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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107484/resveratrol-co-treatment-attenuates-the-effects-of-hiv-protease-inhibitors-on-rat-body-weight-and-enhances-cardiac-mitochondrial-respiration
#1
Burger Symington, Rudo F Mapanga, Gavin R Norton, M Faadiel Essop
Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV), aspirin (ASP) or vitamin C (VitC) co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107445/beta-glucans-supplementation-associates-with-reduction-in-p-cresyl-sulfate-levels-and-improved-endothelial-vascular-reactivity-in-healthy-individuals
#2
Carmela Cosola, Maria De Angelis, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Eustacchio Montemurno, Valentina Maranzano, Giuseppe Dalfino, Carlo Manno, Annapaola Zito, Michele Gesualdo, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Marco Gobbetti, Loreto Gesualdo
BACKGROUND: Oat and barley beta-glucans are prebiotic fibers known for their cholesterol-lowering activity, but their action on the human gut microbiota metabolism is still under research. Although the induction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) following their ingestion has previously been reported, no study has investigated their effects on proteolytic uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels, while others have failed to demonstrate an effect on the endothelial function measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107429/deficient-cholesterol-esterification-in-plasma-of-apoc2-knockout-zebrafish-and-familial-chylomicronemia-patients
#3
Chao Liu, Daniel Gaudet, Yury I Miller
Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107247/plaque-burden-microstructures-and-compositions-underachieving-very-low-ldl-c-levels
#4
Yu Kataoka, Jordan Andrews, Rishi Puri, Peter J Psaltis, Stephen J Nicholls
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the impact of lowering LDL-C on plaque progression, microstructures and compositions. RECENT FINDINGS: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major therapeutic target to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Intravascular imaging has elucidated antiatherosclerotic effects of lowering LDL-C in vivo. Intensive control of LDL-C with a statin has been shown to slow plaque progression and induce its regression if very low LDL-C level is achieved...
January 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107066/hematologic-plasma-biochemical-and-lipid-panel-reference-intervals-in-orange-winged-amazon-parrots-amazona-amazonica
#5
Claire Vergneau-Grosset, Tamsen Polley, Danielle Carrade Holt, William Vernau, Joanne Paul-Murphy
To establish reference intervals in orange-winged Amazon parrots ( Amazona amazonica ) for the complete blood count, plasma biochemical values, and lipid panel and to evaluate age- and sex-related variations, blood samples were obtained from 29 healthy juvenile and adult parrots. Concentrations of total protein, bile acids, phosphorus, total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in adult compared with juvenile birds, while uric acid concentration was significantly higher in juveniles...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105697/association-of-hematocrit-with-blood-pressure-and-hypertension
#6
Marzieh Emamian, Seyed Mahdi Hasanian, Maryam Tayefi, Moniba Bijari, Faeze Movahedian Far, Mojtaba Shafiee, Amir Avan, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mohsen Moohebati, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Sousan Darroudi, Parvin Zamani, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Mohsen Nematy, Mohammad Safarian, Gordon A Ferns, Habibollah Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) is a risk factor for stroke, renal failure, and cardiovascular disease. The association between biochemical and hematological parameters with high blood pressure may provide a more precise approach to risk prediction conferred by HTN in these patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of current study was to explore whether biochemical and hematological parameters are associated with HTN in a cohort study with a 7-year follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 9808 individuals were enrolled and recruited as part of the Mashhad Stroke and Heart Atherosclerotic Disorders (MASHAD) cohort study, and biochemical and hematological factors were measured in all subjects...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105118/effects-of-oral-intake-of-heat-killed-lactobacillus-brevis-sbc8803-sbl88%C3%A2-on-dry-skin-conditions-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#7
Masahiro Ogawa, Asako Saiki, Yuuta Matsui, Norihiko Tsuchimoto, Yasukazu Nakakita, Yoshihiro Takata, Takeshi Nakamura
Lactobacilli are important in intestinal homeostasis, which involves the regulation of immune function, digestive health, cholesterol absorption and intestinal tumor growth amongst others. Our previous investigations have suggested that oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) SBC8803 (SBL88™) suppresses dermatitis by modulating the immune function in an atopic dermatitis mouse model. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 intake on skin hydration conditions in humans...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105085/effects-of-shen-an-granules-on-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-mouse-models-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#8
Xin-Rong Zou, Xiao-Qin Wang, Ying-Lin Hu, Hui-Lan Zhou
The effect of Shen'an granules on the Wnt signaling pathway in renal tissues of mouse models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy was investigated in the present study. A total of 62 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the normal control (A group), model (B group), losartan (C group), low-dose Shen'an granules (D group), and high-dose Shen'an granules (E group) groups. The mouse model of diabetic nephropathy was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (150 mg/kg). The animals were treated with drugs for 8 weeks, and blood creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (CHOL) were measured prior to and after treatment...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104770/decline-in-cardiovascular-mortality-possible-causes-and-implications
#9
REVIEW
George A Mensah, Gina S Wei, Paul D Sorlie, Lawrence J Fine, Yves Rosenberg, Peter G Kaufmann, Michael E Mussolino, Lucy L Hsu, Ebyan Addou, Michael M Engelgau, David Gordon
If the control of infectious diseases was the public health success story of the first half of the 20th century, then the decline in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke has been the success story of the century's past 4 decades. The early phase of this decline in coronary heart disease and stroke was unexpected and controversial when first reported in the mid-1970s, having followed 60 years of gradual increase as the US population aged. However, in 1978, the participants in a conference convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute concluded that a significant recent downtick in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality rates had definitely occurred, at least in the US Since 1978, a sharp decline in mortality rates from coronary heart disease and stroke has become unmistakable throughout the industrialized world, with age-adjusted mortality rates having declined to about one third of their 1960s baseline by 2000...
