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Hiv inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#1
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208120/cardiovascular-complications-of-hiv-infection
#2
Marshall J Glesby
HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Widely used cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators to determine indications for statin treatment are not well validated for use in the HIV-infecte population. Some experts advocate including HIV infection as an independent risk factor for CVD. The effects of antiretroviral therapy on lipid profiles and the potentially increased risk for cardiovascular events must be taken into account when selecting treatment for HIV-infected individuals...
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#3
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205255/effect-of-postnatal-hiv-treatment-on-clinical-mastitis-and-breast-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-breast-feeding-women
#4
Sabrina Zadrozny, Daniel Westreich, Michael G Hudgens, Charles Chasela, Denise J Jamieson, Francis Martinson, Chifundo Zimba, Gerald Tegha, Irving Hoffman, William C Miller, Brian W Pence, Caroline C King, Athena P Kourtis, Wezi Msungama, Charles van der Horst
BACKGROUND: The relationship between mastitis and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive, breast-feeding women is unclear. METHODS: In the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study, conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, 2369 mother-infant pairs were randomized to a nutritional supplement group and to one of three treatment groups: maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), infant nevirapine (NVP) or standard of care for 24 weeks of exclusive breast-feeding and 4 weeks of weaning...
February 16, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199691/association-of-macrophage-inflammation-biomarkers-with-progression-of-subclinical-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-in-hiv-infected-women-and-men
#5
David B Hanna, Juan Lin, Wendy S Post, Howard N Hodis, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Mardge H Cohen, Stephen J Gange, Sabina A Haberlen, Sonya L Heath, Jason M Lazar, Chenglong Liu, Wendy J Mack, Igho Ofotokun, Frank J Palella, Phyllis C Tien, Mallory D Witt, Alan L Landay, Lawrence A Kingsley, Russell P Tracy, Robert C Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199660/macrophage-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-hiv-mechanistic-insights-and-future-directions
#6
Matthew J Feinstein, Donald M Lloyd-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198712/changes-in-levels-of-inflammation-following-antiretroviral-treatment-during-early-hiv-infection-in-actg-a5217
#7
Bernard J Macatangay, Ming Yang, Xin Sun, Jessica Morton, Victor DE Gruttola, Susan Little, Christine Hogan, Charles R Rinaldo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the changes in the levels of soluble biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation and T cell activation among participants of ACTG A5217 who were started on antiretroviral therapy (ART) within the first 6 months of HIV infection. METHODS: Cryopreserved specimens were obtained pre-ART (Week 0), at time of virologic suppression (Week 36), and at 36 weeks after treatment interruption (Week 72). Levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were measured in plasma, while T cell activation levels defined as the frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells co-expressing HLA-DR and CD38, were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196049/hiv-infection-in-the-native-and-allograft-kidney-implications-for-management-diagnosis-and-transplantation
#8
Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Christine Rouzioux, Christophe Legendre, Guillaume Canaud
The native kidney is a reservoir for HIV-1 and a site of viral replication, similar to lymphoid tissue, gut-associated lymphoid tissue or semen. The ability of the virus to persist may result from either a true latency or sequestration in an anatomic site that is not effectively exposed to antiretroviral therapy. The presence of HIV in kidney epithelial cells will lead progressively to end-stage renal disease. For decades, HIV-infected patients were excluded from consideration for kidney transplantation. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were the only forms of treatment available to these patients...
February 11, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182620/the-revival-of-an-old-marker-cd4-cd8-ratio
#9
Giuseppe Bruno, Annalisa Saracino, Laura Monno, Gioacchino Angarano
The effectiveness of modern antiretroviral therapies (ART) transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease characterized by a persistent condition of inflammation and immune activation. For this reason, even thought AIDS-related mortality has been reduced with an increased life expectancy, patients living with HIV infection are more likely to develop non-AIDS events despite the achievement of a complete suppression of HIV replication. Hence, the scientific community feels the need to find new biomarkers which would be suitable in clinical practice for identifying patients who require a close monitoring because of an increased risk of developing comorbidities...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182619/contribution-of-common-infections-to-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#10
Victoria Berquist, Jennifer F Hoy, Janine M Trevillyan
HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to complex interactions between the increased incidence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and HIV and antiretroviral-associated inflammation and dyslipidemia. Increasing evidence suggests that a number of important co-pathogens, including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus, and periodontal disease, are likely to also be contributing. Mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and modification of lipids play a role; however, induction of systemic inflammation is the likely key pathogenic link by which this occurs...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182617/statins-in-hiv-infected-patients-potential-beneficial-effects-and-clinical-use
#11
Enrique Bernal, Mar Masiá, Irene Marín, Félix Gutiérrez
Patients living with HIV have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease that is considered to be the result of an interaction between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking and dyslipidemia, and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV infection, along with side effects of antiretroviral therapy. In the general population, the administration of statins has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease-associated mortality, and these drugs are among the most common class of medication prescribed in high-income countries...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177967/the-neutralizing-and-targeting-properties-of-a-new-set-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-specific-antibodies-are-influenced-by-their-isotype
#12
Alexandre Girard, Katija Jelicic, Don Van Ryk, Nicolas Rochereau, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Christian Genin, Bernard Verrier, Stephanie Laurant, Diane Razanajaoana-Doll, Pin Jean-Jacques, Stéphane Paul
