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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930195/bioaccessibility-and-cellular-uptake-of-%C3%AE-carotene-encapsulated-in-model-o-w-emulsions-influence-of-initial-droplet-size-and-emulsifiers
#1
Wei Lu, Alan L Kelly, Song Miao
The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier) on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene...
September 20, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929046/application-of-three-dimensional-printing-for-colon-targeted-drug-delivery-systems
#2
REVIEW
Nitin B Charbe, Paul A McCarron, Majella E Lane, Murtaza M Tambuwala
Orally administered solid dosage forms currently dominate over all other dosage forms and routes of administrations. However, human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) poses a number of obstacles to delivery of the drugs to the site of interest and absorption in the GIT. Pharmaceutical scientists worldwide have been interested in colon drug delivery for several decades, not only for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of colonic diseases such as ulcerative colitis and colon cancer but also for delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides for systemic absorption...
April 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888462/control-of-protein-digestion-under-simulated-gastrointestinal-conditions-using-biopolymer-microgels
#3
Zipei Zhang, Ruojie Zhang, David Julian McClements
Controlling the rate and extent of protein digestion within different regions of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is important for regulating hormonal responses (such as hunger, satiety, and satiation) and immune responses (such as allergenicity). In this study, hydrogel beads (biopolymer microgels) were fabricated by injecting a solution of anionic alginate molecules into a solution of cationic calcium ions using a vibrating extrusion device. A model food protein (whey protein isolate, WPI) was mixed with the alginate solution prior to bead formation...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873701/encapsulation-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-nanoemulsions-and-microgels-impact-of-delivery-system-type-and-protein-addition-on-gastrointestinal-fate
#4
Fang Chen, Guang-Qin Fan, Zipei Zhang, Ruojie Zhang, Ze-Yuan Deng, David Julian McClements
Carefully designed delivery systems are required to encapsulate and protect omega-3 fatty acids in commercial food and beverage products, but then release them at the required site-of-action within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Previously, we showed that the oxidative stability of flaxseed oil (a plant-based source of omega-3 fatty acids) encapsulated in nanoemulsion droplets or calcium alginate microgels (hydrogel beads) was improved using caseinate as a natural antioxidant. In this study, the impact of caseinate on the digestion of flaxseed oil encapsulated in these delivery systems was investigated using a simulated GIT...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854862/pediococcus-acidolactici-and-pediococcus-pentosaceus-isolated-from-rainbow-trout-ecosystem-have-probiotic-and-abf1-adsorbing-degrading-abilities-in-vitro
#5
Maria Pia Martinez, Maria Laura Gonzalez Pereyra, Gabriela Alejandra Pena, Valeria Poloni, Guillermina Fernandez Juri, Lilia Reneé Cavaglieri
Probiotics are being used as biologic controllers in the prevention of bacterial pathogens as an alternative to antibiotics to improve health and production parameters in fish farming. Fish farming production is severely affected by aflatoxins (AFs) representing a significant problem in aquaculture systems. Aflatoxins exert a substantial impact on production causing disease with high mortality and a gradual decline of reared fish stock quality. Some aspects of aflatoxicosis in fish, particularly its effects on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), have not been well documented...
August 31, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740169/analysis-of-newly-detected-tetracycline-resistance-genes-and-their-flanking-sequences-in-human-intestinal-bifidobacteria
#6
Na Wang, Xiaomin Hang, Min Zhang, Xianglong Liu, Hong Yang
Due to tetracycline abuse, the safe bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal intestinal tract (GIT) may serve as a reservoir of tetracycline resistance genes. In the present investigation of 92 bifidobacterial strains originating from the human GIT, tetracycline resistance in 29 strains was mediated by the tet(W), tet(O) or tet(S) gene, and this is the first report of tet(O)- and tet(S)-mediated tetracycline resistance in bifidobacteria. Antibiotic resistance genes harbored by bifidobacteria are transferred from other bacteria...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732078/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-indeterminate-results-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#7
Hong-Joon Shin, Tae-Ok Kim, Hyung-Joo Oh, Ha-Young Park, Jin-Sun Chang, Seong Ahn, Yu-Il Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Yong-Soo Kwon
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection could be affected by conditions of immune dysregulation. For this reason, diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the frequency of indeterminate results of IGRAs. However, there have been inconsistent reports of role of DM on indeterminate IGRA results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing (QFT-GIT) at Chonnam National University Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609116/the-underexposed-role-of-food-matrices-in-probiotic-products-reviewing-the-relationship-between-carrier-matrices-and-product-parameters
#8
Joost Flach, Mark van der Waal, Maurits van den Nieuwboer, Eric Claassen, Olaf Larsen
