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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302504/characteristics-of-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-involvement-in-korean-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-a-multicenter-study
#1
Ji Hyoung Park, Hye Na Nam, Ji-Hyuk Lee, Jeana Hong, Dae Yong Yi, Eell Ryoo, In Sang Jeon, Hann Tchah
Purpose: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258228/multi-omic-biogeography-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-of-a-pre-weaned-lamb
#2
Antonio Palomba, Alessandro Tanca, Cristina Fraumene, Marcello Abbondio, Francesco Fancello, Alberto Stanislao Atzori, Sergio Uzzau
The digestive functions of the pre-weaned lamb gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) have been the subject of much research in recent years, but the microbial and host functions underlying these complex processes remain largely unknown. Here, we undertook a proof-of-principle metaproteogenomic investigation on luminal and mucosal samples collected from 10 GITs of a 30-day-old pre-weaned lamb. We demonstrate that the analysis of the diverse ecological niches along the GITs can reveal microbiota composition and metabolic functions, although low amounts of microbial proteins could be identified in the small intestinal and mucosal samples...
December 18, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212683/-hot-joints-infection-protocol-reduces-unnecessary-post-operative-re-admissions-following-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#3
J Dattilo, D Gittings, M Sloan, R Charette, E Hume, G-C Lee
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of an institutionally developed algorithm for evaluation and diagnosis of prosthetic joint injection and to determine the impact of this protocol on overall hospital re-admissions.p PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 2685 total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients prior to (1263) and following (1422) the introduction of an infection detection protocol. The protocol used conservative thresholds for C-reactive protein to direct the medical attendant to aspirate the joint...
December 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211823/identifying-functionally-informative-evolutionary-sequence-profiles
#4
Nelson Gil, Andras Fiser
Motivation: Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) can provide essential input to many bioinformatics applications, including protein structure prediction and functional annotation. However, the optimal selection of sequences to obtain a biologically informative MSAs for such purposes is poorly-explored, and has traditionally been performed manually. Results: We present SAMMI, an automated, sequence-based approach to objectively select an optimal MSA from a large set of alternatives sampled from a general sequence database search...
December 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203718/dnaj-proteins-in-neurodegeneration-essential-and-protective-factors
#5
REVIEW
Christina Zarouchlioti, David A Parfitt, Wenwen Li, Lauren M Gittings, Michael E Cheetham
Maintenance of protein homeostasis is vitally important in post-mitotic cells, particularly neurons. Neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine expansion disorders-like Huntington's disease or spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease-are often characterized by the presence of inclusions of aggregated protein. Neurons contain complex protein networks dedicated to protein quality control and maintaining protein homeostasis, or proteostasis...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176541/diffuse-peritoneal-and-bowel-wall-infiltration-by-light-chain-al-amyloidosis-with-omental-calcification-mimicking-abdominal-carcinomatosis-an-elderly-female-with-incidental-finding-of-light-chain-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-lc-mgus
#6
Shoaib Junejo, Yasir Ali, Sandeep Singh Lubana, Sandeep S Tuli
BACKGROUND Amyloidosis is the extracellular tissue deposition of plasma proteins, which after conformational changes, forms antiparallel beta pleated sheets of fibrils. Amyloid light-chain (AL) is a type of amyloidosis that is due to deposition of proteins derived from immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement most often found in amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis type. There have been no reports of obstructive GIT AL amyloid patients having monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)...
November 25, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175527/factors-that-contribute-to-indeterminate-results-from-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Manreet Kaur, Prianka Singapura, Neeharika Kalakota, Guillermina Cruz, Richa Shukla, Sidra Ahsan, Aylin Tansel, Aaron P Thrift, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The QuantiFERON-tuberculosis gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) test is widely used to screen for latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) before treatment with a tumor necrosis factor antagonist. The test frequently produces indeterminate results, prompting additional testing. We evaluated factors associated with indeterminate results from the QTF-GIT test among patients with IBD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among eligible adults with QTF-GIT test results and a concomitant diagnosis of IBD receiving care at a tertiary referral center from 2011 through 2013...
