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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107387/neuronal-cell-death-and-degeneration-through-increased-nitroxidative-stress-and-tau-phosphorylation-in-hiv-1-transgenic-rats
#1
Young-Eun Cho, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Byoung-Joon Song
The underlying mechanisms for increased neurodegeneration and neurocognitive deficits in HIV-infected people are unclear. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms of increased neurodegeneration in 5-month old male HIV-1 Transgenic (Tg) rats compared to the age- and gender-matched wild-type (WT) by evaluating histological changes and biochemical parameters of the key proteins involved in the cell death signaling and apoptosis. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed decreased neuronal cells with elevated astrogliosis in HIV-1 Tg rats compared to WT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107228/contribution-of-oxidative-stress-to-non-aids-events-in-hiv-infected-patients
#2
Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Marta Fernández, Xavier Barber, Santiago Moreno, José Antonio Iribarren, Joaquín Portilla, Alejandro Peña, Francesc Vidal, Félix Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: Recognition of potentially modifiable mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS events (NAEs) might help improve outcomes of HIV-infected individuals. HIV infection has been associated with increased oxidative stress. We assessed the association between F2-isoprostanes and serious NAEs, and whether they improve the predictive performance of inflammation and coagulation biomarkers. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort. Individuals who had an incident serious NAE and two sex and age matched participants with no events were selected...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106477/thymosin-alpha-1-and-hiv-1-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#3
Claudia Matteucci, Sandro Grelli, Emanuela Balestrieri, Antonella Minutolo, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Beatrice Macchi, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Mastino, Enrico Garaci
In spite of the consistent benefits for HIV-1 infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, a complete immune reconstitution is usually not achieved. Actually, antiretroviral therapy may be frequently accompanied by immunological unresponsiveness, persistent inflammatory conditions and inefficient cytotoxic T-cell response. Thymosin alpha 1 is a thymic peptide that demonstrates a peculiar ability to restore immune system homeostasis in different physiological and pathological conditions (i.e., infections, cancer, immunodeficiency, vaccination and aging) acting as multitasking protein depending on the host state of inflammation or immune dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103790/microrna-146a-rs2910164-is-associated-with-severe-preeclampsia-in-black-south-african-women-on-haart
#4
Niren Ray Maharaj, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Siddharthiya Pillay, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
BACKGROUND: South African (SA) Black women have a high prevalence of preeclampsia and HIV, both conditions associated with increased inflammation. miR-146a is an inflammatory-associated miR and a common single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2910164) has been associated with several disease conditions. To date, this SNP has not been investigated in SA Black women. We therefore aimed to investigate the miR-146a G > C SNP in SA Blacks with preeclampsia, and further examine possible association among preeclamptic (PE) women with HIV infection on HAART...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101146/bone-health-in-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-or-c-infections
#5
REVIEW
Emmanuel Biver, Alexandra Calmy, René Rizzoli
Chronic infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) add to age-dependent bone loss and may contribute to lower bone strength in the elderly. In this review, we report recent highlights on the epidemiology of bone fragility in chronic viral infections with HIV, HCV and HBV, its physiopathology and discuss the interference of antiviral therapies with bone metabolism. Chronic infections influence bone through the interactions between risk factors for bone fragility and falls (which are highly prevalent in infected patients), virus activity and antiviral drugs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097102/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-progression-during-hiv-infection
#6
REVIEW
Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen, Andre Boonstra
With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a dramatic reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality has been observed. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that liver-related complications, particularly rapid fibrosis development from ART as well as from the chronic HIV infection itself, are of serious concern to HIV patients. The pathophysiology of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV is a multifactorial process whereby persistent viral replication, and bacterial translocation lead to chronic immune activation and inflammation, which ART is unable to fully suppress, promoting production of fibrinogenic mediators and fibrosis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088613/adipocyte-and-epidermal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-serum-concentrations-in-patients-with-lipodystrophy
#7
Konstanze Miehle, Thomas Ebert, Susan Kralisch, Annett Hoffmann, Jürgen Kratzsch, Haiko Schlögl, Michael Stumvoll, Mathias Fasshauer
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy (LD) syndromes are associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and coronary artery disease. One pathogenetic factor of LD is dysregulation of several adipokines. However, the insulin resistance- and dyslipidemia-promoting adipokines adipocyte (AFABP) and epidermal (EFABP) fatty acid-binding protein have not been investigated in non-HIV-associated LD so far. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of AFABP and EFABP serum concentrations in 37 LD patients and 37 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls...
