Beijing, China and uninfected controls...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868466/double-blind-placebo-controlled-1-1-randomized-phase-iii-clinical-trial-of-immunoxel-honey-lozenges-as-an-adjunct-immunotherapy-in-269-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Uyanga Batbold, Dmytro O Butov, Galyna A Kutsyna, Narantsetseg Damdinpurev, Elena A Grinishina, Otgonbayar Mijiddorj, Mikola E Kovolev, Khaliunaa Baasanjav, Tatyana S Butova, Munkhburam Sandagdorj, Ochirbat Batbold, Ariungerel Tseveendorj, Erkhemtsetseg Chunt, Svetlana I Zaitzeva, Hanna L Stepanenko, Natalia I Makeeva, Igor V Mospan, Volodymyr S Pylypchuk, John L Rowe, Peter Nyasulu, Vichai Jirathitikal, Allen I Bain, Marina G Tarakanovskaya, Aldar S Bourinbaiar
AIM: Safer and shorter antituberculosis treatment (ATT) regimens represent the unmet medical need. PATIENTS & METHODS: The patients were randomly assigned into two arms: the first (n = 137) received once-daily sublingual honey lozenge formulated with botanical immunomodulator Immunoxel and the second (n = 132) received placebo lozenges along with conventional ATT. Immunoxel and placebo arms were demographically similar: 102 versus 106 had drug-susceptible TB; 28 versus 20 multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); 7 versus 7 extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB); and 22 versus 20 TB-HIV...
November 21, 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862491/alarmins-and-central-nervous-system-inflammation-in-hiv-associated-neurological-disorders
#20
M-L Gougeon
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in infected individuals with adequate immunological and virological status. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include hepatitis C virus co-infection, host genetic factors predisposing to HAND, the early establishment of the virus in the CNS and its persistence under HAART; thus, the CNS is an important reservoir for HIV. Microglial cells are permissive to HIV-1, and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated genes were found expressed in brains of HIV-1-infected persons, contributing to brain disease...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
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