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Impaired glucose tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103405/altered-walking-strategy-and-increased-unsteadiness-in-participants-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-type-2-diabetes-relates-to-small-fibre-neuropathy-but-not-vitamin-d-deficiency
#1
M M Almurdhi, S J Brown, F L Bowling, A J M Boulton, Maria Jeziorska, Rayaz A Malik, Neil D Reeves
AIMS: To investigate alterations in walking strategy and dynamic sway (unsteadiness) in people with impaired glucose tolerance and people with Type 2 diabetes in relation to severity of neuropathy and vitamin D levels. METHODS: A total of 20 people with Type 2 diabetes, 20 people with impaired glucose tolerance and 20 people without either Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (control group) underwent gait analysis using a motion analysis system and force platforms, and detailed assessment of neuropathy and serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D levels...
January 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102311/plin2-is-a-key-regulator-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-resolution-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#2
Elaine Chen, Tsung Huang Tsai, Lan Li, Pradip Saha, Lawrence Chan, Benny Hung-Junn Chang
Progressive pancreatic β cell failure underlies the transition of impaired glucose tolerance to overt diabetes; endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress expedites β cell failure in this situation. ER stress can be elicited by lipotoxicity and an increased demand for insulin in diabetes. We previously reported that the lipid droplet protein perilipin 2 (PLIN2) modulates lipid homeostasis in the liver. Here, we show that PLIN2 modulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER stress in pancreatic β cells. PLIN2 expression goes up when β cells are exposed to a lipid load or to chemical ER stress inducers...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101345/%C3%AE-cell-function-prior-to-liver-transplantation-contributes-to-post-operative-diabetes
#3
Tatsuki Ichikawa, Naota Taura, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Satoshi Miuma, Hidetaka Shibata, Takuya Honda, Masaaki Hidaka, Akihiko Soyama, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Susumu Eguchi, Kazuhiko Nakao
Liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus (DM) are closely associated. The present study aimed to determine whether liver transplantation (LT) may prevent/cure DM in patients with cirrhosis and whether the degree of glucose tolerance prior to transplantation is associated with the onset of DM after transplantation. Seventy-three patients who received a living donor LT at Nagasaki University Hospital (Nagasaki, Japan) between November 2005 and December 2012 were recruited. Among them, patients were considered diabetic if they had been prescribed diabetes medications or had impaired glucose tolerance, as evidenced by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099843/human-carboxylesterase-2-reverses-obesity-induced-diacylglycerol-accumulation-and-glucose-intolerance
#4
Maxwell A Ruby, Julie Massart, Devon M Hunerdosse, Milena Schönke, Jorge C Correia, Sharon M Louie, Jorge L Ruas, Erik Näslund, Daniel K Nomura, Juleen R Zierath
Serine hydrolases are a large family of multifunctional enzymes known to influence obesity. Here, we performed activity-based protein profiling to assess the functional level of serine hydrolases in liver biopsies from lean and obese humans in order to gain mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. We identified reduced hepatic activity of carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) in human obesity. In primary human hepatocytes, CES2 knockdown impaired glucose storage and lipid oxidation...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097367/impaired-glucose-homeostasis-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Toby Pillinger, Katherine Beck, Cristian Gobjila, Jacek G Donocik, Sameer Jauhar, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether schizophrenia confers an inherent risk for glucose dysregulation in the absence of the effects of chronic illness and long-term treatment. Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis examining whether individuals with first-episode schizophrenia already exhibit alterations in glucose homeostasis compared with controls. Data Sources: The EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases were systematically searched for studies examining measures of glucose homeostasis in antipsychotic-naive individuals with first-episode schizophrenia compared with individuals serving as controls...
