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Carla T Murray, Matthew Schmit
Introduction: We estimate the effect on health care spending of an option to change TRICARE. Under the option, which is based on a proposal made by the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission (MCRMC), most beneficiaries could choose from a range of commercial health networks instead of the current TRICARE plans. Military treatment facilities would become network providers under the commercial plans. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Department of Defense (DoD) to estimate the cost of providing the current health care benefit to working-age retirees and their dependents and survivors, and active duty family members...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Klemen Pavlic, Maja Pohar Perme
A common goal in the analysis of the long-term survival related to a specific disease is to estimate a measure that is comparable between populations with different general population mortality. When cause of death is unavailable or unreliable, as for example in cancer registry studies, relative survival methodology is used-in addition to the mortality data of the patients, we use the data on the mortality of the general population. In this article, we focus on the marginal relative survival measure that summarizes the information about the disease-specific hazard...
March 13, 2018: Biostatistics
Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
Patient safety is an increasing concern for health systems internationally. The majority of administrative work in UK general practice takes place in the context of organisational routines such as repeat prescribing and test results handling, where high workloads and increased clinician dependency on administrative staff have been identified as an emerging safety issue. Despite this trend, most research to date has focused on the redistribution of the clinical workload between doctors, nurses and allied health professionals within individual care settings...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
George A Fisher, Edward M Wolin, Nilani Liyanage, Susan Pitman Lowenthal, Beloo Mirakhur, Rodney F Pommier, Montaser Shaheen, Aaron I Vinik
OBJECTIVE: This ELECT prospective analysis examined lanreotide depot/autogel for carcinoid syndrome (CS) symptom control in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) who were responsive to prior octreotide (prior octreotide group) compared with patients who were naïve to prior somatostatin analogue treatment (de novo group). METHODS: Adults with histopathologically confirmed NET and stable CS (diarrhea and/or flushing) were randomized to subcutaneous (SC) lanreotide 120 mg or placebo every 4 weeks for 16 weeks...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Azadeh Rahimi Chatri, Solmaz Torabi, Vincent Marc Le Corre, L Jan Anton Koster
In recent years, the efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) has increased to more than 13%, while different barriers are on the way for reaching higher efficiencies. One crucial barrier is the recombination of charge carriers, which can either occur as the bulk recombination of photogenerated charges or the recombination of photogenerated charges and electrodic induced charges (EICs). This work studies the impact of EICs on the recombination lifetime in OSCs. To this end, the net recombination lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers in the presence of EICs is measured by means of conventional and newly developed transient photovoltage techniques...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kresimir Radic, Marko Curkovic, Dario Bagaric, Maja Vilibic, Andrea Tomic, Maja Zivkovic
Patients with schizophrenia, nowadays chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder, get initial treatment after detection of a psychotic episode, seemingly late, potentially preventable stage of illness. As our knowledge about the nature of schizophrenia and other diseases of the spectrum is growing, so are the early interventions becoming more possible, and it is important to conceptualize the clinical, legal and moral issues emerging with new preventive treatments. Every intervention, especially in pre-clinical population, demands a careful risk-benefit assessment and having basic bioethical principles - primacy of patient's welfare, beneficience/non-maleficience, autonomy and justice - in mind...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Dongni Wu, Shuangying Zhang, Yuyuan Zhao, Ningjian Ao, Seeram Ramakrishna, Liumin He
RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4 -CONH2 ) is a widely investigated self-assembling peptide (SAP) in the biomedical field. It can undergo ordered self-assembly to form stable secondary structures, thereby further forming a nanofiber hydrogel. The modification of RADA16-I with functional peptide motifs has become a popular research topic. Researchers aim to exhibit particular biomedical signaling, and subsequently, further expand its applications. However, only a few fundamental reports are available on the influences of the peptide motifs on self-assembly mechanisms of designer functional RADA16-I SAPs...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Alexander H Tuttle, Mark J Molinaro, Jasmine F Jethwa, Susana G Sotocinal, Juan C Prieto, Martin A Styner, Jeffrey S Mogil, Mark J Zylka
Grimace scales quantify characteristic facial expressions associated with spontaneous pain in rodents and other mammals. However, these scales have not been widely adopted largely because of the time and effort required for highly trained humans to manually score the images. Convoluted neural networks were recently developed that distinguish individual humans and objects in images. Here, we trained one of these networks, the InceptionV3 convolutional neural net, with a large set of human-scored mouse images...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Dorothy W Gietzen, Sarah H Lindström, James W Sharp, Pok Swee Teh, Michael J Donovan
Background: Low protein amounts are used in ketogenic diets (KDs), where an essential (indispensable) amino acid (IAA) can become limiting. Because the chemically sensitive, seizurogenic, anterior piriform cortex (APC) is excited by IAA limitation, an imbalanced KD could exacerbate seizure activity. Objective: We questioned whether dietary IAA depletion worsens seizure activity in rodents fed KDs. Methods: In a series of 6 trials, male rats or gerbils of both sexes (6-8/group) were given either control diets (CDs) appropriate for each trial, a KD, or a threonine-devoid (ThrDev) diet for ≥7 d, and tested for seizures using various stimuli...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Bryce E Hughes
Using a national longitudinal survey data set from the Higher Education Research Institute, this study tested whether students who identified as a sexual minority (for example, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer) were more or less likely to persist after 4 years in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, as opposed to switching to a non-STEM program, compared to their heterosexual peers. A multilevel regression model controlling for various experiences and characteristics previously determined to predict retention in STEM demonstrated that, net of these variables, sexual minority students were 8% less likely to be retained in STEM compared to switching into a non-STEM program...
