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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352796/miscibility-at-the-immiscible-liquid-liquid-interface-a-molecular-dynamics-study-of-thermodynamics-and-mechanism
#1
John J Karnes, Ilan Benjamin
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the dissolution of water into an adjacent, immiscible organic liquid phase. Equilibrium thermodynamic and structural properties are calculated during the transfer of water molecule(s) across the interface using umbrella sampling. The net free energy of transfer agrees reasonably well with experimental solubility values. We find that water molecules "prefer" to transfer into the adjacent phase one-at-a-time, without co-transfer of the hydration shell, as in the case of evaporation...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351795/malaria-knowledge-and-bed-net-use-in-three-transmission-settings-in-southern-africa
#2
Mufaro Kanyangarara, Harry Hamapumbu, Edmore Mamini, James Lupiya, Jennifer C Stevenson, Sungano Mharakurwa, Mike Chaponda, Philip E Thuma, Lovemore Gwanzura, Shungu Munyati, Modest Mulenga, Douglas E Norris, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in endemic areas. Despite increasing availability, the use of ITNs remains limited in some settings. Poor malaria knowledge is a barrier to the widespread use of ITNs. The goal of this study was to assess the levels of malaria knowledge and evaluate factors associated with bed net use among individuals residing in three regions of southern Africa with different levels of malaria transmission and control...
January 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351506/scaling-constraints-in-junior-tennis-the-influence-of-net-height-on-skilled-players-match-play-performance
#3
Vera Limpens, Tim Buszard, Emma Shoemaker, Geert J P Savelsbergh, Machar Reid
PURPOSE: The net height in tennis (0.91 m) is approximately 50% of a professional tennis player's height. Children are also expected to play with this net height, even though it is approximately 70% of the average 10-year-old's height. This study examined the immediate effect of lowering net height on the performance characteristics of skilled junior tennis players aged 10 years and younger. METHOD: Sixteen players were matched in 8 pairs of even tennis ability and same sex...
January 19, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351433/%C3%AE-nitrostyrene-derivatives-attenuate-lps-mediated-acute-lung-injury-via-the-inhibition-of-neutrophil-platelet-interactions-and-net-release
#4
Yao-Wen Chang, Ching-Ping Tseng, Chih-Hsun Lee, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yu-Li Chen, Mei-Tzu Su, Kowit-Yu Chong, Ying-Wei Lan, Chin-Chung Wu, Kung-Ju Chen, Fen-Hua Lu, Hsiang-Ruei Liao, Chuen Hsueh, Pei-Wen Hsieh
Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are high-mortality and life-threatening diseases that are associated with neutrophil activation and accumulation within lung tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that neutrophil-platelet aggregates (NPAs) at sites of injury increases acute inflammation and contributes to the development of ALI. Even though numerous studies have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of ALI, there is still a lack of innovative and useful treatments that reduce mortality, emphasizing that there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351281/automatic-labeling-of-molecular-biomarkers-of-immunohistochemistry-images-using-fully-convolutional-networks
#5
Fahime Sheikhzadeh, Rabab K Ward, Dirk van Niekerk, Martial Guillaud
This paper addresses the problem of quantifying biomarkers in multi-stained tissues based on the color and spatial information of microscopy images of the tissue. A deep learning-based method that can automatically localize and quantify the regions expressing biomarker(s) in any selected area on a whole slide image is proposed. The deep learning network, which we refer to as Whole Image (WI)-Net, is a fully convolutional network whose input is the true RGB color image of a tissue and output is a map showing the locations of each biomarker...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350834/proton-pump-inhibitors-elevate-infection-rate-in-cardiothoracic-surgery-patients-by-influencing-pmn-function-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Carolin Maria Haas, Martina Maywald, Andreas Goetzenich, Christian Stoppe, Lothar Rink
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) as pantoprazole are highly effective acid suppressive agents that belong to the world's most sold medication. However, they are pronounced to have immunosuppressive aspects. In our study, a negative influence of PPI on functions of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro like phagocytosis, oxidative burst, chemotaxis, and killing activity was shown, whereas formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET)osis remained unaffected. Pantoprazole stimulation additionally reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in whole blood assay as well as the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ after whole blood stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350380/patients-treated-with-bivalirudin-still-at-higher-risk-of-stent-thrombosis-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials-of-bivalirudin-and-heparin-for-percutaneous-coronary-interventions
#7
Stefan Grajek, Michał Michlak, Adrian Gwizdała, Aleksander Araszkiewicz, Marek Grygier, Jarosław Hiczkiewicz, Maciej Lesiak
