Read by QxMD icon Read

GIT protein

Bruno Tilocca, Maren Witzig, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbours a complex microbial community, involved in several physiological processes such as host immunomodulation and feed digestion. For the first time, the present study analysed dietary effects on the protein inventory of the microbiome in crop and ceca of broilers. We performed quantitative label-free metaproteomics by using 1-D-gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS/MS to identify the structural and functional changes triggered by diets supplied with varying amount of mineral phosphorous (P) and microbial phytase (MP)...
2016: PloS One
Valerio Rossini, Katarina Radulovic, Christian U Riedel, Jan Hendrik Niess
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation which affects the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). One of the best ways to study the immunological mechanisms involved during the disease is the T cell transfer model of colitis. In this model, immunodeficient mice (RAG(-/-) recipients) are reconstituted with naive CD4(+) T cells from healthy wild type hosts. This model allows examination of the earliest immunological events leading to disease and chronic inflammation, when the gut inflammation perpetuates but does not depend on a defined antigen...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Giuseppina Mandalari, Maria Vardakou, Richard Faulks, Carlo Bisignano, Maria Martorana, Antonella Smeriglio, Domenico Trombetta
The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from natural (NS) and blanched (BS) almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT) or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB), crisp-bread (CB) and full-fat milk (FM). Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68...
2016: Nutrients
Bhagwat Prasad, Katherine Johnson, Sarah Billington, Caroline A Lee, Git W Chung, Colin D A Brown, Edward Kelly, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Jashvant D Unadkat
Protein expression of renal uptake (OAT1, OAT2, OAT3, OAT4, OCT2, OCTN1, OCTN2 and SGLT2) and efflux (P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, MRP4, MATE1 and MATE2-K) transporters was quantified by LC-MS/MS targeted proteomics using the surrogate peptide approach. Total membrane was isolated from the cortex of human kidneys (n=41). The isolated membranes were digested by trypsin and the digest was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis. The mean±SD expression of surrogate peptides of OAT1, OAT2, OAT3, OAT4, OCT2, OCTN1, OCTN2, P-gp, MRP2, MRP4, MATE1 and SGLT2 was: 5...
September 12, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Yin-Hing Ma, Golam S Islam, Ying Wu, Parviz M Sabour, James R Chambers, Qi Wang, Shirley X Y Wu, Mansel W Griffiths
Encapsulation of bacteriophages ("phage") protects phage against environmental deactivation and provides a product that is easy to handle for storage and application with animal feed as an antibiotic alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate an orally administered, encapsulated phage for efficient phage release in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of young chicks receiving feed. An optimized formulation that consisted of 0.8% low molecular weight (MW) alginate, 2% ultra-low molecular weight alginate and 3% whey protein completely released the encapsulated phage within 60 min under simulated intestinal conditions...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Fei Jiang, Jinyan He, Nalu Navarro-Alvarez, Jian Xu, Xia Li, Peng Li, Wenxue Wu
Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70...
2016: PloS One
Daniel J Gittings, Paul M Courtney, Blair S Ashley, Patrick J Hesketh, Derek J Donegan, Neil P Sheth
BACKGROUND: Criteria for diagnosis of infected internal fixation implants at the time of conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) are not clear. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for infection in patients undergoing conversion to THA. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients at a single institution who underwent conversion to THA from 2009 to 2014. Patients were diagnosed with infection preoperatively using Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria or postoperatively if they were found to have positive cultures intraoperatively at the time of conversion surgery...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Jalil Mahmwd Abdulla, Stephen Paul Rose, Alexander Mackay Mackenzie, Sonya Georgieva Ivanova, Genoveva Petrova Staykova, Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev
An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens...
October 2016: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Jacob Shujui Hsu, Johnny S H Kwan, Zhicheng Pan, Maria-Mercè Garcia-Barcelo, Pak Chung Sham, Miaoxin Li
MOTIVATION: Exome sequencing studies have facilitated the detection of causal genetic variants in yet-unsolved Mendelian diseases. However, the identification of disease causal genes among a list of candidates in an exome sequencing study is still not fully settled, and it is often difficult to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies. The inheritance mode provides crucial information for understanding Mendelian diseases, but none of the existing gene prioritization tools fully utilize this information...
June 26, 2016: Bioinformatics
Stefanie Klinger, Bernd Schröder, Anja Gemmer, Julia Reimers, Gerhard Breves, Jens Herrmann, Mirja R Wilkens
During lactation, mineral and nutrient requirements increase dramatically, particularly those for Ca and glucose. In contrast to monogastric species, in ruminants, it is rather unclear to which extend this physiological change due to increased demand for milk production is accompanied by functional adaptations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Therefore, we investigated potential modulations of Ca and glucose transport mechanisms in the GIT of lactating and dried-off sheep. Ussing-chamber technique was applied to determine the ruminal and jejunal Ca flux rates...
June 2016: Physiological Reports
Hao Sun, Xueqin Ni, Xu Song, Bin Wen, Yi Zhou, Fuqin Zou, Mingyue Yang, Zhirong Peng, Hui Zhu, Yan Zeng, Hesong Wang, Xiangchao Fu, Yunduo Shi, Zhongqiong Yin, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng, Ping Wang
Yupingfeng (YPF) is a kind of Astragali radix-based ancient Chinese herbal supplemented with Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Radix Saposhnikoviae. Increasing evidence has proven the beneficial immunomodulating activity of YPF. However, the action mechanism(s) of it is not known. Here, we explored the immunomodulatory activity of unfermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides (UYP) and fermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides (FYP) obtained using Rhizopus oligosporus SH in weaning Rex rabbits. The results showed that both UYP and FYP exhibited notable growth-promoting and immune-enhancing activities, improvement of the intestinal flora homeostasis, and maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity and functionality...
