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Cholesterol lowering

Shigemasa Tani, Ken Nagao, Tsukasa Yagi, Wataru Atsumi, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the additional administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving statin has the potential to lower the serum pentraxin 3 (PTX3) level, an indicator of plaque stabilization. METHODS: We randomly assigned CAD patients already receiving statin therapy to an EPA group (1800 mg/day, n = 53) or control group (n = 53). RESULTS: No significant difference was found in the change in the plasma PTX3 level between the groups...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Diana Golden, Antonina Kolmakova, Sunitha Sura, Anthony T Vella, Ani Manichaikul, Xin-Qun Wang, Suzette J Bielinski, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Stephen S Rich, Annabelle Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: The lipoprotein scavenger receptor BI (SCARB1) rs10846744 noncoding variant is significantly associated with atherosclerotic disease independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We identified a potentially novel connection between rs10846744, the immune checkpoint inhibitor lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3), and atherosclerosis. METHODS: In vitro approaches included flow cytometry, lipid raft isolation, phosphosignaling, cytokine measurements, and overexpressing and silencing LAG3 protein...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
N K Nayak, V Pathak
The present study was conducted to develop and assess the quality of carrageenan incorporated chevon patties with the objective of reducing fat content. Efficacy of carrageenan as fat replacers (0.3, 0.6 & 0.9 %) was assessed for development of low fat chevon patties. Emulsion stability and cooking yield increased with the increase in levels of carrageenan. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower fat and cholesterol contents and higher moisture and fat retention were observed in formulation with carrageenan. No significant difference in the mineral content in either of the treatment was recorded...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Samantha G Bromfield, Daichi Shimbo, John N Booth, Adolfo Correa, Gbenga Ogedegbe, April P Carson, Paul Muntner
Masked hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Identifying modifiable risk factors for masked hypertension could provide approaches to reduce its prevalence. Life's Simple 7 is a measure of cardiovascular health developed by the American Heart Association that includes body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, and glucose. We examined the association between cardiovascular health and masked daytime hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black cohort...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Kausik K Ray, Henry N Ginsberg, Michael H Davidson, Robert Pordy, Laurence Bessac, Pascal Minini, Robert H Eckel, Christopher P Cannon
BACKGROUND: -A continuous relationship between reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) has been observed in statin and ezetimibe outcomes trials, down to achieved levels of 54 mg/dL. However, it is uncertain whether this relationship extends to LDL-C levels <50 mg/dL. We assessed the relationship between additional LDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) reductions and MACE among patients within the ODYSSEY trials that compared alirocumab versus controls (placebo/ezetimibe), mainly as add on to maximally tolerated statin...
October 24, 2016: Circulation
Estefanía Moreno-Gordaliza, Sven J van der Lee, Ayşe Demirkan, Cornelia M van Duijn, Johan Kuiper, Petrus W Lindenburg, Thomas Hankemeier
A new capillary isotachophoresis (cITP) method for lipoprotein profiling with superior lipoprotein coverage compared to previous methods has been developed, resolving twice as many lipoprotein species (18 peaks/fractions) in serum or plasma in less than 9.5 min. For this, a novel mixture of 24 spacers, including amino acids, dipeptides and sulfonic acids, was developed and fine-tuned, using predictive software (PeakMaster) and testing of spiked serum samples. Lipoprotein peaks were identified by serum-spiking with reference lipoproteins...
November 9, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
L-Z Qin, W Li, Y Huang, F Lu, S-J Li, H-Q Yang, J-W Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the expression of pentraxin3 (PTX3) in elderly patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI) and to analyze the relationship of PTX3 with the severity and prognosis of ACI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 2014 and August 2015, 96 elderly patients with first-onset of ACI admitted to our institution were enrolled in the present study. Also, 70 healthy elderly subjects were included as controls in this study. Levels of PTX3, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, homocysteine (Hcy), fibrinogen (FIB), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined in all patients both pre-therapeutically and 30 days post-therapeutically...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Alejandro Parrales, Atul Ranjan, Swathi V Iyer, Subhash Padhye, Scott J Weir, Anuradha Roy, Tomoo Iwakuma
Stabilization of mutant p53 (mutp53) in tumours greatly contributes to malignant progression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic approaches to destabilize mutp53. Here, through high-throughput screening we identify statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, as degradation inducers for conformational or misfolded p53 mutants with minimal effects on wild-type p53 (wtp53) and DNA contact mutants. Statins preferentially suppress mutp53-expressing cancer cell growth. Specific reduction of mevalonate-5-phosphate by statins or mevalonate kinase knockdown induces CHIP ubiquitin ligase-mediated nuclear export, ubiquitylation, and degradation of mutp53 by impairing interaction of mutp53 with DNAJA1, a Hsp40 family member...