March 2018: Science Advances
Sigrid Neumann-Leitão, Pedro A M C Melo, Ralf Schwamborn, Xiomara F G Diaz, Lucas G P Figueiredo, Andrea P Silva, Renata P S Campelo, Mauro de Melo Júnior, Nuno F A C Melo, Alejandro E S F Costa, Moacyr Araújo, Dóris R A Veleda, Rodrigo L Moura, Fabiano Thompson
At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km2 ) that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nathan H Schumaker, Allen Brookes
Context: Simulation models are increasingly used in both theoretical and applied studies to explore system responses to natural and anthropogenic forcing functions, develop defensible predictions of future conditions, challenge simplifying assumptions that facilitated past research, and to train students in scientific concepts and technology. Researcher's increased use of simulation models has created a demand for new platforms that balance performance, utility, and flexibility. Objectives: We describe HexSim, a powerful new spatially-explicit, individual-based modeling framework that will have applications spanning diverse landscape settings, species, stressors, and disciplines (e...
February 1, 2018: Landscape Ecology
Yan Lu, Lianjie Meng, Yan Gao, Dongli Liao, Yongxin Li, Yongxing Ai, Yuqin Ma, Cong Yu
Metal ions sensing play critical roles in environmental monitoring and in biology. In this assay, we report the development of a facile fluorometric method for the sensing of Ag+ ions via the in situ formation of metal coordination polymer, based on the selective interactions of GSH with Ag+ . The formation of coordination polymer with net multiple negative charges in an aqueous buffer solution (Tris-HAc, pH 9.0) resulted in aggregation and fluorescence quenching of a cationic perylene probe. The difference in emission intensity spurred us to develop a new strategy for sensing Ag+ ions...
March 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Giuseppe Gargiulo, Greta Carrara, Enrico Frigoli, Pascal Vranckx, Sergio Leonardi, Nestor Ciociano, Gianluca Campo, Ferdinando Varbella, Paolo Calabrò, Stefano Garducci, Alessandro Iannone, Carlo Briguori, Giuseppe Andò, Gabriele Crimi, Ugo Limbruno, Roberto Garbo, Paolo Sganzerla, Filippo Russo, Alessandro Lupi, Bernardo Cortese, Arturo Ausiello, Salvatore Ierna, Giovanni Esposito, Dennis Zavalloni, Andrea Santarelli, Gennaro Sardella, Simone Tresoldi, Nicoletta de Cesare, Alessandro Sciahbasi, Antonio Zingarelli, Paolo Tosi, Arnoud van 't Hof, Elmir Omerovic, Salvatore Brugaletta, Stephan Windecker, Marco Valgimigli
BACKGROUND: Contrasting evidence exists on the comparative efficacy and safety of bivalirudin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in relation to the planned use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs). OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin compared with UFH with or without GPIs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent invasive management. METHODS: In the MATRIX (Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by Transradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of AngioX) program, 7,213 patients were randomly assigned to receive either bivalirudin or UFH with or without GPIs at discretion of the operator...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Kednapa Thavorn, Howsikan Kugathasan, Darrell H S Tan, Nasheed Moqueet, Stefan D Baral, Becky Skidmore, Derek MacFadden, Anna Simkin, Sharmistha Mishra
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is an efficacious and effective intervention to decrease the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition. Yet drug and delivery costs prohibit access in many jurisdictions. In the absence of guidelines for the synthesis of economic evaluations, we developed a protocol for a systematic review of economic evaluation studies for PrEP by drawing on best practices in systematic reviews and the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
A Kane Dia, O Kalsom Guèye, E Amadou Niang, S Mocote Diédhiou, M Demba Sy, Abdoulaye Konaté, Badara Samb, Abdoulaye Diop, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Urban malaria is an increasing concern in most of the sub-Saharan Africa countries. In Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, the malaria epidemiology has been complicated by recurrent flooding since 2005. The main vector control measure for malaria prevention in Dakar is the community use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. However, the increase of insecticide resistance reported in this area needs to be better understood for suitable resistance management. This study reports the situation of insecticide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis populations from Dakar and its suburbs...
March 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
B P Abolins, R E Zillich, K B Whaley
The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Gonçalo Forjaz de Lacerda, Scott P Kelly, Joana Bastos, Clara Castro, Alexandra Mayer, Angela B Mariotto, William F Anderson
BACKGROUND: Female breast cancer incidence rates have been increasing in Portugal for years. We, therefore, conducted the first nationwide breast cancer study to assess regional differences. METHODS: Cases were obtained from population-based cancer registries covering the country's Mainland (South, North, Centre), as well as the two Autonomous Regions (Azores and Madeira), for the time-period 1998 through 2011. Analyses were restricted to ages 30-84 years and stratified by region...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
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