January 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087240/lactobacillus-deficient-cervicovaginal-bacterial-communities-are-associated-with-increased-hiv-acquisition-in-young-south-african-women
#8
Christina Gosmann, Melis N Anahtar, Scott A Handley, Mara Farcasanu, Galeb Abu-Ali, Brittany A Bowman, Nikita Padavattan, Chandni Desai, Lindsay Droit, Amber Moodley, Mary Dong, Yuezhou Chen, Nasreen Ismail, Thumbi Ndung'u, Musie S Ghebremichael, Duane R Wesemann, Caroline Mitchell, Krista L Dong, Curtis Huttenhower, Bruce D Walker, Herbert W Virgin, Douglas S Kwon
Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081037/higher-cd163-levels-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-and-hiv-infected-adults
#9
Michael Reid, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Jennifer C Price, Audrey L French, Michael W Plankey, Carl Grunfeld, Phyllis C Tien
OBJECTIVES: HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is associated with insulin resistance, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that intestinal epithelial damage and the consequent monocyte/macrophage activation and inflammation explain this perturbation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 519 adults (220 HIV+/HCV-; 64 HIV-/HCV+; 89 HIV+/HCV+; 146 HIV-/HCV-). METHODS: We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations of HIV and HCV with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and if intestinal fatty (FA) acid binding protein (I-FABP, a marker of gut epithelial integrity), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and soluble CD163 (sCD163) (markers of monocyte/macrophage activation), and IL-6 (an inflammatory cytokine) mediated this association...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077069/a-pilot-study-of-brisk-walking-in-sedentary-combination-antiretroviral-treatement-cart-treated-patients-benefit-on-soluble-and-cell-inflammatory-markers
#10
Matteo Bonato, Laura Galli, Laura Passeri, Valeria Longo, Gaspare Pavei, Simona Bossolasco, Cecilia Bertocchi, Massimo Cernuschi, Giuseppe Balconi, Giampiero Merati, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonio La Torre, Paola Cinque
BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV infection is associated with low-level inflammation and increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. The objective was to assess the effects of moderate intensity exercise on metabolic and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected treated persons. METHODS: This was a pilot study enrolling cART-treated, sedentary persons with metabolic complications in a 12-week protocol, consisting of three sessions per week of 60 min brisk walking with (strength-walk group) or without (walk group) 30 min circuit-training...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074419/deciphering-the-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-hiv-associated-lipoatrophy-by-transcriptomics-a-pilot-study
#11
Patricia Pérez-Matute, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, José-Antonio Oteo
HIV-associated lipoatrophy (LA) has considerable implications for risk of metabolic diseases, quality of life, and adherence to treatments. Although it has decreased in high-income countries, it is still very common in resource-limited countries. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of LA can open the possibility to explore new ways to treat or prevent this condition. To identify new markers for an accurate and quick diagnosis will be also of interest. Thus, we aimed to examine functional classes of genes implicated in LA and to identify potential new markers for an accurate/quick diagnosis of LA and future complications...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067719/insulin-resistance-and-markers-of-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-ugandan-children-in-the-chapas-3-trial
#12
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Victor Musiime, Adrian Cook, Grace Mirembe, Julia Kenny, Ying Jiang, Sara Debanne, Nigel Klein, Grace A Mccomsey
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated metabolic complications in HIV-infected African children and their relation with inflammation. METHODS: We compared baseline and changes in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and in markers of inflammation over 48 weeks, in a subset of antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve Ugandan children from the CHAPAS-3 trial randomized to zidovudine (AZT), stavudine (D4T) or abacavir (ABC) based regimens. Non-parametric methods were used to explore between and within group differences and multivariable analyses to assess associations of HOMA-IR...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067535/long-term-survival-of-aids-patients-treated-with-only-traditional-chinese-medicine
#13
Yifei Wang, Fujun Jin, Qiaoli Wang, Zucai Suo
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years to treat diseases from inflammation to cancer. Here, we report the case of nine living AIDS patients in the age range of 51 to 67 who were treated with either a unique formula of TCM alone from 2001 to 2009 or the TCM from 2001 to 2006 and then switched to occasional antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the viral loads of eight patients were at undetectable levels on June 28, 2016 while the remaining patient had a low viral load of 29 copies/ml...
