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Disaster Medicine

Melinda J Morton Hamer, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Charles W Beadling
US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements...
March 7, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Zhao-Wen Zong, Lian-Yang Zhang, Hao Qin, Si-Xu Chen, Lin Zhang, Lei Yang, Xiao-Xue Li, Quan-Wei Bao, Dao-Cheng Liu, Si-Hao He, Yue Shen, Rong Zhang, Yu-Feng Zhao, Xiao-Zheng Zhong
The accurate assessment and diagnosis of combat injuries are the basis for triage and treatment of combat casualties. A consensus on the assessment and diagnosis of combat injuries was made and discussed at the second annual meeting of the Professional Committee on Disaster Medicine of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). In this consensus agreement, the massive hemorrhage, airway, respiration, circulation and hypothermia (MARCH) algorithm, which is a simple triage and rapid treatment and field triage score, was recommended to assess combat casualties during the first-aid stage, whereas the abbreviated scoring method for combat casualty and the MARCH algorithm were recommended to assess combat casualties in level II facilities...
February 13, 2018: Military Medical Research
Vishal R Aggarwal
This paper presents an overview of the importance of oral health in complex emergencies. It highlights the importance of maintaining general and oral health in the acute, intermediate and long-term phases of such events which are increasing in frequency. The importance of oral health as an early warning sign for systemic disease and deprivation is also explored along with the crucial role of oral health in maintaining quality of life through adequate nutrition and speech. The overview of oral health in these situations identifies the need for training dental personnel as members of rehabilitation teams that set out to manage these disasters...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Jessica Miller, Marvin L Birnbaum
In October 2010, the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP; Port au Prince, Haiti) reported a cholera epidemic caused by contamination of the Artibonite River by a United Nation Stabilization Mission camp. Interventional studies of the subsequent responses, including a descriptive Methods section and systematic approach, may be useful in facilitating comparisons and applying lessons learned to future outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to examine publicly available documents relating to the 2010 cholera outbreak to answer: (1) What information is publicly available on interventional studies conducted during the epidemic, and what was/were the impact(s)? and (2) Can the interventions be compared, and what lessons can be learned from their comparison? A PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) search was conducted using the parameters "Haiti" and "cholera...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Feras Abuzeyad, Leena Alqasem, Mudhaffar I Al Farras, Shaikha S Al Jawder, Ghada Al Qasim, Salah Alghanem
It has been more than a decade since emergency medicine became recognized as a specialty in the Kingdom of Bahrain. In the last fifteen years emergency medicine has widely established itself and developed rapidly in the Kingdom. The three main emergency departments are: Salmanyia Medical Complex (SMC), Royal Medical Services of Bahrain Defence Force (RMS-BDF) and King Hamad University Hospital (KHUH) are now fully equipped and operated by a majority of board certified emergency physicians.Standardized protocols, and the Central National Ambulance will be established in the near future, and the ambulances will offer both basic and advanced life support by trained nurses and paramedics...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chun-Yang Liang, Yang Yang, Chun-Sen Shen, Hai-Jiang Wang, Nai-Ming Liu, Zhi-Wen Wang, Feng-Lei Zhu, Ru-Xiang Xu
Introduction: Secondary brain injury is the main cause of mortality from traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hallmark of TBI is intracranial hemorrhage, which occurs in 40-50% of severe TBI cases. Early identification of intracranial hematomas in TBI patients allows early surgical evacuation and can reduce the case fatality rate of TBI. As pre-hospital care is the weakest part of Chinese emergency care, there is an urgent need for a capability to detect brain hematomas early. In China, in addition to preventing injuries and diseases in military staff and in enhancing the military armed forces during war, military medicine participates in actions such as emergency public health crises, natural disasters, emerging conflicts, and anti-terrorist campaigns during peacetime...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Mina Shrestha, Rebekah Moles, Eurek Ranjit, Betty Chaar
BACKGROUND: Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements"...
2018: PloS One
Lauren Wiesner, Shane Kappler, Alex Shuster, Michael DeLuca, James Ott, Eric Glasser
BACKGROUND: Over a decade ago, the Association of American Medical Colleges called for incorporation of disaster medicine training into the education of medical students in the United States. Despite this recommendation, similar suggestions by other professional organizations, and significant interest from medical students and educators, few medical schools explicitly include robust disaster training in their curricula. OBJECTIVES: This study describes the results of the implementation of a novel medical student curriculum in disaster response at an allopathic U...
March 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Micheleen Hashikawa, Katherine J Gold
Purpose To assess perceptions and attitudes toward disasters and disaster planning among outpatient primary care leaders. METHODS: Written surveys and semi-structured interviews of non-physician clinical managers and physician medical directors were conducted using the 2009 H1N1 pandemic as a case-based scenario at 5 university-affiliated family medicine clinics. Domains assessed included perceived pandemic threat; value, existence, and barriers to creating personal disaster plans; staff absenteeism estimates; barriers to work attendance...
January 24, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Henry A Curtis, Karen Trang, Kevin W Chason, Paul D Biddinger
Introduction Great demands have been placed on disaster medicine educators. There is a need to develop innovative methods to educate Emergency Physicians in the ever-expanding body of disaster medicine knowledge. The authors sought to demonstrate that video-based learning (VBL) could be a promising alternative to traditional learning methods for teaching disaster medicine core competencies. Hypothesis/Problem The objective was to compare VBL to traditional lecture (TL) for instructing Emergency Medicine residents in the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP; Irving, Texas USA) disaster medicine core competencies of patient triage and decontamination...
