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Hiv inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346185/higher-art-adherence-is-associated-with-lower-systemic-inflammation-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-ugandans-who-achieve-virologic-suppression
#1
Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Mary Morrow, Yap Boum, Helen Byakwaga, Jessica E Haberer, Jeffrey N Martin, David Bangsberg, Samantha Mawhinney, Nicholas Musinguzi, Yong Huang, Russell P Tracy, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth Williams, Conrad Muzoora, Peter W Hunt, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Residual systemic inflammation persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is associated with non-AIDS clinical outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the association between ART adherence and inflammation in Ugandans living with HIV who were predominantly receiving nevirapine-based ART with a thymidine analog backbone and were virologically suppressed by conventional assays. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, soluble (s)CD14, sCD163, the kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio, in addition to CD8 T-cell activation, were measured at baseline and 6 months after ART initiation in treatment-naïve adults who achieved an undetectable plasma HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL) at their 6-month visit...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334197/increased-non-aids-mortality-among-persons-with-aids-defining-events-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#2
April C Pettit, Mark J Giganti, Suzanne M Ingle, Margaret T May, Bryan E Shepherd, Michael J Gill, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Sophie Abgrall, Michael S Saag, Julia Del Amo, Amy C Justice, Jose M Miro, Matthias Cavasinni, François Dabis, Antonella D Monforte, Peter Reiss, Jodie Guest, David Moore, Leah Shepherd, Niels Obel, Heidi M Crane, Colette Smith, Ramon Teira, Robert Zangerle, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Timothy R Sterling
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333896/cataract-surgery-in-hiv-seropositive-patients-long-term-follow-up
#3
Massimo Accorinti, Michela Cecere, Andrea Scala, Maria Pia Pirraglia
PURPOSE: To study epidemiology and clinical findings of cataract in HIV+ patients. METHODS: A total of 32 HIV+ patients, 11 with uveitis/retinitis before surgery and 21 without, mean follow-up 44.9 ± 36.6 months, and 114 HIV- patients, 57 with uveitis/retinitis before surgery and 57 without, were retrospectively compared. RESULTS: Visual acuity improved in all HIV+ patients (p < 0.001), who were younger (p = 0.01) and more frequently males (p = 0...
January 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325542/visceral-adipose-tissue-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hiv-infected-patients-undergoing-cart-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Maria Teresa Beires, André Silva-Pinto, Ana Cristina Santos, António José Madureira, Jorge Pereira, Davide Carvalho, António Sarmento, Paula Freitas
BACKGROUND: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients has been associated with lipodystrophy, metabolic abnormalities, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Ultrasound measures of carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) have been used as a valid measure of subclinical atherosclerosis and as a tool to predict the risk of cardiovascular events. Our aim was to evaluate the progression of cIMT in HIV-infected patients subjected to cART, with and without lipodystrophy, over a one-year period...
January 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320547/dyslipidemia-chronic-inflammation-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-children-and-adolescents-infected-with-hiv-the-posithive-health-study
#5
Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Edio Luiz Petroski, Yara Maria Franco Moreno, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Erasmo Benício de Moraes Santos Trindade, Aroldo Prohmann de Carvalho, Isabela de Carlos Back
HIV-infected children and adolescents may be at risk for cardiovascular disease due to chronic inflammation and exacerbation of risk factors. The aim of this study was as follows: 1) compare cardiovascular risk factors, chronic inflammation, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMTc) between the HIV and control groups; 2) determine the association of HIV and antiretroviral (ART) regimens with cardiovascular risk factors, chronic inflammation, and IMTc; and 3) identify variables associated with elevated IMTc...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319242/clinical-diversity-of-cns-cryptococcosis
#6
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
Background: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. Methodology: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315893/mechanisms-regulating-expansion-of-cd8-t-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#7
REVIEW
A Nasi, F Chiodi
Abnormal immune activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells, especially of memory and effector phenotypes, take place during HIV-1 infection, and these abnormal features persist during administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to infected patients. The molecular mechanisms for CD8+ T-cell expansion remain poorly characterized. In this article, we review the literature addressing features of CD8+ T-cell immune pathology and present an integrated view on the mechanisms leading to abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during HIV-1 infection...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309629/changes-in-inflammation-but-not-in-t-cell-activation-precede-non-aids-defining-events-in-a-case-control-study-of-patients-on-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Konstantia Angelidou, Peter W Hunt, Alan L Landay, Cara C Wilson, Benigno Rodriguez, Steven G Deeks, Ronald J Bosch, Michael M Lederman
Background: We examine changes in soluble inflammatory cytokines and T-cell activation after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in an ACTG nested case-control study. Methods: Cases were 143 HIV-infected adults who developed a non-AIDS event; 315 controls remained event-free. Specimens were tested pre-ART, year 1 post-ART and at the visit preceding the event. Conditional logistic regression evaluated the associations of biomarker changes with non-AIDS events...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306858/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-with-exaggerated-pleocytosis-and-anti-gm1-ganglioside-antibodies
#9
Gabriel T Doctor, Sian K Alexander, Aleksandar Radunovic
An 81-year-old man presented with fever, confusion and rapidly-progressive flaccid tetraparesis. Clinical presentation and neurophysiology were consistent with a severe axonal polyneuropathy. Anti-GM1 and Campylobacter serology were both positive, consistent with postinfectious axonal-variant Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). GBS is characterised by albuminocytological dissociation, where an elevated protein and acellular cerebrospinal fluid are typical. However, in this case, CSF analysis revealed an exaggerated pleocytosis (72 white blood cells (WBC)/mm3)...
