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Hiv inflammation

J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jihad Slim, Christopher F Saling
Advancements in antiretroviral therapy have drastically increased the life expectancy for those infected with HIV. Today, a new subgroup of older patients with long-term controlled HIV exists, and its populace is continuously mounting. Therefore, it is essential to understand the enduring effects of chronic suppressed HIV infection in order to further improve HIV management in these patients. This paper will examine the role of HIV in chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction, the dynamic interaction that exists between comorbidity and HIV, and the potential consequences of long-term antiretroviral therapy in an effort to provide the best management options for the virally suppressed HIV patient...
2016: BioMed Research International
Fujiko Mitsumoto-Kaseida, Masayuki Murata, Kazuya Ura, Koji Takayama, Satoshi Hiramine, Motohiro Shimizu, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo
CD64 is an Fc-gamma-receptor type 1. The expression level of neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) is a known bacterial infection marker, and it also increases in viral infections. We examined the absolute nCD64 before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine its role as an infection and inflammation marker of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this prospective observational study, ninety-four HIV infected patients were enrolled and classified into ART (n=62), ART naive (n=24), and acute/early phase groups (n=8)...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
A L Wilkinson, S H Pedersen, M Urassa, D Michael, A Andreasen, J Todd, S M Kinung'hi, J Changalucha, J M McDermid
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for fetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. METHODS: A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n=44) and HIV-negative (n=70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Edward J Wing
With the wider availability of antiretrovirals, the world's HIV population is aging. More than 10% of the 34.5 million HIV+ individuals worldwide are over the age of 50 and the average age continues to increase. In the US more than 50% of the 1.3 million people with HIV are over 50 and by the year 2030 it is estimated that 70% will be over the age of 50. Although the life expectancy of HIV+ people has increased dramatically, it still lags behind HIV- individuals. There is controversy about whether HIV itself accelerates the aging process...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Jingjing Cai, Hong Yuan, Huan Yang, Timothy R Billiar, Alex F Chen
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism of sterile inflammatory response drive the development of vessle remodeling and intimal hyperplasia (IH) was not fully understood. We hypothesis that myeloid differentiation protein-88 (MyD88) in macrophages, the major endocellular adaptor molecule that mediate most toll like receptors (TLRs) induced inflammation, activates processes leading to vessle remodeling via upregulation of cathepsin L activity. DESIGN AND METHOD: Carotid artery wire injury was applied in C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice, MyD88 mice, Lyz-MyD88 mice and cathepsin L mice to investigate vessel remodeling and intimal formation...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Y Wang, L Yang, Z L Zhang
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Aviva S Mattingly, Aylin B Unsal, Julia B Purdy, Ahmed M Gharib, Adam Rupert, Joseph A Kovacs, Dorothea McAreavey, Rohan Hazra, Khaled Z Abd-Elmoniem, Colleen Hadigan
We evaluated immune activation and coronary artery plaque in young adults with HIV acquired in early life (n=31). Coronary plaque was positively associated with lipids, immune activation marker %CD8+CD38+DR, and E-selectin, a marker of endothelial inflammation. Immune activation and endothelial inflammation may drive coronary plaque formation during the early stages of atherosclerosis in the context of chronic HIV.