The homing of lymphocytes to mucosa is mainly controlled by α4β7 integrin, and it is amplified during gut chronic inflammation, as occurs with HIV and/or Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. We designed and applied an improved immunization strategy based on an innovative selection process to isolate new α4β7 lymphocyte-specific mAbs that are able to prevent their migration into inflamed gut tissues and/or to counteract HIV infection in vitro. Firstly, five mAbs (one IgA, one IgM, and four IgGs) were selected based on their capacity to recognize α4 or β7 homodimers and α4β7 heterodimers in transfected human cells...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177966/high-number-of-activated-cd8-t-cells-targeting-hiv-antigens-are-present-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-acute-hiv-infection
#13
Cari F Kessing, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour, Pearline Cartwright, Thep Chalermchai, James L K Fletcher, Carmen Nichols, Benjamin J Josey, Bonnie Slike, Shelly J Krebs, Napapon Sailsuta, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Linda Jagodzinski, Somporn Tipsuk, Duanghathai Suttichom, Somprartthana Rattanamanee, Henrik Zetterberg, Joanna Hellmuth, Nittaya Phanuphak, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lydie Trautmann
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by CD8+ T cells is associated with neuroinflammation in many neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-associated dementia. However, the role of CD8+ T cells in the CNS during acute HIV infection is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the phenotype, gene expression, TCR repertoire and HIV-specificity of CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a unique cohort captured during the earliest stages of acute HIV infection (AHI) (n=26), chronic (n=23), and uninfected (n=8)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168269/inflammation-and-immune-activation-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-african-infants-and-rotavirus-vaccine-responses
#14
Priyanka Uprety, Jane C Lindsey, Myron J Levin, Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Carrie Ziemniak, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizix, Susan S Kaplan, Micki Nelson, Amanda Zadzilka, Adriana Weinberg, Deborah Persaud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158448/virus-driven-inflammation-is-associated-with-the-development-of-bnabs-in-spontaneous-controllers-of-hiv
#15
Anne-Sophie Dugast, Kelly Arnold, Giuseppe Lofano, Sarah Moore, Michelle Hoffner, Melissa Simek, Pascal Poignard, Michael Seaman, Todd Suscovich, Florencia Pereyra, Bruce D Walker, Doug Lauffenburger, Doug Kwon, Brandon F Keele, Galit Alter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158203/silymarin-suppresses-basal-and-stimulus-induced-activation-exhaustion-differentiation-and-inflammatory-markers-in-primary-human-immune-cells
#16
Erica S Lovelace, Nicholas J Maurice, Hannah W Miller, Chloe K Slichter, Robert Harrington, Amalia Magaret, Martin Prlic, Stephen De Rosa, Stephen J Polyak
Silymarin (SM), and its flavonolignan components, alter cellular metabolism and inhibit inflammatory status in human liver and T cell lines. In this study, we hypothesized that SM suppresses both acute and chronic immune activation (CIA), including in the context of HIV infection. SM treatment suppressed the expression of T cell activation and exhaustion markers on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from chronically-infected, HIV-positive subjects. SM also showed a trend towards modifying CD4+ T cell memory subsets from HIV+ subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142265/hiv-1-infection-primes-macrophages-via-stat-signaling-to-promote-enhanced-inflammation-and-viral-replication
#17
K Sofia Appelberg, Mark A Wallet, Jared P Taylor, Melanie N Cash, John W Sleasman, Maureen Goodenow
Macrophages play important roles in HIV-1 pathogenesis as targets for viral replication and mediators of chronic inflammation. Similar to IFNγ-priming, HIV-1 primes macrophages, resulting in hyper-responsiveness to subsequent Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and increased inflammatory cytokine production. However, the specific molecular mechanism of HIV-1-priming and whether cells must be productively infected or if uninfected bystander cells also are primed by HIV-1 remains unclear. To explore these questions, human macrophages were primed by IFNγ or infected with HIV-1 prior to activation by TLR ligands...
January 31, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141779/direct-targeting-of-macrophages-with-methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone-decreases-siv-associated-cardiovascular-inflammation-and-pathology
#18
Joshua A Walker, Andrew D Miller, Tricia H Burdo, Michael S McGrath, Kenneth C Williams
BACKGROUND: Despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) HIV infected individuals develop co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD), where activated macrophages play a key role. To date, few therapies target activated monocytes and macrophages. METHODS: We evaluated a novel oral form of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor methylglyoxal-bisguanylhydrazone (MGBG) on cardiovascular inflammation, carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), and fibrosis in a SIV infection model of AIDS...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134710/mortal-allies-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-noncommunicable-diseases
#19
Elizabeth S Mayne, Jaya A George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected individuals have improved access to antiretroviral therapy. This has resulted in a shift in causes of mortality from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and malignancies. This review will look at the epidemiological shift, risk factors for the development of these diseases and examine some of the supporting laboratory diagnostic testing, which may be required. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors for the development of these diseases in HIV-infected patients include underlying genetic predisposition, lifestyle risk factors, chronic inflammation as a consequence of HIV infection, the presence and persistence of opportunistic infections and in some cases, highly active antiretroviral therapy, itself...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134057/hiv-viral-kinetics-and-t-cell-dynamics-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-persons-starting-an-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-and-protease-inhibitor-regimen
#20
Maile Y Karris, Sonia Jain, Tyler R C Day, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Miguel Goicoechea, Michael P Dubé, Xiaoying Sun, Celsa Spina, Eric S Daar, Richard H Haubrich, Sheldon Morris
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing regimens may potentially minimize antiretroviral (ART) toxicities, but demonstrate mixed efficacy and toxicity results. The impact of an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) and protease inhibitor (PI) regimen on HIV viral dynamics and T cell kinetics remains underdescribed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of raltegravir + ritonavir boosted lopinavir (RAL + LPV/r) to efavirenz/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC) on HIV kinetics and T cell dynamics...
January 30, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
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