January 6, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306246/hyperbolic-relation-between-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-malaria-influenza-helicobacter-pylori-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-induced-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-temporary-insulin-resistance
#10
Jean Bosco Kasiam Lasi On'kin, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza, Venant Tchokonte-Nana, Augustin Nge Okwe, Nelly Kangola Kabangu
Background/aim: We calculated the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) for estimating insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in normal, healthy nondiabetics with infections (malaria, influenza, HIV, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and hepatitis C virus), type 2 diabetic black patients, and healthy controls from Kinshasa, DR Congo. Materials and methods: A case-control study was carried out between 2006 and 2007 for black Central African participants managed for HOMA.Results: In total, 219 patients and 110 healthy controls were matched for sex and age...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304747/adipokines-levels-in-hiv-infected-patients-lipocalin-2-and-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-as-possible-markers-of-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy-related-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#11
Mario Luca Morieri, Viola Guardigni, Juana Maria Sanz, Edoardo Dalla Nora, Cecilia Soavi, Giovanni Zuliani, Laura Sighinolfi, Angelina Passaro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent a major problem in HIV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) with circulating levels of two adipokines (Lipocalin-2 and Fatty Acid Binding Protein-4, FABP-4), known to be associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in the general population. METHODS: We enrolled 40 non-obese HIV-infected patients and 10 healthy controls of similar age and Body Mass Index (BMI)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301196/sustained-ifn-i-expression-during-established-persistent-viral-infection-a-bad-seed-for-protective-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Hamza Loucif, Armstrong Murira, Xavier Laulhé, Simona Stäger, Alain Lamarre, Julien van Grevenynghe
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are one of the primary immune defenses against viruses. Similar to all other molecular mechanisms that are central to eliciting protective immune responses, IFN-I expression is subject to homeostatic controls that regulate cytokine levels upon clearing the infection. However, in the case of established persistent viral infection, sustained elevation of IFN-I expression bears deleterious effects to the host and is today considered as the major driver of inflammation and immunosuppression...
December 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299802/hcv-coinfection-of-the-hiv-infected-patients-with-discordant-cd4-t-cell-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy-leads-to-intense-systemic-inflammation
#13
K V Shmagel, L B Korolevskaya, E V Saidakova, N G Shmagel, V A Chereshnev, L Margolis, D Anthony, M Lederman
The level of proinflammatory markers was assessed in HIV-infected patients that were coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and had failed to restore the CD4+ T cell counts (immunological nonresponders, INR) during the antiretroviral therapy (ART). Among four patient groups (HIV+HCV- and HIV+HCV+ subjects with the concordant response to ART; HIV+HCV- and HIV+HCV+ subjects that were INR), the greatest systemic inflammation was in the latter group. The maximum difference was between the subjects HIV+HCV-INR and HIV+HCV+ INR: the blood of coinfected patients contained significantly higher concentrations of the IP-10, sCD163, sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII and of bacterial lipopolysaccharide...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297230/post-vaccination-c-reactive-protein-crp-and-c5-gp41732-744-antibody-level-fold-changes-over-baseline-are-independent-predictors-of-therapeutic-hiv-vaccine-effect-in-a-phase-2-clinical-study-of-vacc-4x
#14
Yunda Huang, Lily Zhang, Darren Jolliffe, Brittany Sanchez, Grete Stjernholm, Øyvind Jelmert, Mats Ökvist, Maja A Sommerfelt
Therapeutic vaccination has the potential to contribute to functional HIV cure strategies. However, to show functional HIV cure, study participants must be taken off combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The availability of suitable biomarkers that can predict viral load (VL) or CD4 count outcomes following therapeutic HIV vaccination would reduce the risks associated with cART interruption in such studies. This report sought to determine baseline and post-vaccination biomarker predictors of vaccine effect on VL and CD4 counts following cART interruption in a double-blind, randomized phase 2 study of the peptide-based therapeutic HIV vaccine, Vacc-4x (n=93) vs...