November 23, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160733/potential-impact-of-inorganic-nanoparticles-on-macronutrient-digestion-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-slightly-reduce-lipid-digestion-under-simulated-gastrointestinal-conditions
#8
Qian Li, Ti Li, Chengmei Liu, Glen DeLoid, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou, Ruojie Zhang, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used in some food products to alter their optical properties, such as whiteness or brightness. These additives typically contain a population of TiO2 nanoparticles (d < 100 nm), which has led to concern about their potential toxicity. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of TiO2 particles on the gastrointestinal fate of oil-in-water emulsions using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that includes mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases...
November 21, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126101/prefmd-a-web-server-for-protein-structure-refinement-via-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#9
Lim Heo, Michael Feig
Summary: Refinement of protein structure models is a long-standing problem in structural bioinformatics. Molecular dynamics-based methods have emerged as an avenue to achieve consistent refinement. The PREFMD web server implements an optimized protocol based on the method successfully tested in CASP11. Validation with recent CASP refinement targets shows consistent and more significant improvement in global structure accuracy over other state-of-the-art servers. Availability: PREFMD is freely available as a web server at http://feiglab...
November 8, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121073/diffslc-a-graph-centrality-method-to-detect-essential-proteins-of-a-protein-protein-interaction-network
#10
Divya Mistry, Roger P Wise, Julie A Dickerson
Identification of central genes and proteins in biomolecular networks provides credible candidates for pathway analysis, functional analysis, and essentiality prediction. The DiffSLC centrality measure predicts central and essential genes and proteins using a protein-protein interaction network. Network centrality measures prioritize nodes and edges based on their importance to the network topology. These measures helped identify critical genes and proteins in biomolecular networks. The proposed centrality measure, DiffSLC, combines the number of interactions of a protein and the gene coexpression values of genes from which those proteins were translated, as a weighting factor to bias the identification of essential proteins in a protein interaction network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115890/exploiting-bilosomes-for-delivering-bioactive-polysaccharide-isolated-from-enteromorpha-intestinalis-for-hacking-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Azza Abdelmageed Matloub, Alaa Hamed Salama, Hadeer Ahmed Aglan, Mona Mahmoud AbouSamra, Sahar Salah Mohamed ElSouda, Hanaa Hamdy Ahmed
Bile salts containing vesicles (bilosomes) represent a portentous vesicular carrier that showed prosperous results in delivering active moieties in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this study, bilosomes were exploited to deliver sulphated polysaccharide-protein complexes of Enteromorpha intestinalis (EHEM) and enhance its activity against hepatocellular carcinoma as well as resist harsh GIT conditions. Bilosomes were prepared using the sodium salt of three different bile acids (cholic, deoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic) and two different non-ionic surfactants (Span 40 and 65)...
November 8, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110065/fungi-in-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-human-and-mice-from-community-to-functions
#12
REVIEW
Jiayan Li, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Gang Tian, Zhiqing Huang, Yuheng Luo
Fungi are often ignored in studies on gut microbes because of their low level of presence (making up only 0.1% of the total microorganisms) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of monogastric animals. Recent studies using novel technologies such as next generation sequencing have expanded our understanding on the importance of intestinal fungi in humans and animals. Here, we provide a comprehensive review on the fungal community, the so-called mycobiome, and their functions from recent studies in humans and mice...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077956/butyrate-presence-in-distinct-gastrointestinal-tract-segments-modifies-differentially-digestive-processes-and-amino-acid-bioavailability-in-young-broiler-chickens
#13
P C A Moquet, S A Salami, L Onrust, W H Hendriks, R P Kwakkel
The hypothesis was tested that butyrate presence in the digesta of distinct gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments of broilers leads to differential effects on digesta retention time, gut morphology, and proteolytic enzymatic activities, ultimately resulting in differences in protein digestibility. A total of 320 male day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (no butyrate), 2) unprotected butyrate (main activity in the crop and gastric regions), 3) tributyrin (main activity in the small intestine), 4) fat-coated butyrate (activity in the whole GIT) and 5) unprotected butyrate combined with tributyrin, each replicated 8 times...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050441/the-physiological-response-of-broiler-chickens-to-the-dietary-supplementation-of-the-bacteriocin-nisin-and-ionophore-coccidiostats
#14
B Kieronczyk, M Sassek, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P Kolodziejski, M Rawski, S Swiatkiewicz, D Józefiak
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nisin alone or in combination with salinomycin or monensin on broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, selected blood parameters, digestive enzyme activity, apparent nutrient digestibility, and tibiotarsus mineralization, as well as selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organ weights, intestinal length, and central immune organ weights. Two independent experiments, each including 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks differing in ionophore coccidiostats, i...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046389/the-antibody-repertoire-of-colorectal-cancer
#15
Seong Won Cha, Stefano Bonissone, Seungjin Na, Pavel A Pevzner, Vineet Bafna
Immunotherapy is becoming increasingly important in the fight against cancers, utilizing and manipulating the body's immune response to treat tumors. Understanding the immune repertoire - the collection of immunological proteins - of treated and untreated cells is possible at the genomic, but technically difficult at the protein level. Standard protein databases do not include the highly divergent sequences of somatic rearranged immunoglobulin genes, and may lead to missed identifications in a mass spectrometry search...
