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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214467/paxillin-a-crossroad-in-pathological-cell-migration
#1
REVIEW
Ana María López-Colomé, Irene Lee-Rivera, Regina Benavides-Hidalgo, Edith López
Paxilllin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adapter protein which serves an important scaffolding role at focal adhesions by recruiting structural and signaling molecules involved in cell movement and migration, when phosphorylated on specific Tyr and Ser residues. Upon integrin engagement with extracellular matrix, paxillin is phosphorylated at Tyr31, Tyr118, Ser188, and Ser190, activating numerous signaling cascades which promote cell migration, indicating that the regulation of adhesion dynamics is under the control of a complex display of signaling mechanisms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201934/feeding-value-of-field-beans-vicia-faba-l-var-minor-with-and-without-enzyme-containing-tannase-pectinase-and-xylanase-activities-for-broilers
#2
Jalil Mahmwd Abdulla, Stephen Paul Rose, Alexander Mackay Mackenzie, Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev
Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173798/spasmogenic-and-spasmolytic-activity-of-rind-of-punica-granatum-linn
#3
Niaz Ali, Ayesha Jamil, Syed Wadood Ali Shah, Ismail Shah, Ghayour Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used in treatment of abdominal cramps and various GIT disorders. So far spasmolytic activity of rind of Punica granatum has been reported using in vitro model. However, its mode of action is not explored yet. Therefore, the current work describes the possible mode of action for spasmolytic activity of methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr). Acute toxicity study is also performed to determine its safe dose range. METHODS: Rind of Punica granatum was subjected to shade drying...
February 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135856/promoter-hypermethylation-and-its-impact-on-expression-of-mgmt-gene-in-the-git-malignant-patients-of-kashmiri-origin
#4
Arif Akbar Bhat, Hilal Ahmad Wani, Shiekh Ishaq, Ajaz Ahmad Waza, Rawoof Ahmad Malik, Iram Shabir, Showkat Jeelani, Showkat Kadla, Waseem Qureshie, Akbar Masood, Sabhiya Majid
Epigenetic alterations, in addition to multiple gene abnormalities, are involved in the genesis and progression of human cancers. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer is a major medical and economic burden worldwide. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands within promoter regions is associated with transcriptional inactivation of various tumor suppressor genes. Although a number of cancer-associated genes have been found to be hypermethylated in GIT cancer, valuable methylation markers for early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this cancer remain largely unknown...
February 7, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113048/large-t-antigen-variants-of-human-polyomaviruses-9-and-12-and-seroreactivity-against-their-n-terminus
#5
Sarah-Verena Korup-Schulz, Claudia Lucke, Rosa Schmuck, Ugo Moens, Bernhard Ehlers
The tumor antigens (TAgs) of mammalian polyomaviruses (PyVs) are key proteins responsible for modulating the host cell cycle and involved in virus replication as well as cell transformation and tumor formation. Here we aimed at identifying mRNA sequences of known and novel TAgs encoded by the recently discovered human polyomaviruses 9 and 12 (HPyV9 and HPyV12) in cell culture. Synthetic viral genomes were transfected into human and animal cell lines. Gene expression occurred in most cell lines, as measured by qPCR of cDNA copies of mRNA encoding major structural protein VP1...
January 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087515/h-blast-a-fast-protein-sequence-alignment-toolkit-on-heterogeneous-computers-with-gpus
#6
Weicai Ye, Ying Chen, Yongdong Zhang, Yuesheng Xu
MOTIVATION: The sequence alignment is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. BLAST is a routinely used tool for this purpose with over 118 000 citations in the past two decades. As the size of bio-sequence databases grows exponentially, the computational speed of alignment softwares must be improved. RESULTS: We develop the heterogeneous BLAST (H-BLAST), a fast parallel search tool for a heterogeneous computer that couples CPUs and GPUs, to accelerate BLASTX and BLASTP-basic tools of NCBI-BLAST...