January 3, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296621/rivastigmine-decreases-brain-damage-in-hiv-patients-with-mild-cognitive-deficits
#15
Gaetano Perrotta, Guillaume Bonnier, Djalel-Eddine Meskaldji, David Romascano, Ruslan Aydarkhanov, Alessandro Daducci, Samanta Simioni, Matthias Cavassini, Melanie Metral, François Lazeyras, Reto Meuli, Gunnar Krueger, Renaud A Du Pasquier, Cristina Granziera
Rivastigmine has been shown to improve cognition in HIV+ patients with minor neurocognitive disorders; however, the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effect are currently unknown. To assess whether rivastigmine therapy is associated with decreased brain inflammation and damage, we performed T1/T2* relaxometry and magnetization transfer imaging in 17 aviremic HIV+ patients with minor neurocognitive disorders enrolled on a crossed over randomized rivastigmine trial. Rivastigmine therapy was associated with changes in MRI metrics indicating a decrease in brain water content (i...
December 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288626/the-p2x7-receptor-a-main-player-in-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Elena Adinolfi, Anna Lisa Giuliani, Elena De Marchi, Anna Pegoraro, Elisa Orioli, Francesco Di Virgilio
Damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are intracellular molecules released from infected or injured cells to activate inflammatory and reparatory responses. One of the most ancient and conserved DAMPs is extracellular ATP (eATP) that exerts its phlogistic activity mainly through activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7 is an ATP gated ion channel, expressed by most immune cells, including the monocyte-derived cell lineages, T and B lymphocytes an their precursors. Here we give an overview of recent and established literature on the role of P2X7R in septic and sterile inflammation...
December 27, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287090/immune-activation-despite-preserved-cd4-t-cells-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#17
Patricia Alvarez, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Adam Kravietz, Tiina Ilmet, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Alka Khaitan
BACKGROUND: HIV disease progresses more rapidly in children than adults with mortality rates exceeding 50% by 2 years of age without antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend universal treatment for all living persons with HIV, yet there is limited supporting evidence in pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether CD4 cell counts reflect immunological markers associated with disease progression in ART naïve perinatally-infected HIV+ children and adolescents and their response to ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282143/azithromycin-versus-placebo-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-breathe-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Katharina Kranzer, Grace McHugh, Elizabeth L Corbett, Hilda Mujuru, Mark P Nicol, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Andrea M Rehman, Tore J Gutteberg, Trond Flaegstad, Jon O Odland, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation...
December 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280055/sirtuin-1-chromatin-binding-dynamics-points-to-a-common-mechanism-regulating-inflammatory-targets-in-siv-infection-and-in-the-aging-brain
#19
Nikki Bortell, Liana Basova, Julia A Najera, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes
Microglia and macrophages are the main non-neuronal subsets of myeloid origin in the brain, and are critical regulators in neurodegenerative disorders, where inflammation is a key factor. Since HIV infection results in neurological perturbations that are similar to those in aging, we examined microglial and infiltrating myeloid subsets in the search for changes that might resemble the ones in aging. For that, we used the SIV infection in rhesus macaques to model neuroAIDS. We found that Sirt-1, a molecule that impacts survival and health in many models, was decreased in cell preparations containing a majority of microglia and myeloid cells from the brain of infected macaques...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261623/microglial-activation-on-11c-cb184-pet-in-a-patient-with-cerebellar-ataxia-associated-with-hiv-infection
#20
Kenji Ishibashi, Yoshiharu Miura, Akifumi Imamura, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii
A 63-year-old man complaining of prolonged imbalance underwent C-CB184 PET to assess microglial activation 3 years after being diagnosed with cerebellar ataxia associated with HIV infection. C-CB184 images revealed significant cerebellar uptake where MRI signal abnormalities were observed at disease onset, although these abnormalities had mostly disappeared at the time of C-CB184 PET. Microglia are believed to be a long-term reservoir for HIV infection, causing persistent immune activation (ie, chronic inflammation)...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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