October 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038125/modulators-of-enterococcus-faecalis-cell-envelope-integrity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-influence-stable-colonization-of-the-mammalian-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
Ismael L Banla, Sushma Kommineni, Michael Hayward, Marinelle Rodrigues, Kelli L Palmer, Nita H Salzman, Christopher J Kristich
The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis is both a colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and an agent of serious nosocomial infections. Although it is typically required for pathogenesis, GIT colonization by E. faecalis is poorly understood. E. faecalis tolerates high concentrations of GIT antimicrobials, like cholate and lysozyme, leading us to hypothesize that resistance to intestinal antimicrobials is essential for long-term GIT colonization. Analyses of E. faecalis mutants exhibiting defects in antimicrobial resistance revealed that IreK, a determinant of envelope integrity and antimicrobial resistance, is required for long-term GIT colonization...
January 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029643/an-integrated-methodology-for-assessing-the-impact-of-food-matrix-and-gastrointestinal-effects-on-the-biokinetics-and-cellular-toxicity-of-ingested-engineered-nanomaterials
#17
Glen M DeLoid, Yanli Wang, Klara Kapronezai, Laura Rubio Lorente, Roujie Zhang, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Nagarjun V Konduru, Maria Ericsson, Jason C White, Roberto De La Torre-Roche, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements, Philip Demokritou
BACKGROUND: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly added to foods to improve their quality, sensory appeal, safety and shelf-life. Human exposure to these ingested ENMs (iENMS) is inevitable, yet little is known of their hazards. To assess potential hazards, efficient in vitro methodologies are needed to evaluate particle biokinetics and toxicity. These methodologies must account for interactions and transformations of iENMs in foods (food matrix effect) and in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that are likely to determine nano-biointeractions...
October 13, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959642/vinblastine-an-anticancer-drug-causes-constipation-and-oxidative-stress-as-well-as-others-disruptions-in-intestinal-tract-in-rat
#18
Kaïs Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Slimen Selmi, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
The purpose of this study is to examine the gastrointestinal disorders after injection of vinblastine (2 mg kg(-1) b.w. i.v.) in rats. Animals were divided into two equal groups: Group 1 was considered as a control group (NaCl, 0.9%). Group 2 was treated with intravenous injection of vinblastine for 7 days. Loperamide (2 mg kg(-1)) was injected in a saline solution subcutaneously to induce constipation in another group of rats during the same period. Fecal parameters of the different groups have been determined...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946277/the-matrix-of-fruit-vegetables-modulates-the-gastrointestinal-bioaccessibility-of-polyphenols-and-their-impact-on-dietary-protein-digestibility
#19
Claire Dufour, Michèle Loonis, Mylène Delosière, Caroline Buffière, Noureddine Hafnaoui, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Didier Rémond
Fruit and vegetables (F&V) polyphenols have numerous positive health effects, ascribed either to their antioxidant activity within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or to bioactivity of their absorbed metabolites. The effect of the F&V matrix on the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols was investigated along with its possible interaction with protein digestion. Minipigs were fed a complete meal with either cubed F&V (apple, plum, artichoke) added, or the corresponding phenolic extract (PE). Gastric and ileal chymes were kinetically collected over the postprandial period...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930195/bioaccessibility-and-cellular-uptake-of-%C3%AE-carotene-encapsulated-in-model-o-w-emulsions-influence-of-initial-droplet-size-and-emulsifiers
#20
Wei Lu, Alan L Kelly, Song Miao
The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier) on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene...
September 20, 2017: Nanomaterials
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