October 24, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Ye Chang, Yuan Li, Xiaofan Guo, Dongxue Dai, Yingxian Sun
In 2010, the American Heart Association has proposed a new concept "ideal cardiovascular health" (CVH) based on seven CVH metrics: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. We aimed to determine the association of CVH with atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), a strong marker for atherosclerosis (AS). This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China and 11,113 middle-aged subjects were enrolled. Seven CVH metrics were classified into ideal, intermediate, and poor groups...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
R Rehakova, J Klimentova, M Cebova, A Barta, Z Matuskova, P Labas, O Pechanova
Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) has a lower concentration of deuterium than occurs naturally (less than 145 ppm). While effects of DDW on cancer started to be intensively studied, the effects on cardiovascular system are completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to analyze the effects of DDW (55+/-5 ppm) administration to 12-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with 15 % fructose for 6 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) and selected biochemical parameters were measured together with determination of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and iNOS and eNOS protein expressions in the left ventricle (LV) and aorta...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Richard A Anderson, Zhiwei Zhan, Rencai Luo, Xiuhua Guo, Qingqing Guo, Jin Zhou, Jiang Kong, Paul A Davis, Barbara J Stoecker
Cinnamon ( ròu guì) has in vitro insulin potentiating activity, and proanthocyanidins from cinnamon prevent in vitro formation of advanced glycation end products. Some human studies were equivocal, but several have shown beneficial effects of cinnamon supplementation on circulating glucose, lipids, and/or insulin. This placebo-controlled double-blind trial tested the effects of a dried water extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) on circulating glucose, lipids, insulin, and insulin resistance. Men and women from Beijing and Dalian, China, were invited to participate if they had fasting serum glucose >6...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Joerg C Schefold, Mitja Lainscak, Lea Majc Hodoscek, Stefan Blöchlinger, Wolfram Doehner, Stephan von Haehling
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a leading cause of death in critically ill patients and is often accompanied by significant renal dysfunction. Few data exist on the predictive value of measures of renal dysfunction in large cohorts of patients hospitalized for AHF. METHODS: Six hundred and eighteen patients hospitalized for AHF (300 male, aged 73.3 ± 10.3 years, 73% New York Heart Association Class 4, mean hospital length of stay 12.9 ± 7.7 days, 97% non-ischaemic AHF) were included in a retrospective single-centre data analysis...
December 2015: ESC Heart Failure
Nicholas J Woudberg, Julia H Goedecke, Sandrine Lecour
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Kathleen A Griffith, Seon-Yoon Chung, Shijun Zhu, Alice S Ryan
OBJECTIVE: After chemotherapy for breast cancer, Black women gain more weight and have an increased mortality rate compared with White women. Our study objective was to compare biomarkers associated with obesity in Black women with and without a history of breast cancer. DESIGN: Case-control. SETTING: Academic/federal institution. PARTICIPANTS: Black women with a history of breast cancer (cases) and age-matched controls...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Oksana N Khokhlova, Elena A Tukhovskaya, Irina N Kravchenko, Elena S Sadovnikova, Irina A Pakhomova, Elena A Kalabina, Alexander V Lobanov, Elvira R Shaykhutdinova, Alina M Ismailova, Arkady N Murashev
INTRODUCTION: It is important that the method of anesthesia of mice does not considerably alter the animal's physiological and metabolic status before terminal blood sampling taken in order to analyze clinical pathology parameters. METHODS: Hematology, hemostasis, and clinical chemistry parameters were compared in male and female BALB/c mice exposed to either tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine (TZX) anesthesia or euthanasia in carbon dioxide (CO2) chamber to reveal an alternative method of anesthesia vs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Maria Cappello, Anna Licata, Vincenza Calvaruso, Ivana Bravatà, Alessandra Aiello, Daniele Torres, Vittoriano Della Corte, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Maria Perticone, Giuseppe Licata, Antonio Craxì, Calogero Cammà
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies documented an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries and the arterial stiffness indices as markers of early atherosclerosis in young IBD patients. METHODS: We recruited 68 consecutive IBD patients, and 38 matched healthy controls less than 45years old (median age 31.6±8.1years). Clinical and demographic features, cardiovascular risk factors, history of cardiovascular events, concomitant therapies were registered on a dedicate database...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Salgaonkar V Jaywant, A K Singh, Mundkur S Prabhu, R Ranjan
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of statin therapy/lipid lowering therapy (LLT) on lipid profile, in adults presenting with first acute coronary event. METHODS AND MATERIAL: A multicentre, observational, prospective cohort study of lipid profiles pre- and post-statin therapy/LLT, among adult patients with confirmed diagnosis of first acute coronary event. The primary outcome measures were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in mg/dl and triglycerides (TG) in mg/dl at baseline and end of study (EOS, 12 weeks [mean: 13...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Konstantinos Tziomalos, Vasilios Giampatzis, Stella D Bouziana, Marianna Spanou, Stavroula Kostaki, Maria Papadopoulou, Stella-Maria Angelopoulou, Maria Tsopozidi, Christos Savopoulos, Apostolos I Hatzitolios
Although dyslipidemia increases the risk for ischemic stroke, previous studies reported conflicting data regarding the association between lipid levels and stroke severity and outcome. To evaluate the predictive value of major lipids in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We prospectively studied 790 consecutive patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke (41.0 % males, age 79.4 ± 6.8 years). The severity of stroke was assessed at admission with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)...
October 23, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Phakhamon Lapphanichayakool, Manote Sutheerawattananonda, Nanteetip Limpeanchob
The beneficial effect of cholesterol-lowering proteins and/or peptides derived from various dietary sources is continuously reported. A non-dietary protein from silk cocoon, sericin, has also demonstrated cholesterol-lowering activity. A sericin hydrolysate prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis was also expected to posses this effect. The present study was aimed at investigating the cholesterol-lowering effect of sericin peptides, so called "sericin-derived oligopeptides" (SDO) both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that SDO at all three doses tested (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) suppressed serum total and non-HDL cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Adela Brahimaj, Taulant Muka, Maryam Kavousi, Joop S E Laven, Abbas Dehghan, Oscar H Franco
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Previous literature documents controversial results for the impact of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess the associations between serum levels of DHEA and its main derivatives DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, as well as the ratio of DHEAS to DHEA, and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data on serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS and androstenedione from 5189 middle-aged and elderly men and women from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study...
October 22, 2016: Diabetologia
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