BACKGROUND: Although the current practice guidelines recommend using both heparin and bivalirudin for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), the research data are ambiguous. AIM: To compare the impact of bivalirudin- and heparin on major clinical endpoints in PCI patients with particular emphasis on periprocedural stent thrombosis. METHODS: Total of 18 randomised clinical trials involving 41752 subjects were included. The endpoints comprised: net adverse clinical event (NACE: death, myocardial infarction [MI], unscheduled revascularisation, major bleeding [MB]), major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE: death, MI or stroke), acute/subacute stent thrombosis (ST)...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350076/health-care-public-sector-share-and-the-u-s-life-expectancy-lag-a-country-level-longitudinal-study
#8
Megan M Reynolds
Growing research on the political economy of health has begun to emphasize sociopolitical influences on cross-national differences in population health above and beyond economic growth. While this research investigates the impact of overall public health spending as a share of GDP ("health care effort"), it has for the most part overlooked the distribution of health care spending across the public and private spheres ("public sector share"). I evaluate the relative contributions of health care effort, public sector share, and GDP to the large and growing disadvantage in U...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349864/the-morphometric-co-atrophy-networking-of-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders
#9
Franco Cauda, Andrea Nani, Tommaso Costa, Sara Palermo, Karina Tatu, Jordi Manuello, Sergio Duca, Peter T Fox, Roberto Keller
By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co-alterations distribution from voxel-based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra-that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network-like patterns of co-alteration...
January 18, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349562/the-influence-of-elevated-hormone-levels-on-physiologic-accumulation-of-68ga-dotatoc
#10
Masao Watanabe, Yuji Nakamoto, Sho Koyasu, Takayoshi Ishimori, Akihiro Yasoda, Kaori Togashi
OBJECTIVE: PET/CT imaging with 68Ga-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide (DOTATOC) is useful in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Functioning NETs by definition secrete abnormal levels of hormones, causing clinical symptoms. It is known that physiologic accumulation can be seen in some organs, but it remains unknown whether elevated hormone levels can affect the physiologic accumulation pattern of 68Ga-DOTATOC. We aimed to investigate the influence of higher hormone levels on physiologic accumulation of 68Ga-DOTATOC...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349498/plasma-metabolites-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-swedish-population-a-case-control-study-nested-in-a-prospective-cohort
#11
Lin Shi, Carl Brunius, Marko Lehtonen, Seppo Auriola, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Olov Rolandsson, Kati Hanhineva, Rikard Landberg
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of the present work were to identify plasma metabolites that predict future type 2 diabetes, to investigate the changes in identified metabolites among individuals who later did or did not develop type 2 diabetes over time, and to assess the extent to which inclusion of predictive metabolites could improve risk prediction. METHODS: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort...
January 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349273/the-contribution-of-three-dimensions-of-allostatic-load-to-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-poor-fair-self-rated-health
#12
Alexis R Santos-Lozada, Jonathan Daw
Objective: This study evaluates whether different dimensions of physiological dysregulation, modeled individually rather than additively mediate racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported health. Methods: Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2010) and the Karlson, Hold, and Breen (KHB) mediation model, this paper explores what operationalization of biomarker data most strongly mediate racial/ethnic disparities in poor/fair self-rated health (SRH) among adults in the United States, net of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and medication controls...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349240/explaining-racial-ethnic-differences-in-all-cause-mortality-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa-substantive-complexity-and-hazardous-working-conditions-as-mediating-factors
#13
Kaori Fujishiro, Anjum Hajat, Paul A Landsbergis, John D Meyer, Pamela J Schreiner, Joel D Kaufman
Research on racial/ethnic health disparities and socioeconomic position has not fully considered occupation. However, because occupations are racially patterned, certain occupational characteristics may explain racial/ethnic difference in health. This study examines the role of occupational characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause mortality. Data are from a U.S. community-based cohort study (n=6342, median follow-up: 12.2 years), in which 893 deaths (14.1%) occurred. We estimated mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for African Americans, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans compared with whites...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349230/education-race-ethnicity-and-multimorbidity-among-adults-aged-30-64-in-the-national-health-interview-survey
