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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918424/systemic-inflammatory-response-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
David J Pinato, Marco Merli, Alessia Dalla Pria, Shiraz Jamshaid, Kizzy Parker, Nicole Pagani, Hamid Hasson, Caterina Uberti Foppa, Emanuela Messina, Rohini Sharma, Mark Nelson, Mark Bower
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly prevalent in people living with HIV. Systemic inflammation is a prognostic factor requiring validation in HIV-associated HCC. AIMS: Using a multi-centre database of consecutive HCC cases, we investigated the prognostic role of a panel of inflammatory markers, including neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients with HIV-associated HCC secondary to hepatitis C (69%) or B virus infection (32%) were identified...
September 16, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916780/preserved-immune-functionality-and-high-cmv-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#2
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Elisabet García, Victor Urrea, Marta Massanella, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery after cART has been associated with skewed T-cell maturation, inflammation and immunosenescence; however, T-cell functionality in those individuals has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we assessed T-cell function by assessing cytokine production after polyclonal, CMV and HIV stimulations of T-cells from ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordants) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordants). A group of HIV-uninfected individuals were also included as controls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#3
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906351/prevalence-evolution-and-related-risk-factors-of-kidney-disease-among-spanish-hiv-infected-individuals
#4
Javier Juega-Mariño, Anna Bonjoch, Nuria Pérez-Alvarez, Eugenia Negredo, Beatriu Bayes, Josep Bonet, Buenaventura Clotet, Ramon Romero
Prevalence of kidney disease (KD) is increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. Different factors have been related, varying on different published series.The objectives were to study prevalence of KD in those patients, its evolution, and associated risk factors.An observational cohort study of 1596 HIV-positive patients with cross-sectional data collection in 2008 and 2010 was conducted. We obtained clinical and laboratory markers, and registered previous or current treatment with tenofovir (TDF) and indinavir (IDV)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902919/factors-associated-with-pulmonary-impairment-in-hiv-infected-south-african-adults
#6
Akshay N Gupte, Michelle L Wong, Reginah Msandiwa, Grace L Barnes, Jonathan Golub, Richard E Chaisson, Christopher J Hoffmann, Neil A Martinson
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease (OLD). Studies from developed countries report high viral load, low CD4 counts, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to be associated with OLD; but these findings may not be generalizable to populations in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of lung function in 730 HIV-infected black South African adults. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed at enrollment and repeated annually for three years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902848/the-effect-of-hiv-infection-and-hcv-viremia-on-inflammatory-mediators-and-hepatic-injury-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#7
Sheila M Keating, Jennifer L Dodge, Philip J Norris, John Heitman, Stephen J Gange, Audrey L French, Marshall J Glesby, Brian R Edlin, Patricia S Latham, Maria C Villacres, Ruth M Greenblatt, Marion G Peters
Hepatitis C virus infection induces inflammation and while it is believed that HIV co-infection enhances this response, HIV control may reduce inflammation and liver fibrosis in resolved or viremic HCV infection. Measurement of systemic biomarkers in co-infection could help define the mechanism of inflammation on fibrosis and determine if HIV control reduces liver pathology. A nested case-control study was performed to explore the relationship of systemic biomarkers of inflammation with liver fibrosis in HCV viremic and/or seropositive women with and without HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#8
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893284/role-of-sex-hormones-and-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-susceptibility-and-mucosal-immunity-to-hiv-1-in-the-female-genital-tract
#9
REVIEW
Danielle Vitali, Jocelyn M Wessels, Charu Kaushic
While the prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has stabilized globally, it continues to be the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. The majority of new infections are transmitted heterosexually, and women have consistently been found to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection during heterosexual intercourse compared to men. This emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of how the microenvironment in the female genital tract (FGT) could influence HIV-1 acquisition...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#10
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886715/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-potential-molecular-therapeutic-target-for-hiv-1-associated-brain-inflammation
#11
Amila Omeragic, Md Tozammel Hoque, U-Yeong Choi, Reina Bendayan
BACKGROUND: Despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, cognitive impairments remain prevalent due to persistent viral replication and associated brain inflammation. Primary cellular targets of HIV-1 in the brain are macrophages, microglia, and to a certain extent astrocytes which in response to infection release inflammatory markers, viral proteins [i.e., glycoprotein 120 (gp120)] and exhibit impaired glutamate uptake. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884751/tuberculous-meningitis
#12
REVIEW
Robert J Wilkinson, Ursula Rohlwink, Usha Kant Misra, Reinout van Crevel, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Kelly E Dooley, Maxine Caws, Anthony Figaji, Rada Savic, Regan Solomons, Guy E Thwaites
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem, with an estimated 10.4 million cases and 1.8 million deaths resulting from the disease in 2015. The most lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis is tuberculous meningitis (TBM), for which more than 100,000 new cases are estimated to occur per year. In patients who are co-infected with HIV-1, TBM has a mortality approaching 50%. Study of TBM pathogenesis is hampered by a lack of experimental models that recapitulate all the features of the human disease. Diagnosis of TBM is often delayed by the insensitive and lengthy culture technique required for disease confirmation...