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Vibe Ballegaard, Ulrik Ralfkiaer, Karin K Pedersen, Malene Hove, Simon Koplev, Peter Brændstrup, Lars P Ryder, Hans O Madsen, Jan Gerstoft, Kirsten Grønbæk, Susanne D Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-1 infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of inflammation. In treated HIV-1-infected individuals, we aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs with known roles in inflammation and CVD risk, and to investigate associations between these and systemic inflammation. METHODS: In a screening cohort including 14 HIV-1-infected individuals and nine uninfected controls microarray profiling was performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Nicholas T Funderburg, Dihua Xu, Martin P Playford, Aditya A Joshi, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael M Lederman, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. METHODS: We report results from 39 ART-naïve participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir (RAL), emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after ART initiation...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Irini Sereti, Shelly J Krebs, Nittaya Phanuphak, James L Fletcher, Bonnie Slike, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Robert J O'Connell, Adam Rupert, Nicolas Chomont, Victor Valcour, Jerome H Kim, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Daniel C Douek, Jintanat Ananworanich, Netanya S Utay
BACKGROUND:  Serious non-AIDS events cause substantial morbidity and mortality despite HIV suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation cascade activation, and fibrosis predict these end-organ events. We aimed to determine whether ART initiation during acute HIV infection would attenuate changes in these biomarker levels. METHODS:  Plasma samples were obtained from participants starting ART during acute HIV infection, chronic HIV infection, and HIV-uninfected participants, from Bangkok, Thailand...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Tong-Cui Ma, Run-Hong Zhou, Xu Wang, Jie-Liang Li, Ming Sang, Li Zhou, Ke Zhuang, Wei Hou, De-Yin Guo, Wen-Zhe Ho
The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), a soybean-derived protease inhibitor, is known to have anti-inflammatory effect in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Macrophages play a key role in inflammation and immune activation, which is implicated in HIV disease progression. Here, we investigated the effect of BBI on HIV infection of peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. We demonstrated that BBI could potently inhibit HIV replication in macrophages without cytotoxicity. Investigation of the mechanism(s) of BBI action on HIV showed that BBI induced the expression of IFN-β and multiple IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), including Myxovirus resistance protein 2 (Mx2), 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS-1), Virus inhibitory protein (viperin), ISG15 and ISG56...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yonguk Kim, Seung-Young Yu, Hyung Woo Kwak
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of ocular syphilis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: A total of 45 eyes from 39 patients with ocular syphilis confirmed by serologic tests were reviewed retrospectively. The included cases were all non-HIV-infected patients presenting with intraocular inflammation from 2002 to 2014 at Kyung Hee University Hospital. Medical records of 45 eyes were analyzed and included best-corrected visual acuity and ophthalmologic examination findings of the anterior and posterior segments to determine the focus of inflammation...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Patricia Pérez-Matute, José G Pichel, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, Laura Pérez-Martínez, Raquel Torrens, José Ramón Blanco, José Antonio Oteo
BACKGROUND: Any strategy designed to decrease the macrophage content in adipose tissue (AT) is of great value as a way to decrease inflammation in this fat depot and also as a way to prevent or treat obesity and associated disorders. Maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist approved for the treatment of HIV-infected patients, has beneficial effects on metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MVC on AT macrophage recruitment in a mouse model of obesity. The plausible underlying mechanisms of action were also investigated...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed a long-term control of viral replication and HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic disease. However, ART is not able to eradicate the virus, and high levels of inflammation and immune-activation are observed despite prolonged ART. Consequently, a number of comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, are gaining relevance in patients living with HIV. Moreover, the toxicities associated with continued exposure to ART cause several metabolic disturbances with clinical relevance, and the cost of treatment is a heavy burden for the national health systems...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
Xu Qian, Duc T M Nguyen, Yaojun Li, Jianxin Lyu, Edward A Graviss, Tony Y Hu
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for methods that can rapidly and accurately assess therapeutic responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in order to predict treatment outcomes. Exposure to bacterial pathogens can rapidly activate the plasma contact system, triggering the release of bradykinin (BK) and its metabolite desArg(9)-bradykinin (DABK) to induce inflammation and innate immune responses. We hypothesized that serum BK and DABK levels might act as sensitive immune response signatures for changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) burden, and therefore examined how serum levels of these markers corresponded with anti-TB therapy in a small cohort of active TB cases...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Thiago Henrique Roza
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML...
October 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
Paul Randell, Akil Jackson, Ana Milinkovic, Marta Boffito, Graeme Moyle
BACKGROUND: We aimed to measure the effect of raltegravir (RAL) on insulin sensitivity and surrogates of CV risk in healthy HIV-seronegative volunteers compared to that of lopinavir/r (LPV/r), a positive control. METHODS: An open label, two phase crossover study in HIV-negative male subjects randomized 1:1 to receive either 2 weeks of LPV/r followed by a two week washout period and two weeks of RAL, or RAL initially followed by LPV/r. A hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp was performed prior to and following each 2-week dosing phase...
October 6, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
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