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GIT protein

Rabia Iqbal, Tahir Zahoor, Nuzhat Huma, Amer Jamil, Gülhan Ünlü
Longevity of probiotic is the main concern for getting maximum benefits when added in food product. Bifidobacterium, a probiotic, tends to lose its viability during gastrointestinal track (GIT) transit and storage of food. Their viability can be enhanced through microencapsulation technology. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) ATCC 35914 was encapsulated by using two experimental plans. In the first plan, chitosan (CH) at 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and sodium alginate (SA) at 4, 5, and 6% were used...
March 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
David Julian McClements
There are many examples of bioactive proteins and peptides that would benefit from oral delivery through functional foods, supplements, or medical foods, including hormones, enzymes, antimicrobials, vaccines, and ACE inhibitors. However, many of these bioactive proteins are highly susceptible to denaturation, aggregation or hydrolysis within commercial products or inside the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Moreover, many bioactive proteins have poor absorption characteristics within the GIT. Colloidal systems, which contain nanoparticles or microparticles, can be designed to encapsulate, retain, protect, and deliver bioactive proteins...
February 16, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Juliana Dias, Marcos Inácio Marcondes, Shirley Motta de Souza, Barbara Cardoso da Mata, Melline Fontes Noronha, Rafael Tassinari Resende, Fernanda Samarini Machado, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Garret Suen
Microbial communities play critical roles in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pre-ruminant calves by influencing performance and health. However, little is known about the establishment of microbial communities in the calf GIT or their dynamics during development. Here, next-generation sequencing was used to assess changes in the bacterial communities of the rumen, jejunum, cecum and colon of 26 crossbred calves at four developmental stages (7, 28, 49 and 63 days old). Alpha diversity differed among GIT regions with the lowest diversity and evenness in the jejunum, whereas no changes in alpha diversity were observed across developmental stage...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
T Shishniashvili, T Suladze, M Makhviladze, M Pkhaladze
On the background of microecological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, mineral and protein metabolism is disrupted, biochemical changes occur in the phosphorus-calcium metabolism in the bones of the skeleton and hard tissues of the teeth. The aim of the research was to study the activity of the caries process, characterized by progressive decalcification, under conditions of microecological changes in the intestine and its effect on the processes of endogenous calcium assimilation in adolescence. Within the frames of the research 68 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years with various degrees of pathology of the gastrointestinal tract were examined...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Jinzhu Ma, Liquan Yu, Baifen Song, Yongzhong Yu, Shaoduo Zhang, Yuhua Wei, Zhijun Wu, Di Yao, Wei Yu, Zhanbo Zhu, Yudong Cui
PURPOSE: In this study, we prepared GapC1-150-IsdB126-361-TRAP (GIT) proteins plus heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) as an intra-molecular adjuvant, together with CpG to further enhance its immunogenicity. METHODOLOGY: Initially, the target genes were acquired and inserted into pET-32a (+) vectors to express LTB-GIT protein. LTB-GIT expression was confirmed by Western blotting and its immunocompetence was estimated through ELISA. Further, we immunized BALB/c mice with the LTB-GIT plus CpG adjuvant...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Svetlana V Baranova, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Anastasiya D Zubkova, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Elena S Odintsova, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Histones and their posttranslational modified forms play pivotal roles in chromatin functioning and gene transcription. Also, histones are harmful when they enter the intercellular space; their administration to animals results in systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies having enzymatic activities (abzymes) are the specific feature of several autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical proteases were purified from sera of HIV-infected patients by using several affinity chromatographies...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Gaoxing Ma, Benard Muinde Kimatu, Liyan Zhao, Wenjian Yang, Fei Pei, Qiuhui Hu
Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides have been shown to exert significant biological activities to the host. However, few studies have been conducted on its effects on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) health alteration. In the present study, small intestinal and colonic proteome alterations generated by dietary supplementation with a novel homogeneous P. eryngii polysaccharide (PEP) in C57BL/6 mice, based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomics were investigated. Compared to the control group, PEP supplementation resulted in a total of 113 and 194 significant differential proteins (DPs) in the small intestine and colon, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Proteomics
Eri Tabata, Akinori Kashimura, Azusa Kikuchi, Hiromasa Masuda, Ryo Miyahara, Yusuke Hiruma, Satoshi Wakita, Misa Ohno, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Vaclav Matoska, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), functions as a major structural component in chitin-containing organism including crustaceans, insects and fungi. Recently, we reported that acidic chitinase (Chia) is highly expressed in mouse, chicken and pig stomach tissues and that it can digest chitin in the respective gastrointestinal tracts (GIT). In this study, we focus on major livestock and domestic animals and show that the levels of Chia mRNA in their stomach tissues are governed by the feeding behavior...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nikhil Sharma, Ruchi Verma, Savitri, Tek Chand Bhalla
ProCos (Protein Composition Server, script version), one of the machine learning techniques, was used to classify nitrilases as aliphatic and aromatic nitrilases. Some important feature vectors were used to train the algorithm, which included pseudo-amino acid composition (PAAC) and five-factor solution score (5FSS). This clearly differentiated into two groups of nitrilases, i.e., aliphatic and aromatic, achieving maximum sensitivity of 100.00%, specificity of 90.00%, accuracy of 95.00% and Mathew Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of about 0...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Ji Hyoung Park, Hye Na Nam, Ji-Hyuk Lee, Jeana Hong, Dae Yong Yi, Eell Ryoo, In Sang Jeon, Hann Tchah
Purpose: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Antonio Palomba, Alessandro Tanca, Cristina Fraumene, Marcello Abbondio, Francesco Fancello, Alberto Stanislao Atzori, Sergio Uzzau
The digestive functions of the pre-weaned lamb gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) have been the subject of much research in recent years, but the microbial and host functions underlying these complex processes remain largely unknown. Here, we undertook a proof-of-principle metaproteogenomic investigation on luminal and mucosal samples collected from 10 GITs of a 30-day-old pre-weaned lamb. We demonstrate that the analysis of the diverse ecological niches along the GITs can reveal microbiota composition and metabolic functions, although low amounts of microbial proteins could be identified in the small intestinal and mucosal samples...