January 13, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060926/comparison-of-tst-and-igra-in-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-high-tb-burden-setting
#7
Surendra K Sharma, Richa Vashishtha, L S Chauhan, V Sreenivas, Divya Seth
BACKGROUND: There are currently two tests for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI); TST and IGRA. However, it is still unclear that which one of these tests performs better in high TB-burden settings. METHODS: 1511 household contacts of pulmonary TB patients were enrolled to compare the performance of TST and IGRA for LTBI. At baseline all participant underwent testing for IGRA [QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) assay] and TST [2 tuberculin unit (TU), purified protein derivative (PPD), RT23, Staten Serum Institute (SSI), Copenhagen, Denmark]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043588/characterization-of-the-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-response-in-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-plus-kit
#8
Elisa Petruccioli, Teresa Chiacchio, Ilaria Pepponi, Valentina Vanini, Rocco Urso, Gilda Cuzzi, Lucia Barcellini, Fabrizio Palmieri, Daniela M Cirillo, Giuseppe Ippolito, Delia Goletti
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) is an interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assay designed to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Although QFT-GIT has several advantages (mainly that it is not affected by the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination), it has a poor sensitivity in immune-compromised individuals as it involves an immune response-based detection. Recently, QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) assay has been proposed as a new generation of QFT-GIT...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994031/flexible-model-based-clustering-of-mixed-binary-and-continuous-data-application-to-genetic-regulation-and-cancer
#9
Fatin N Zainul Abidin, David R Westhead
Clustering is used widely in 'omics' studies and is often tackled with standard methods, e.g. hierarchical clustering. However, the increasing need for integration of multiple data sets leads to a requirement for clustering methods applicable to mixed data types, where the straightforward application of standard methods is not necessarily the best approach. A particularly common problem involves clustering entities characterized by a mixture of binary data (e.g. presence/absence of mutations, binding, motifs and epigenetic marks) and continuous data (e...
December 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979220/controlling-the-potential-gastrointestinal-fate-of-%C3%AE-carotene-emulsions-using-interfacial-engineering-impact-of-coating-lipid-droplets-with-polyphenol-protein-carbohydrate-conjugate
#10
Fuguo Liu, Cuicui Ma, Ruojie Zhang, Yanxiang Gao, David Julian McClements
The impact of interfacial coatings comprised of polyphenol-protein-carbohydrate conjugates on the properties of nutraceutical-fortified lipid droplets during digestion was investigated. Surface-active chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-polydextrose (CA-LF-PD) conjugate was synthesized as emulsifier to stabilize lipid droplets in β-carotene-enriched oil-in-water emulsions. Changes in droplet size, charge, and microstructure were monitored as β-carotene emulsions were passed through a simulated gastrointestinal tract model (mouth, stomach, small intestine)...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976713/genetically-manipulated-phages-with-improved-ph-resistance-for-oral-administration-in-veterinary-medicine
#11
Franklin L Nobrega, Ana Rita Costa, José F Santos, Melvin F Siliakus, Jan W M van Lent, Servé W M Kengen, Joana Azeredo, Leon D Kluskens
Orally administered phages to control zoonotic pathogens face important challenges, mainly related to the hostile conditions found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These include temperature, salinity and primarily pH, which is exceptionally low in certain compartments. Phage survival under these conditions can be jeopardized and undermine treatment. Strategies like encapsulation have been attempted with relative success, but are typically complex and require several optimization steps. Here we report a simple and efficient alternative, consisting in the genetic engineering of phages to display lipids on their surfaces...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852671/highly-multiplexed-proteomic-analysis-of-quantiferon-supernatants-to-identify-biomarkers-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#12
Mary Ann De Groote, Michael Higgins, Thomas Hraha, Kirsten Wall, Michael L Wilson, David G Sterling, Nebojsa Janjic, Randall Reves, Urs A Ochsner, Robert Belknap
The tests for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are limited by a poor predictive value for identifying people at the highest risk for progressing to active tuberculosis (TB) and have various sensitivities and specificities in different populations. Identifying a more robust signature for LTBI is important for TB prevention and elimination. A pilot study was conducted with samples from immigrants to the United States that were screened for LTBI by the three commercially approved tests, namely, the tuberculin skin test (TST), the Quantiferon-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT), and the T-SPOT...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847276/polyelectrolyte-complexes-as-prospective-carriers-for-the-oral-delivery-of-protein-therapeutics
#13
REVIEW
Vassilis Bourganis, Theodora Karamanidou, Olga Kammona, Costas Kiparissides
The oral administration of protein therapeutics is hindered by the multitude of barriers confronted by these molecules along the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., acidic environment, proteolytic degradation, mucosal barrier, etc.). Their unique properties (e.g., high molecular weight, hydrophilicity, charge, etc.) and labile structure are mainly responsible for their instability in the harsh conditions along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and dictate the employment of alternative routes for their administration (e...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829344/identifying-drug-target-interactions-with-decision-template
#14
Xiao-Ying Yan, Shao-Wu Zhang
During the development process of new drugs, identification of the drug-target interactions wins primary concerns. However, the chemical or biological experiments bear the limitation in coverage as well as the huge cost of both time and money. Based on drug similarity and target similarity, chemogenomic methods can be able to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTIs) on a large scale and have no luxurious need about target structures or ligand entries. Nevertheless, existing methods of drug chemical structure-based similarity and target sequence-based similarity may not reflect the cases that the drugs having variant structures interact with common targets and the targets having dissimilar sequences interact with same drugs...