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104241/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-profiles-of-offspring-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-technologies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Xiao-Yan Guo, Xin-Mei Liu, Li Jin, Ting-Ting Wang, Kamran Ullah, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiovascular and metabolic features of offspring conceived by in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI). DESIGN: Literature review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Offspring from IVF-ICSI versus natural conception. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cardiovascular function, body mass index (BMI), and lipid and glucose profiles...
January 16, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102848/statins-in-anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-rac-and-rho-and-the-heartbreakers
#11
REVIEW
Christian Henninger, Gerhard Fritz
Cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy are at risk to develop life-threatening chronic cardiotoxicity with the pathophysiological mechanism of action not fully understood. Besides the most common hypothesis that anthracycline-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) is mainly caused by generation of reactive oxygen species, recent data point to a critical role of topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B), which is a primary target of anthracycline poisoning, in the pathophysiology of CHF. As the use of the only clinically approved cardioprotectant dexrazoxane has been limited by the FDA in 2011, there is an urgent need for alternative cardioprotective measures...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102743/expression-and-alteration-of-bkca-channels-in-the-sphincter-of-oddi-s-from-rabbits-with-hypercholesterolemia
#12
Dan Feng, Haiyan Nan, Wen Wang, Linfeng Yan, Pang Du, Lin Zuo, Kun Zhang, Minggao Zhao, Guangbin Cui
This study aimed to investigate the expression and function of BKCa channels in the Sphincter of Oddi (SO) in a rabbit model of hypercholesterolemia (HC). New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the control group was fed standard chow (n = 18) whereas the high-cholesterol group was fed cholesterol-enriched chow containing 1.5% cholesterol (n = 18). The serum cholesterol level was significantly greater in the HC groups than in the control group, but there was no significant difference in body weight between the control and HC groups...
January 19, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102587/dietary-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-reduces-atherosclerosis-and-modifies-gut-flora-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#13
Toshihiro Sakurai, Akiko Sakurai, Ye Chen, Boris L Vaisman, Marcelo J Amar, Milton Pryor, Seth G Thacker, Xue Zhang, Xujing Wang, Yubo Zhang, Jun Zhu, Zhi-Hong Yang, Lita A Freeman, Alan T Remaley
SCOPE: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD), a cyclic polymer of glucose, has been shown to lower plasma cholesterol in animals and humans; however, its effect on atherosclerosis has not been previously described. METHODS AND RESULTS: apoE-knockout mice were fed either low-fat diet (LFD; 5.2% fat, w/w), or Western high fat diet (21.2% fat) containing either no additions (WD), 1.5% α-CD (WDA); 1.5% β-CD (WDB); or 1.5% oligofructose-enriched inulin (WDI). Although plasma lipids were similar after 11 weeks on the WD vs...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102516/production-of-lovastatin-and-itaconic-acid-by-aspergillus-terreus-a-comparative-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Tomasz Boruta, Marcin Bizukojc
Aspergillus terreus is a textbook example of an industrially relevant filamentous fungus. It is used for the biotechnological production of two valuable metabolites, namely itaconic acid and lovastatin. Itaconic acid serves as a precursor in polymer industry, whereas lovastatin found its place in the pharmaceutical market as a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and a precursor for semisynthetic statins. Interestingly, their biosynthetic gene clusters were shown to reside in the common genetic neighborhood. Despite the genomic proximity of the underlying biosynthetic genes, the production of lovastatin and itaconic acid was shown to be favored by different factors, especially with respect to pH values of the broth...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102495/pregnancy-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-nutritional-and-biochemical-aspects
#15
Jessica Cristina Gimenes, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Bruno Affonso Parenti de Oliveira, Wilson Salgado Júnior, Júlio Sérgio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
INTRODUCTION: Although pregnancy after bariatric surgery is related to risk reduction, nutritional complications may occur. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and biochemical indicators of women who became pregnant after Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with women who became pregnant after RYGB. We evaluated anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary intake indicators in the preoperative period and before, during, and after pregnancy by analysis of medical records...