#14
Vicki Johnson-Lawrence, Anna Zajacova, Rodlescia Sneed
Background: Demographic risk factors for multimorbidity have been identified in numerous population-based studies of older adults; however, there is less data on younger populations, despite the fact that approximately 24% of US adults age 18+ have multimorbidity. Understanding multimorbidity earlier in the life course is critical because of the increased likelihood of long-term disability and loss of productivity associated with chronic disease progression. Objective: To examine the associations of education and race/ethnicity with mutimorbidity among adults aged 30-64 using cross-sectional data from the 2002-2014 National Health Interview Surveys...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349208/in-sickness-and-in-health-the-role-of-marital-partners-in-cancer-survival
#15
Astri Syse, Torkild Hovde Lyngstad
Married cancer patients enjoy a survival advantage, potentially attributable to better health at diagnosis, earlier contact with health personnel, and/or access to resources to ensure more optimal treatment. These mechanisms only invoke the mere presence of a partner, but partners bring varying amounts of resources into the household. It is likely that also spousal resources contribute to differentials in survival net of own resources, as gradients in survival by the latter are well documented. Our aim is to examine the combined roles of own and spouses' socioeconomic characteristics (SES) and age for cancer survival...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349201/factors-affecting-the-physical-and-mental-health-of-older-adults-in-china-the-importance-of-marital-status-child-proximity-and-gender
#16
Lindy Williams, Renling Zhang, Kevin C Packard
Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348489/which-patients-are-not-included-in-the-english-cancer-waiting-times-monitoring-dataset-2009-2013-implications-for-use-of-the-data-in-research
#17
C Di Girolamo, S Walters, C Gildea, S Benitez Majano, M P Coleman, B Rachet, M Morris
BACKGROUND: Cancer waiting time targets are routinely monitored in England, but the Cancer Waiting Times monitoring dataset (CWT) does not include all eligible patients, introducing scope for bias. METHODS: Data from adults diagnosed in England (2009-2013) with colorectal, lung, or ovarian cancer were linked from CWT to cancer registry, mortality, and Hospital Episode Statistics data. We present demographic characteristics and net survival for patients who were and were not included in CWT...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348068/advantages-of-titanium-xerogel-over-titanium-tetrachloride-and-polytitanium-tetrachloride-in-coagulation-a-mechanism-analysis
#18
Xiaomeng Wang, Yonghai Gan, Shang Guo, Xueyan Ma, Mengshan Xu, Shujuan Zhang
Titanium xerogel coagulant (TXC) worked better than titanium tetrachloride (TC) and polytitanium chloride (PTC) in a wider pH/dose range for the removal of turbidity. However, the underlying mechanisms were not comprehensively understood. In this work, the better coagulation performance of TXC than TC and PTC was systematically elucidated from the following aspects: the physicochemical properties of the three coagulants, the removal of turbidity and organic matter, and the complexation reactions in coagulation...
January 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347953/effect-of-individual-and-community-level-bed-net-usage-on-malaria-prevalence-among-under-fives-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#19
Lauren Levitz, Mark Janko, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Kyaw L Thwai, Joris L Likwela, Antoinette K Tshefu, Michael Emch, Steven R Meshnick
BACKGROUND: Understanding the contribution of community-level long-lasting, insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage to malaria control is critical to planning and assessing intervention campaigns. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which has one of the highest burdens of malaria cases and deaths and has dramatically scaled up LLIN ownership in recent years thus it is an ideal setting to evaluate the effect of individual versus community-level use to prevent malaria among children under the age of 5...
January 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347942/infant-and-child-mortality-in-relation-to-malaria-transmission-in-kemri-cdc-hdss-western-kenya-validation-of-verbal-autopsy
#20
Nyaguara O Amek, Annemieke Van Eijk, Kim A Lindblade, Mary Hamel, Nabie Bayoh, John Gimnig, Kayla F Laserson, Laurence Slutsker, Thomas Smith, Penelope Vounatsou
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission reduction is a goal of many malaria control programmes. Little is known of how much mortality can be reduced by specific reductions in transmission. Verbal autopsy (VA) is widely used for estimating malaria specific mortality rates, but does not reliably distinguish malaria from other febrile illnesses. Overall malaria attributable mortality includes both direct and indirect deaths. It is unclear what proportion of the deaths averted by reducing malaria transmission are classified as malaria in VA...
January 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
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