January 11, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096436/angiotensin-ii-induces-differential-insulin-action-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#6
Juthamard Surapongchai, Mujalin Prasannarong, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
Angiotensin II (ANGII) is reportedly involved in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of two ANGII doses on the phenotypic characteristics of insulin resistance syndrome and insulin action and signaling in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline (SHAM) or ANGII at a commonly used pressor dose (100 ng/kg/min; ANGII-100) or a higher pressor dose (500 ng/kg/min; ANGII-500) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days. We demonstrated that ANGII-100-infused rats exhibited the phenotypic features of non-obese insulin resistance syndrome, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of glucose uptake in the soleus muscle, whereas ANGII-500-treated rats exhibited diabetes-like symptoms, such as post-prandial hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion and hypertriglyceridemia...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096258/regulation-of-glucose-uptake-and-enteroendocrine-function-by-the-intestinal-epithelial-insulin-receptor
#7
Siegfried Ussar, Max-Felix Haering, Shiho Fujisaka, Dominik Lutter, Kevin Y Lee, Ning Li, Georg K Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R) are major regulators of metabolism and cell growth throughout the body, however, their roles in the intestine remain controversial. Here we show that genetic ablation of the IR or IGF1R in intestinal epithelial cells of mice does not impair intestinal growth or development or the composition of the gut microbiome. However, loss of IR alters intestinal epithelial gene expression, especially in pathways related to glucose uptake and metabolism. More importantly, loss of IR reduces intestinal glucose uptake...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093841/effect-of-valsartan-on-kidney-outcomes-in-people-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#8
Gemma Currie, M Angelyn Bethel, Björn Holzhauer, Steven M Haffner, Rury R Holman, John J V McMurray
AIMS: Renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the incidence and progression of microalbuminuria and the subsequent development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the effect of valsartan on kidney outcomes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: In a double-blind randomized trial, 9306 patients with IGT were assigned to valsartan (160 mg daily) or placebo. The co-primary endpoints were the development of diabetes and two composite cardiovascular outcomes...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093504/a-model-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-guinea-pig-using-sequential-diet-induced-glucose-intolerance-and-streptozotocin-treatment
#9
Brendan K Podell, David F Ackart, Michael A Richardson, James E DiLisio, Bruce Pulford, Randall J Basaraba
Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among non-communicable diseases and additional animal models that more closely replicate the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes in guinea pigs in which diet-induced glucose intolerance precedes β cell cytotoxicity, two processes that are critical to the development of human type 2 diabetes. Guinea pigs developed impaired glucose tolerance after eight weeks of feeding a high fat, high carbohydrate diet, as determined by oral glucose challenge...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092345/acute-effects-of-a-beverage-containing-bitter-melon-extract-carela-on-postprandial-glycemia-among-prediabetic-adults
#10
C H Boone, J R Stout, J A Gordon, M J Redd, D D Church, L P Oliveira, D H Fukuda, J R Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Acute ingestion of bitter melon (BM) has been shown to suppress the postprandial glycemic response in diabetics, but its impact on glucose regulation among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance is unclear. Moreover, one's glucose tolerance level may influence the effectiveness of BM. This study aimed to examine the acute effects of a beverage containing BM extract on blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) among prediabetics. METHODS: Ten prediabetic adults completed two OGTTs-glucose only (D2) and glucose+BM (D3)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087508/international-variation-in-outcomes-among-people-with-cardiovascular-disease-or-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-insights-from-the-navigator-trial
#11
Marilia Harumi Higuchi Dos Santos, Abhinav Sharma, Jie-Lena Sun, Karen Pieper, John J V McMurray, Rury R Holman, Renato D Lopes
BACKGROUND: Regional differences in risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular outcomes in people with impaired glucose tolerance are poorly characterized. Our objective was to evaluate regional variation in risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular outcomes, and treatment effects in participants from the NAVIGATOR (Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: NAVIGATOR randomized people with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk factors or with established cardiovascular disease to valsartan (or placebo) and to nateglinide (or placebo) with a median 5-year follow-up...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076317/high-predictability-of-impaired-glucose-tolerance-by-combining-cardiometabolic-screening-parameters-in-obese-children
#12
Cornelis Jan de Groot, Jeroen van der Grond, Yosine Delgado, Edmond H H M Rings, Sabine E Hannema, Erica L T van den Akker
BACKGROUND: There is debate on which overweight and obese children should be screened for the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). The objective of the study was to identify risk factors predictive of the presence of IGT. METHODS: In a cohort of overweight children, who underwent OGTT, we determined the association of anthropometric and laboratory parameters with IGT and whether combining parameters improved the sensitivity of screening for IGT...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073779/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-promotes-lipid-deposition-in-subcutaneous-adipocytes-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-maladaptive-response