December 18, 2017: Proteomes
J Dattilo, D Gittings, M Sloan, R Charette, E Hume, G-C Lee
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of an institutionally developed algorithm for evaluation and diagnosis of prosthetic joint injection and to determine the impact of this protocol on overall hospital re-admissions.p PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 2685 total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients prior to (1263) and following (1422) the introduction of an infection detection protocol. The protocol used conservative thresholds for C-reactive protein to direct the medical attendant to aspirate the joint...
December 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
Nelson Gil, Andras Fiser
Motivation: Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) can provide essential input to many bioinformatics applications, including protein structure prediction and functional annotation. However, the optimal selection of sequences to obtain a biologically informative MSAs for such purposes is poorly-explored, and has traditionally been performed manually. Results: We present SAMMI, an automated, sequence-based approach to objectively select an optimal MSA from a large set of alternatives sampled from a general sequence database search...
December 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
Christina Zarouchlioti, David A Parfitt, Wenwen Li, Lauren M Gittings, Michael E Cheetham
Maintenance of protein homeostasis is vitally important in post-mitotic cells, particularly neurons. Neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine expansion disorders-like Huntington's disease or spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease-are often characterized by the presence of inclusions of aggregated protein. Neurons contain complex protein networks dedicated to protein quality control and maintaining protein homeostasis, or proteostasis...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Shoaib Junejo, Yasir Ali, Sandeep Singh Lubana, Sandeep S Tuli
BACKGROUND Amyloidosis is the extracellular tissue deposition of plasma proteins, which after conformational changes, forms antiparallel beta pleated sheets of fibrils. Amyloid light-chain (AL) is a type of amyloidosis that is due to deposition of proteins derived from immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement most often found in amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis type. There have been no reports of obstructive GIT AL amyloid patients having monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)...
November 25, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
Manreet Kaur, Prianka Singapura, Neeharika Kalakota, Guillermina Cruz, Richa Shukla, Sidra Ahsan, Aylin Tansel, Aaron P Thrift, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube (QTF-GIT) (Cellestis Limited, Carnegie, Australia) test is widely used to screen for latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) before treatment with a tumor necrosis factor antagonist. The test frequently produces indeterminate results, prompting additional testing. We evaluated factors associated with indeterminate results from the QTF-GIT test among patients with IBD...
November 23, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Qian Li, Ti Li, Chengmei Liu, Glen DeLoid, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou, Ruojie Zhang, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements
Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) particles are used in some food products to alter their optical properties, such as whiteness or brightness. These additives typically contain a population of TiO2 nanoparticles (d < 100 nm), which has led to concern about their potential toxicity. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of TiO2 particles on the gastrointestinal fate of oil-in-water emulsions using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that includes mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases...
November 2017: Nanotoxicology
Lim Heo, Michael Feig
Summary: Refinement of protein structure models is a long-standing problem in structural bioinformatics. Molecular dynamics-based methods have emerged as an avenue to achieve consistent refinement. The PREFMD web server implements an optimized protocol based on the method successfully tested in CASP11. Validation with recent CASP refinement targets shows consistent and more significant improvement in global structure accuracy over other state-of-the-art servers. Availability: PREFMD is freely available as a web server at http://feiglab...
November 8, 2017: Bioinformatics
Divya Mistry, Roger P Wise, Julie A Dickerson
Identification of central genes and proteins in biomolecular networks provides credible candidates for pathway analysis, functional analysis, and essentiality prediction. The DiffSLC centrality measure predicts central and essential genes and proteins using a protein-protein interaction network. Network centrality measures prioritize nodes and edges based on their importance to the network topology. These measures helped identify critical genes and proteins in biomolecular networks. The proposed centrality measure, DiffSLC, combines the number of interactions of a protein and the gene coexpression values of genes from which those proteins were translated, as a weighting factor to bias the identification of essential proteins in a protein interaction network...
2017: PloS One
Azza Abdelmageed Matloub, Alaa Hamed Salama, Hadeer Ahmed Aglan, Mona Mahmoud AbouSamra, Sahar Salah Mohamed ElSouda, Hanaa Hamdy Ahmed
Bile salts containing vesicles (bilosomes) represent a portentous vesicular carrier that showed prosperous results in delivering active moieties in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this study, bilosomes were exploited to deliver sulphated polysaccharide-protein complexes of Enteromorpha intestinalis (EHEM) and enhance its activity against hepatocellular carcinoma as well as resist harsh GIT conditions. Bilosomes were prepared using the sodium salt of three different bile acids (cholic, deoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic) and two different non-ionic surfactants (Span 40 and 65)...
November 8, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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