September 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Wu Zhou, Xiaobo Li, Richard T Premont
The GIT proteins, GIT1 and GIT2, are GTPase-activating proteins (inactivators) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins, and function to limit the activity of Arf proteins. The PIX proteins, α-PIX and β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF6 and ARHGEF7, respectively), are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (activators) for the Rho family small GTP-binding protein family members Rac1 and Cdc42. Through their multi-domain structures, GIT and PIX proteins can also function as signaling scaffolds by binding to numerous protein partners...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Caroline Thum, Warren C McNabb, Wayne Young, Adrian L Cookson, Nicole C Roy
SCOPE: The composition of the gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota, particularly in early life, influences the development of metabolic diseases later in life. The maternal microbiota is the main source of bacteria colonising the infant GIT and can be modified by dietary prebiotics. Our objective was to determine the effects of prenatal consumption of prebiotic caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) on the large intestine of female mice, milk composition, and offspring's development. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet, CMO diet, or galacto-oligosaccharide diet from mating to weaning...
September 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ruidong Xiang, Victor Hutton Oddy, Alan L Archibald, Phillip E Vercoe, Brian P Dalrymple
Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods...
2016: PeerJ
Emer D Kelly, Francesca Bottacini, John O'Callaghan, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Kerry Joan O'Connell, Catherine Stanton, Douwe van Sinderen
Bifidobacterium breve is a noted inhabitant and one of the first colonizers of the human gastro intestinal tract (GIT). The ability of this bacterium to persist in the GIT is reflected by the abundance of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are encoded by its genome. One such family of enzymes is represented by the α-glucosidases, of which three, Agl1, Agl2 and MelD, have previously been identified and characterized in the prototype B. breve strain UCC2003. In this report, we describe an additional B. breve UCC2003-encoded α-glucosidase, along with a B...
May 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Renata F Boente, Heidi Pauer, Deborah N S Silva, Joaquim Santos Filho, Vanessa Sandim, Luis Caetano M Antunes, Rosana Barreto Rocha Ferreira, Russolina B Zingali, Regina M C P Domingues, Leandro A Lobo
Bacteroides fragilis is the most commonly isolated anaerobic bacteria from infectious processes. Several virulence traits contribute to the pathogenic nature of this bacterium, including the ability to tolerate the high concentrations of bile found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The activity of bile salts is similar to detergents and may lead to membrane permeabilization and cell death. Modulation of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is considered a crucial event to bile salts resistance. The primary objective of the current work was to identify B...
June 2016: Anaerobe
Tao Ran, Hengzhi Li, Yong Liu, Chuanshe Zhou, Shaoxun Tang, Xuefeng Han, Min Wang, Zhixiong He, Jinghe Kang, Qiongxian Yan, Zhiliang Tan, Karen A Beauchemin
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is reported as a long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptor that elicits free fatty acid (FFA) regulation on metabolism homeostasis. The study aimed to clone the gpr120 gene of goats (g-GPR120) and subsequently investigate phylogenetic analysis and tissue distribution throughout the digestive tracts of kid goats, as well as the effect of housing versus grazing (H vs G) feeding systems on GPR120 expression. Partial coding sequence (CDS) of g-GPR120 was cloned and submitted to NCBI (accession no...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ania Wilczynska, Anna Git, Joanna Argasinska, Eulàlia Belloc, Nancy Standart
Cell cycle transitions spanning meiotic maturation of the Xenopus oocyte and early embryogenesis are tightly regulated at the level of stored inactive maternal mRNA. We investigated here the translational control of cyclin E1, required for metaphase II arrest of the unfertilised egg and the initiation of S phase in the early embryo. We show that the cyclin E1 mRNA is regulated by both cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) and two miR-15/16 target sites within its 3'UTR. Moreover, we provide evidence that maternal miR-15/16 microRNAs co-immunoprecipitate with CPE-binding protein (CPEB), and that CPEB interacts with the RISC component Ago2...
2016: PloS One
Soren T Hoff, Jonathan G Peter, Grant Theron, Mellissa Pascoe, Pernille N Tingskov, Henrik Aggerbeck, Daniel Kolbus, Morten Ruhwald, Peter Andersen, Keertan Dheda
C-Tb, a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target/10-kDa culture filtrate protein (ESAT-6/CFP-10)-specific skin test, has high specificity in bacille Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated healthy controls. However, the sensitivity of C-Tb has hitherto not been determined. The objective was to determine the sensitivity of C-Tb in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in comparison with the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT).C-Tb and TST were randomly administered in a double-blinded fashion to one or the other forearm in 253 patients with active TB with or without HIV co-infection...
March 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Mónica S Montesinos, Wei Dong, Kevin Goff, Brati Das, Debbie Guerrero-Given, Robert Schmalzigaug, Richard T Premont, Rachel Satterfield, Naomi Kamasawa, Samuel M Young
A cytomatrix of proteins at the presynaptic active zone (CAZ) controls the strength and speed of neurotransmitter release at synapses in response to action potentials. However, the functional role of many CAZ proteins and their respective isoforms remains unresolved. Here, we demonstrate that presynaptic deletion of the two G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting proteins (GITs), GIT1 and GIT2, at the mouse calyx of Held leads to a large increase in AP-evoked release with no change in the readily releasable pool size...
December 2, 2015: Neuron
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"