Probiotic microorganisms are increasingly incorporated into food matrices in order to confer proposed health benefits on the consumer. It is important that the health benefits, sensory properties, shelf-life and probiotic gastrointestinal tract (GIT) survival of these products are carefully balanced as they determine functionality and drive consumer acceptance. The strain-specific effects of probiotic species are imperative in this process but carrier matrices may play a pivotal role as well. This study therefore recapitulates the wealth of knowledge on carrier matrices and their interaction with probiotic strains...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588563/insight-into-potential-probiotic-markers-predicted-in-lactobacillus-pentosus-mp-10-genome-sequence
#9
Hikmate Abriouel, Beatriz Pérez Montoro, Carlos S Casimiro-Soriguer, Antonio J Pérez Pulido, Charles W Knapp, Natacha Caballero Gómez, Sonia Castillo-Gutiérrez, María D Estudillo-Martínez, Antonio Gálvez, Nabil Benomar
Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 is a potential probiotic lactic acid bacterium originally isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives. The entire genome sequence was annotated to in silico analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of L. pentosus MP-10 to the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT), such as carbohydrate metabolism (related with prebiotic utilization) and the proteins involved in bacteria-host interactions. We predicted an arsenal of genes coding for carbohydrate-modifying enzymes to modify oligo- and polysaccharides, such as glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, and isomerases, and other enzymes involved in complex carbohydrate metabolism especially starch, raffinose, and levan...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578960/starch-based-nanocapsules-fabricated-through-layer-by-layer-assembly-for-oral-delivery-of-protein-to-lower-gastrointestinal-tract
#10
Yiping Zhang, Chengdeng Chi, Xiaoyi Huang, Qin Zou, Xiaoxi Li, Ling Chen
Anionic carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and cationic quaternary ammonium starch (QAS), were used to fabricate nanocapsules through electrostatic layer by layer (LbL) alternate deposition onto colloidal BSA particles. An ideal starch-based colloidal nanocapsule was achieved by adjusting the degree of substitution (DS) and weight average molecular molar mass (Mw) of CMS. The nanocapsules fabricated by CMS with lower DS or Mw possessed more compact and stable core-shell structure, which favoured the BSA delivery from the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the colon...
September 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571818/association-between-oxidative-status-and-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
Marianna Gyuraszova, Alexandra Kovalcikova, Roman Gardlik
Studies have shown that the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role when it comes to the maintenance of its proper functions. Many studies exist that have analyzed the composition of the bacterial community in the different regions of the GIT of humans and model animals. Microbial imbalance leads to several systemic disorders, including cardiovascular and renal disease. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidants leads to oxidative stress...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552424/physicochemical-and-colloidal-aspects-of-food-matrix-effects-on-gastrointestinal-fate-of-ingested-inorganic-nanoparticles
#12
REVIEW
David Julian McClements, Hang Xiao, Philip Demokritou
Inorganic nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, iron oxide, zinc oxide, or silver nanoparticles, are added to some food products and food packaging materials to obtain specific functional attributes, such as lightening, powder flow, nutrition, or antimicrobial properties. These engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) all have dimensions below 100nm, but may still vary considerably in composition, morphology, charge, surface properties and aggregation state, which effects their gastrointestinal fate and potential toxicity...
May 9, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545136/assessment-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-united-states-navy-recruits
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jason M Lempp, Margan J Zajdowicz, Arlene L Hankinson, Sean R Toney, Lisa W Keep, James D Mancuso, Gerald H Mazurek
BACKGROUND: Immunologic tests such as the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) are designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, both latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and infection manifesting as active tuberculosis disease (TB). These tests need high specificity to minimize unnecessary treatment and high sensitivity to allow maximum detection and prevention of TB. METHODS: Estimate QFT-GIT specificity, compare QFT-GIT and TST results, and assess factor associations with test discordance among U...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541376/dna-sequence-shape-kernel-enables-alignment-free-modeling-of-transcription-factor-binding
#14
Wenxiu Ma, Lin Yang, Remo Rohs, William Stafford Noble
Motivation: Transcription factors (TFs) bind to specific DNA sequence motifs. Several lines of evidence suggest that TF-DNA binding is mediated in part by properties of the local DNA shape: the width of the minor groove, the relative orientations of adjacent base pairs, etc. Several methods have been developed to jointly account for DNA sequence and shape properties in predicting TF binding affinity. However, a limitation of these methods is that they typically require a training set of aligned TF binding sites...