January 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101339/pre-treatment-with-simvastatin-prevents-the-induction-of-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-in-a-rabbit-model
#16
Nikolaos Oikonomidis, Nikolaos Kavantzas, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Evangelos Misiakos, Ioannis Rizos, Christos Verikokos, Despina N Perrea
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antiatherosclerotic activities of simvastatin in rabbits. Twenty-two, male, New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups: Control group (group C); cholesterol group (group A), in which the rabbits were fed a commercial rabbit chow supplemented with 0.5% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks and then fed with normal chow for an additional 8 weeks; and a treatment group (group B), in which the rabbits initially received standard commercial rabbit chow along with being administered simvastatin for 8 weeks, following which they consumed a high-cholesterol diet for a further 8 weeks...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100921/clinical-significance-of-cardiometabolic-memory-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Itoh, Isao Kurihara, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masami Tanaka
'Cardiometabolic memory' has been proposed based on clinical evidence to explain how, even after the cessation of a clinical trial, the superiority of one treatment over the outcome persists. To understand the cardiometabolic memory phenomenon, we performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using PubMed in August 2016. The search terms 'randomized controlled trial', 'post-trial follow-up' and 'diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidemia' were used, and articles published after the year 2000 were searched...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099127/prevalence-risk-factors-and-consequences-of-overweight-and-obesity-among-schoolchildren-a-cross-sectional-study-in-kashmir-india
#18
Mohd Ashraf Ganie, Gulzar Ahmad Bhat, Ishfaq Ahmad Wani, Aafia Rashid, Showkat Ali Zargar, Bashir Ahmad Charoo, Zaffar Amin Shah, Syed Mudassar
BACKGROUND: Obesity among children and adolescents is a growing public health problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and metabolic consequences of obesity among schoolchildren from Kashmir, India. METHODS: The study subjects (n=2024) included 870 boys and 1154 girls, aged between 6 and 18 years. Data were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Information was obtained about different lifestyles, anthropometric parameters and dietary habits...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098517/antiobesity-effects-of-sansa-crataegi-fructus-on-3t3-l1-cells-and-on-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-obese-rats
#19
Jae-Joon Lee, Hyun-Joo Lee, Seon-Woo Oh
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Crataegi fructus ethanol extracts (CFEEs) on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, and to evaluate the effects of C. fructus powder (CFP) on lipid metabolism and its antiobesity effect in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed for physiological activity and antiobesity effects on the serum, liver, and adipose tissues in obesity-induced rats. CFEEs showed significant inhibitory action on differentiation and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 mature cells in a dose-dependent manner...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098515/a-randomized-open-label-trial-to-assess-the-effect-of-plant-sterols-associated-with-ezetimibe-in-low-density-lipoprotein-levels-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-on-statin-therapy
#20
Gisane Biacchi Gomes, Ana Denise Zazula, Leonardo Seidi Shigueoka, Rosangela Alquieri Fedato, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso da Costa, Luiz Cesar Guarita-Souza, Cristina Pellegrino Baena, Marcia Olandoski, José Rocha Faria-Neto
Consumption of food products enriched with plant sterols and the use of ezetimibe reduce cholesterol absorption in the intestine and effectively reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plasma levels. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of the ezetimibe+plant sterol association in patients with coronary artery disease still not reaching recommended lipid levels despite the use of statins. We performed a prospective open-label study with 41 patients with stable coronary disease and LDL >70 mg/dL. Patients were randomized into four groups for a 6-week treatment: the control (CT) group remained on the same statin therapy, the ezetimibe (EZ) group received 10 mg/day of ezetimibe, the plant sterol (PS) group received spread enriched with 2 g of plant sterols, and the ezetimibe+PS (EZ+PS) group received 10 mg/day EZ +2 g PS...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
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