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867422/serum-albumin-levels-and-depression-in-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, Cynthia S Jacelon, Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson, Paula H Palmer, Krishna C Poudel
BACKGROUND: Lower serum albumin levels and depression are common among HIV-infected persons. High serum albumin levels may provide protection against depression through its defensive role in inflammation and infection. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between serum albumin levels and depressive symptoms in a cohort of HIV-infected persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 310 HIV-infected persons (176 men and 134 women) aged 20-60years residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866636/transient-aortitis-documented-by-positron-emission-tomography-in-a-case-series-of-men-and-transgender-women-infected-with-syphilis
#14
Dvora Joseph Davey, Noah Kojima, Kelika A Konda, Pawan Gupta, Segundo R Leon, Gino M Calvo, Carlos F Caceres, Jeffrey D Klausner
OBJECTIVES: Syphilis infection persists globally contributing to preventable and treatable morbidity and mortality. How extensive early syphilis disseminates is unknown. To better understand the relationship between early syphilis infection and inflammation over time, our study enrolled six individuals recently infected with syphilis for sequential positron emission tomography (PET) scans. METHODS: We evaluated a case series of six individuals with high syphilis titres (two secondary, two early latent and two latent, unknown duration, but with high titre) who received sequential PET scans to assess inflammation over time and its response to treatment...
September 2, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864808/oral-health-care-in-the-future-expansion-of-the-scope-of-dental-practice-to-improve-health
#15
Ira B Lamster, Noreen Myers-Wright
The health care environment in the U.S. is changing. The population is aging, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, edentulism is decreasing, and periodontal infection/inflammation has been identified as a risk factor for NCDs. These trends offer an opportunity for oral health care providers to broaden the scope of traditional dental practice, specifically becoming more involved in the management of the general health of patients. This new practice paradigm will promote a closer integration with the larger health care system...
September 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863015/heart-failure-in-persons-living-with-hiv-infection
#16
Priscilla Y Hsue, David D Waters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss presentation, pathophysiology, complications, and treatment of heart failure in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the advent of effective ART and improved longevity, heart failure has become more chronic and insidious and is often characterized by preserved ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The mechanism underlying heart failure in the setting of HIV infection remains unknown...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862795/techniques-for-the-analysis-of-pentacyclic-triterpenoids-in-medicinal-plants
#17
Congcong Xu, Bing Wang, Yiqiong Pu, Jiansheng Tao, Tong Zhang
Triterpenes are a major class of chemical compounds found in natural plants and can be categorized into acyclic triterpenoids, monocyclic triterpenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids, tetracyclic triterpenoids, and pentacyclic triterpenoids. Among them, pentacyclic triterpenoids have gained more extensive attention due to their biological activities, including anti-inflammation, antibacterial, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotection, and immunological adjuvant properties. In this review we summarize the extraction and analytical methods for pentacyclic triterpenoids, where more than 56 triterpenes from 49 kinds of plants were involved...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857780/micrornas-novel-tools-to-block-gut-inflammation-in-hiv
#18
Nichole R Klatt, Peter W Hunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856539/alcohol-types-and-hiv-disease-progression-among-hiv-infected-drinkers-not-yet-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-russia-and-uganda
#19
Stephen B Asiimwe, Robin Fatch, Gregory Patts, Michael Winter, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Nneka Emenyonu, Winnie Muyindike, Allen Kekibiina, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Evgeny Kruptisky, Debbie M Cheng, Jeffrey H Samet, Judith A Hahn
In HIV-infected drinkers, alcohol types more likely to cause inflammation could plausibly increase the risk of HIV disease progression. We therefore assessed the association between alcohol type and plasma HIV RNA level (HIV viral load) among HIV-infected drinkers not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia and Uganda. We analyzed the data of participants from cohorts in Russia and Uganda and assessed their HIV viral load at enrollment by the alcohol type predominantly consumed. We defined predominant alcohol type as the alcohol type contributing >50% of total alcohol consumption in the 1 month (Russia) or 3 months (Uganda) prior to enrollment...
August 30, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855397/inflammatory-monocytes-expressing-tissue-factor-drive-siv-and-hiv-coagulopathy
#20
Melissa E Schechter, Bruno B Andrade, Tianyu He, George Haret Richter, Kevin W Tosh, Benjamin B Policicchio, Amrit Singh, Kevin D Raehtz, Virginia Sheikh, Dongying Ma, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Cristian Apetrei, Russel Tracy, Ruy M Ribeiro, Alan Sher, Ivo M B Francischetti, Ivona Pandrea, Irini Sereti
In HIV infection, persistent inflammation despite effective antiretroviral therapy is linked to increased risk of noninfectious chronic complications such as cardiovascular and thromboembolic disease. A better understanding of inflammatory and coagulation pathways in HIV infection is needed to optimize clinical care. Markers of monocyte activation and coagulation independently predict morbidity and mortality associated with non-AIDS events. We identified a specific subset of monocytes that express tissue factor (TF), persist after virological suppression, and trigger the coagulation cascade by activating factor X...
August 30, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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