November 7, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816629/hdm-pampa-to-predict-gastrointestinal-absorption-binding-percentage-equilibrium-and-kinetics-constants-with-human-serum-albumin-and-using-2-end-point-measurements
#15
Alban Bujard, Charlotte Petit, Pierre-Alain Carrupt, Serge Rudaz, Julie Schappler
The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) is a high-throughput screening (HTS) technique developed to predict passive permeability through numerous different biological membranes, such as the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the blood brain barrier (BBB), and the dermal layer. PAMPA is based on an artificial membrane, such as hexadecane (HDM), which separates two compartments (i.e., a donor and an acceptor compartment). In the present study, an HDM-PAMPA method was developed with human serum albumin (HSA) under iso-pH and gradient-pH conditions to predict the percentage of binding, dissociation/association constants (Kd and Ka, respectively) and dissociation/association kinetic rates (koff and kon, respectively) between a given drug and HSA...
January 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760159/variations-of-phosphorous-accessibility-causing-changes-in-microbiome-functions-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-chickens
#16
Bruno Tilocca, Maren Witzig, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbours a complex microbial community, involved in several physiological processes such as host immunomodulation and feed digestion. For the first time, the present study analysed dietary effects on the protein inventory of the microbiome in crop and ceca of broilers. We performed quantitative label-free metaproteomics by using 1-D-gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS/MS to identify the structural and functional changes triggered by diets supplied with varying amount of mineral phosphorous (P) and microbial phytase (MP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684040/development-of-an-antigen-driven-colitis-model-to-study-presentation-of-antigens-by-antigen-presenting-cells-to-t-cells
#17
Valerio Rossini, Katarina Radulovic, Christian U Riedel, Jan Hendrik Niess
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation which affects the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). One of the best ways to study the immunological mechanisms involved during the disease is the T cell transfer model of colitis. In this model, immunodeficient mice (RAG(-/-) recipients) are reconstituted with naive CD4(+) T cells from healthy wild type hosts. This model allows examination of the earliest immunological events leading to disease and chronic inflammation, when the gut inflammation perpetuates but does not depend on a defined antigen...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649239/food-matrix-effects-of-polyphenol-bioaccessibility-from-almond-skin-during-simulated-human-digestion
#18
Giuseppina Mandalari, Maria Vardakou, Richard Faulks, Carlo Bisignano, Maria Martorana, Antonella Smeriglio, Domenico Trombetta
The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from natural (NS) and blanched (BS) almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT) or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB), crisp-bread (CB) and full-fat milk (FM). Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68...
September 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621205/abundance-of-drug-transporters-in-the-human-kidney-cortex-as-quantified-by-quantitative-targeted-proteomics
#19
Bhagwat Prasad, Katherine Johnson, Sarah Billington, Caroline Lee, Git W Chung, Colin D A Brown, Edward J Kelly, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Jashvant D Unadkat
Protein expression of renal uptake and efflux transporters was quantified by quantitative targeted proteomics using the surrogate peptide approach. Renal uptake transporters assessed in this study included organic anion transporters (OAT1-OAT4), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), organic/carnitine cation transporters (OCTN1 and OCTN2), and sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2); efflux transporters included P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, multidrug resistance proteins (MRP2 and MRP4), and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATE1 and MATE2-K)...
December 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587723/temporal-distribution-of-encapsulated-bacteriophages-during-passage-through-the-chick-gastrointestinal-tract
#20
Yin-Hing Ma, Golam S Islam, Ying Wu, Parviz M Sabour, James R Chambers, Qi Wang, Shirley X Y Wu, Mansel W Griffiths
Encapsulation of bacteriophages ("phage") protects phage against environmental deactivation and provides a product that is easy to handle for storage and application with animal feed as an antibiotic alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate an orally administered, encapsulated phage for efficient phage release in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of young chicks receiving feed. An optimized formulation that consisted of 0.8% low molecular weight (MW) alginate, 2% ultra-low molecular weight alginate and 3% whey protein completely released the encapsulated phage within 60 min under simulated intestinal conditions...
December 1, 2016: Poultry Science
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