January 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066794/altered-monocyte-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-expression-is-linked-to-vascular-inflammation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#14
Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Taylor Amburgy, Elizabeth Mayne, David A Zidar, Courtney Maierhofer, Abigail Norris Turner, Jose A Bazan, Susan L Koletar, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. METHODS: Monocyte subsets (CD14(+)CD16(-), CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(Dim)CD16(+)) from HIV negative (HIV(-)) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV(+)) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061811/the-nature-and-nurture-of-cell-heterogeneity-accounting-for-macrophage-gene-environment-interactions-with-single-cell-rna-seq
#15
Quin F Wills, Esther Mellado-Gomez, Rory Nolan, Damien Warner, Eshita Sharma, John Broxholme, Benjamin Wright, Helen Lockstone, William James, Mark Lynch, Michael Gonzales, Jay West, Anne Leyrat, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Sarah Filippi, Chris Holmes, Michael D Moore, Rory Bowden
BACKGROUND: Single-cell RNA-Seq can be a valuable and unbiased tool to dissect cellular heterogeneity, despite the transcriptome's limitations in describing higher functional phenotypes and protein events. Perhaps the most important shortfall with transcriptomic 'snapshots' of cell populations is that they risk being descriptive, only cataloging heterogeneity at one point in time, and without microenvironmental context. Studying the genetic ('nature') and environmental ('nurture') modifiers of heterogeneity, and how cell population dynamics unfold over time in response to these modifiers is key when studying highly plastic cells such as macrophages...
January 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052761/increased-activity-of-the-complement-system-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-the-patients-with-non-hiv-cryptococcal-meningitis
#16
Lei Shen, Jianming Zheng, Yan Wang, Mengqi Zhu, Haoxiang Zhu, Qi Cheng, Qian Li
BACKGROUNDS: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has been known to lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The relative contribution of the complement system in protection and pathogenesis during CM remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the baseline complement component profiles in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from non-HIV patients with CM, and therefore to provide insights of possible roles of the complement system in CM. METHODS: CSF and blood samples from forty two CM patients not infected with HIV and thirteen non-CM control patients (Ctrl) were retrospectively selected and evaluated from the patients admitted to the hospital with a suspected diagnosis of CM...
January 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046096/early-antiretroviral-therapy-is-associated-with-lower-hiv-dna-molecular-diversity-and-lower-inflammation-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-but-does-not-prevent-the-establishment-of-compartmentalized-hiv-dna-populations
#17
Michelli F Oliveira, Antoine Chaillon, Masato Nakazawa, Milenka Vargas, Scott L Letendre, Matthew C Strain, Ronald J Ellis, Sheldon Morris, Susan J Little, Davey M Smith, Sara Gianella
Even when antiretroviral therapy (ART) is started early after infection, HIV DNA might persist in the central nervous system (CNS), possibly contributing to inflammation, brain damage and neurocognitive impairment. Paired blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from 16 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART: 9 participants started ART <4 months of the estimated date of infection (EDI) ("early ART"), and 7 participants started ART >14 months after EDI ("late ART"). For each participant, neurocognitive functioning was measured by Global Deficit Score (GDS)...
January 3, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012378/systemic-inflammation-before-and-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-as-a-predictor-of-immune-response-among-hiv-infected-individuals-in-manitoba
#18
Quinlan Richert, Adriana Trajtman, Luisa Arroyave, Julia Toews, Marissa Becker, Ken Kasper, Paul McLaren, Zulma Rueda, Yoav Keynan
INTRODUCTION: Despite the life-prolonging effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), persons with HIV are still prone to higher rates of non-AIDS related morbidity (such as heart, kidney, and liver disease) than the general public. This is likely due to chronic immune activation and inflammation that persists in HIV-positive persons despite virological suppression. What remains undetermined, however, is whether a link exists between chronic inflammation/immune activation and suboptimal immune recovery on HAART...
December 21, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011912/cmv-acquisition-and-inflammation-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-zimbabwean-infants
#19
Ceri Evans, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey, Andrew J Prendergast
Cytomegalovirus acquisition and inflammation were evaluated in 231 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 100 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants at age 6 weeks. HEU and HIV-unexposed infants had a similarly high prevalence of CMV (81.4% vs. 74.0%, respectively; P=0.14), but HEU infants had higher CMV viral loads (P=0.005) and >2-fold higher CRP concentrations (P<0.0001). CMV-positive HEU infants had higher CRP than CMV-negative HEU infants; this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal HIV viral load...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011613/spinal-arachnoiditis-as-a-complication-of-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-non-hiv-previously-healthy-adults
#20
Anil A Panackal, Mika Komori, Peter Kosa, Omar Khan, Dima A Hammoud, Lindsey B Rosen, Sarah K Browne, Yen-Chih Lin, Elena Romm, Charu Ramaprasad, Bettina C Fries, John E Bennett, Bibiana Bielekova, Peter R Williamson
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. METHODS: We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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