May 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537071/clmsvault-a-software-suite-for-protein-cross-linking-mass-spectrometry-data-analysis-and-visualization
#15
Mathieu Courcelles, Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington, Émilie Cossette, Anne-Claude Gingras, Pierre Thibault, Mike Tyers
Protein cross-linking mass spectrometry (CL-MS) enables the sensitive detection of protein interactions and the inference of protein complex topology. The detection of chemical cross-links between protein residues can identify intra- and interprotein contact sites or provide physical constraints for molecular modeling of protein structure. Recent innovations in cross-linker design, sample preparation, mass spectrometry, and software tools have significantly improved CL-MS approaches. Although a number of algorithms now exist for the identification of cross-linked peptides from mass spectral data, a dearth of user-friendly analysis tools represent a practical bottleneck to the broad adoption of the approach...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536562/use-of-wild-type-or-recombinant-lactic-acid-bacteria-as-an-alternative-treatment-for-gastrointestinal-inflammatory-diseases-a-focus-on-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-mucositis
#16
REVIEW
Rodrigo D De Oliveira Carvalho, Fillipe L R do Carmo, Alberto de Oliveira Junior, Philippe Langella, Jean-Marc Chatel, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Vasco Azevedo, Marcela S de Azevedo
The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is highly colonized by bacterial communities, which live in a symbiotic relationship with the host in normal conditions. It has been shown that a dysfunctional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the host immune system, known as dysbiosis, is a very important factor responsible for the development of different inflammatory conditions of the GIT, such as the idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a complex and multifactorial disorder of the GIT. Dysbiosis has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other GIT inflammatory diseases such as mucositis usually caused as an adverse effect of chemotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533178/mucin-and-carbohydrate-stimulated-adhesion-and-subproteome-changes-of-the-probiotic-bacterium-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ncfm
#17
Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Sita Vaag Olesen, Kennie Prehn, Sampo J Lahtinen, Susanne Brix, Maher Abou Hachem, Birte Svensson
Adhesion to intestinal mucosa is a crucial property for probiotic bacteria. Adhesion is thought to increase host-bacterial interactions, thus potentially enabling health benefits to the host. Molecular events connected with adhesion and surface proteome changes were investigated for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM cultured with established or emerging prebiotic carbohydrates as carbon source and in the presence of mucin, the glycoprotein of the epithelial mucus layer. Variation in adhesion to HT29-cells and mucin was associated with carbon source and mucin-induced subproteome abundancy differences...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532523/immune-responses-intestinal-microbiota-performance-and-blood-characteristics-of-japanese-quail-fed-on-diets-containing-camphor
#18
A Sedaghat, M A Karimi Torshizi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental camphor on the performance and immune functions of Japanese quail by feeding graded levels (0 (control), 250, 500, 750, 1000, 5000 or 10 000 ppm) of camphor during a 42-day feeding trial. In all, 280 1-day-old quail chicks were randomly assigned into 28 cages of 10 chicks each with separate feeders. The results clearly demonstrated that camphor did not have a significant effect on BW, BW gain, total experimental average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, internal organ relative weights and biochemical parameters such as uric acid, albumin, total protein and triglyceride; however, plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly different in a linear manner, in which 500 ppm of camphor resulted in a lower level of cholesterol...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449677/cystic-fibrosis-current-therapeutic-targets-and-future-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Misbahuddin M Rafeeq, Hussam Aly Sayed Murad
OBJECTIVES: Study of currently approved drugs and exploration of future clinical development pipeline therapeutics for cystic fibrosis, and possible limitations in their use. METHODS: Extensive literature search using individual and a combination of key words related to cystic fibrosis therapeutics. KEY FINDINGS: Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in CFTR gene leading to abnormality of chloride channels in mucus and sweat producing cells...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416945/a-chip-seq-data-analysis-pipeline-based-on-bioconductor-packages
#20
Seung-Jin Park, Jong-Hwan Kim, Byung-Ha Yoon, Seon-Young Kim
Nowadays, huge volumes of chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data are generated to increase the knowledge on DNA-protein interactions in the cell, and accordingly, many tools have been developed for ChIP-Seq analysis. Here, we provide an example of a streamlined workflow for ChIP-Seq data analysis composed of only four packages in Bioconductor: dada2, QuasR, mosaics, and ChIPseeker. 'dada2' performs trimming of the high-throughput sequencing data. 'QuasR' and 'mosaics' perform quality control and mapping of the input reads to the reference genome and peak calling, respectively...
March 2017: Genomics & Informatics
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