#13
Sravan K Thondam, Christina Daousi, John P H Wilding, Jens J Holst, Gulizar I Ameen, Chenjing Yang, Catherine Whitmore, Silvia Mora, Daniel J Cuthbertson
: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) beyond its insulinotropic effects may regulate post-prandial lipid metabolism. While the insulinotropic action of GIP is known to be impaired in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), its adipogenic effect is unknown. We hypothesised GIP is anabolic in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) promoting triacylglycerol (TAG) deposition through re-esterification of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and this effect may differ according to obesity status or glucose tolerance...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073129/alternative-treatment-strategies-in-women-poorly-tolerating-moderate-doses-of-bromocriptine
#14
Robert Krysiak, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
Background: Metformin as well as dopaminergic agents exert a beneficial effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, often impaired in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare metabolic- and prolactin-lowering effects of low-dose bromocriptine/metformin combination therapy and cabergoline in patients with elevated prolactin levels. Methods: The study included 27 women with hyperprolactinemia and impaired glucose tolerance who were treated with moderate doses of bromocriptine but experienced adverse effects of this treatment...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073124/the-effects-of-blood-glucose-regulation-in-omentin-1-levels-among-diabetic-patients
#15
Yucel Arman, Kerem Kirna, Bilal Ugurlukisi, Orkide Kutlu, Okan Dikker, Eylem Ozgun Cil, Murat Akarsu, Mustafa Ozcan, Gulden Yuruyen, Pinar Demir, Ozgur Altun, Ekmel Burak Ozsenel, Mustafa Genco Erdem, Riza Sandikci, Tufan Tukek
Objectives: Omentin-1, an adipocytokine that increases the insulin sensitivity, has been determined to be reduced in patients with insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and Type-2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we have investigated the alterations in Omentin-1 levels with the blood glucose regulation in diabetic patients having poor glycemic control. By this way, we aimed to determine the role of Omentin-1 as a marker in follow-up and monitoring progression of diabetes. Methods: Totally 58 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, older than 18 years of age who were having poor glycemic control (HbA1c≥9) were included in this study...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072825/dietary-chromium-restriction-of-pregnant-mice-changes-the-methylation-status-of-hepatic-genes-involved-with-insulin-signaling-in-adult-male-offspring
#16
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071990/natural-course-of-euthyroidism-and-clues-for-early-diagnosis-of-thyroid-dysfunctions-tehran-thyroid-study-tts
#17
Atieh Amouzegar, Zahra Ghaemmaghami, Maani Beygi, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Ladan Mehran, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVE: Considering the limited data available on the natural course of euthyroidism, this study was designed to evaluate the progression in time from euthyroidism to subclinical or overt hypo - or hyperthyroidism. METHODS: This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Thyroid cohort study (TTS), in which 5783 individuals aged 40.4 ± 0.2 years were followed for 6 years. The overall loss to follow-up rate was 8.3%. After applying exclusion criteria, data of 4204 euthyroid subjects remained for analysis of a six-year natural course analysis...
January 10, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068900/galectin-3-and-fibulin-1-in-systolic-heart-failure-relation-to-glucose-metabolism-and-left-ventricular-contractile-reserve
#18
Pernille Holmager, Michael Egstrup, Ida Gustafsson, Morten Schou, Jordi S Dahl, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Jacob E Møller, Christian Tuxen, Jens Faber, Caroline Kistorp
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) patients with diabetes (DM) have an adverse prognosis and reduced functional capacity, which could be associated with cardiac fibrosis, increased chamber stiffness and reduced left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and fibulin-1 are circulating biomarkers potentially reflecting cardiac fibrosis. We hypothesize that plasma levels of Gal-3 and fibulin-1 are elevated in HF patients with DM and are associated with reduced LV contractile reserve in these patients...
January 10, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067023/elevated-serum-milk-fat-globule-epidermal-growth-factor-8-levels-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-are-suppressed-by-overweight-or-obese-status
#19
Yuanyuan Li, Wenzhuo Ran, Jiaqiang Zhang, Shi Chen, Yihang Li, Deng Luo, Chen Wang, Weiping Jia
Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured...
January 9, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065772/multimorbidity-in-middle-aged-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#20
Nicole Cremer, Edward A Hurvitz, Mark D Peterson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with cerebral palsy have less lean body mass, greater relative adiposity, and lower fitness and physical activity participation; and yet, the prevalence of age-related multimorbidity in this population has yet to be established. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic conditions and multimorbidity in a sample of middle-aged adults with cerebral palsy. METHODS: A clinic-based sample of middle-aged adults with cerebral palsy was examined using Electronic Medical Records Search Engine (EMERSE) software...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
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