January 10, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
O V Gasanova, E O Sarkisova, A A Chumak, L M Ovsyannikova, O V Nosach, L M Alohina, V A Gasanov, V V Kryzhanivska
Objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of various groups of hepatoprotectors in the treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) sufferers of the accident at the Chornobyl NPP following the assessment of metabolic changes and control of persistent infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 104 males with NASH, who were sufferers of the Chornobyl disaster and underwent examination and treatment in the conditions of the clinics of the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
D Bazyka, V Sushko, A Chumak, V Buzunov, V Talko, L Yanovych
Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2016 at the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report. The report presents the results of fundamental and applied research works of the study of radiation effects and health effects of the Chornobyl accident; fulfillment of tasks of «State social program for improving safety, occupational health and working environment in 2014-2018 years»...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Lucila M Zamboni
A systematic literature review on quantitative methods to assess community resilience was conducted following Institute of Medicine and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute standards. Community resilience is the ability of a community to bounce back or return to normal after a disaster strikes, yet there is no agreement on what this actually means. All studies reviewed addressed natural disasters, but the methodological approaches can be applied to technological disasters, epidemics, and terrorist attacks...
December 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Daniel Grabo, Aaron Strumwasser, Kyle Remick, Susan Briggs
BACKGROUND: A well-defined means of organizing surgeons based on functional capabilities in disaster response has been lacking. We sought to create a pilot registry of surgeons, organized by functional capacities, available to respond to disasters in conjunction with the American College of Surgeons Operation Giving Back and to better understand their participation in disaster medicine training. METHODS: The authors conducted a survey of the members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma aimed at establishing a pilot registry of qualified trauma surgeons available to respond to disasters...
February 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Kyeong Han Kim, Soobin Jang, Ju Ah Lee, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Ho-Yeon Go, Sunju Park, Hee-Guen Jo, Myeong Soo Lee, Seong-Gyu Ko
Background: This study aimed to investigate medical records using traditional Korean medicine (TKM) in Sewol Ferry disaster in 2014 and further explore the possible role of traditional medicine in disaster situation. Methods: After Sewol Ferry accident, 3 on-site tents for TKM assistance by the Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM) in Jindo area were installed. The AKOM mobilized volunteer TKM doctors and assistants and dispatched each on-site tent in three shifts within 24 hours...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Tobias Neidel, Nicolas Salvador, Axel R Heller
BACKGROUND: Major incidents are characterized by a lack of resources compared to an overwhelming number of casualties, requiring a prioritization of medical treatment. Triage algorithms are an essential tool for prioritizing the urgency of treatment for patients, but the evidence to support one over another is very limited. We determined the influence of blood pressure limits on the diagnostic value of triage algorithms, considering if pulse should be palpated centrally or peripherally...
December 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Suresh Thapaliya, Pawan Sharma, Kapil Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Suicide and self harm behavior has become a major public health issue in recent years in Nepal. This small south Asian country was ranked 7th by suicide rate globally by the 2014 World Health Organization report with an estimated 6,840 suicides annually, or 24.9 suicides per 100,000 people. We decided to explore the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and self harm, modes of attempt, associated risk factors and trends in specific population. METHODOLOGY: Two researchers independently reviewed 47 studies published in the US National Library of Medicine's PubMed electronic Database and Google Scholar till December 2016...
February 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Youichi Yanagawa, Kazuhiko Omori, Kouhei Ishikawa, Ikuto Takeuchi, Kei Jitsuiki, Toshihiko Yoshizawa, Jun Sato, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Masaru Tsuchiya, Hiromichi Osaka
BACKGROUND: The Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine developed a mass casualty life support (MCLS) course to improve cooperation among medical practitioners during a disaster, which is essential for reducing the rates of preventable disaster death. We investigated whether there was difference in first aid activity among members of the ambulance service during mass casualty training based on having taken the MCLS course. METHODS: Mass casualty training was held at the fire department of Numazu City...
November 20, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Hiroyuki Nakao, Isao Ukai, Joji Kotani
We usually associate triage with the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment method, but much of its origin is still unknown. Therefore, French studies and the origin of triage shown in domestic and foreign published works have been investigated and its significance reaffirmed. The etymology of the word "triage" means "to break into three pieces." It was suggested by a literature review that the rise of Napoleon led to military tactical changes, and that the prototype of triage arose from the experience gained in the difficult campaign in Egypt and Syria...
October 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Sang Chul Kim, Young Sun Ro, Sang Do Shin, Dae Han Wi, Joongsik Jeong, Ju Ok Park, Kyong Min Sun, Kwangsoo Bae
Development of a competence-based curriculum is important. This study aimed to develop competence assessment tools in emergency medicine and use it to assess competence of Cameroonian healthcare professionals. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Through literature review, expert survey, and discrimination tests, we developed a self-survey questionnaire and a scenario-based competence assessment tool for assessing clinical knowledge and self-confidence to perform clinical practices or procedures. The self-survey consisted of 23 domains and 94 questionnaires on a 5-point Likert scale...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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