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Impaired fasting glucose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087555/associations-of-reallocating-sitting-time-into-standing-or-stepping-with-glucose-insulin-and-insulin-sensitivity-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Charlotte L Edwardson, Joe Henson, Danielle H Bodicoat, Kishan Bakrania, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies, Thomas Yates
OBJECTIVE: To quantify associations between sitting time and glucose, insulin and insulin sensitivity by considering reallocation of time into standing or stepping. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Leicestershire, UK, 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 30-75 years at high risk of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) or type 2 diabetes. 435 adults (age 66.8±7.4 years; 61.7% male; 89.2% white European) were included. METHODS: Participants wore an activPAL3 monitor 24 hours/day for 7 days to capture time spent sitting, standing and stepping...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086951/sodium-glucose-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-with-empagliflozin-improves-cardiac-diastolic-function-in-a-female-rodent-model-of-diabetes
#2
Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, James R Sowers, Guanghong Jia, Melvin R Hayden, Mona Garro, Brady Barron, Eric Mayoux, R Scott Rector, Adam Whaley-Connell, Vincent G DeMarco
Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for impairments in diastolic relaxation and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The impairments in diastolic relaxation are especially pronounced in obese and diabetic women and predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in this population. Recent clinical data suggest sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduces CVD events in diabetic individuals, but the mechanisms of this CVD protection are unknown. To determine whether targeting SGLT2 improves diastolic relaxation, we utilized empagliflozin (EMPA) in female db/db mice...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076318/beta-cell-function-and-clinical-course-in-three-siblings-with-thiamine-responsive-megaloblastic-anemia-trma-treated-with-thiamine-supplementation
#3
Kathryn Potter, John Wu, Julie Lauzon, Josephine Ho
Three siblings with thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) with a homozygous c.454delGGCATinsAT mutation in SLC19A2 are described. The index case presented at 14 months' old with severe non-ketotic hyperglycemia, dehydration, seizures and sinovenous thrombosis. She was started on insulin and developed sensorineural hearing loss around 2 years old. Two siblings were found to have the same mutation and were started on thiamine. One sibling developed transient hyperglycemia after several years of thiamine supplementation of 12 mg/kg that resolved with an increased thiamine dose (23 mg/kg)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076317/high-predictability-of-impaired-glucose-tolerance-by-combining-cardiometabolic-screening-parameters-in-obese-children
#4
Cornelis Jan de Groot, Jeroen van der Grond, Yosine Delgado, Edmond H H M Rings, Sabine E Hannema, Erica L T van den Akker
BACKGROUND: There is debate on which overweight and obese children should be screened for the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). The objective of the study was to identify risk factors predictive of the presence of IGT. METHODS: In a cohort of overweight children, who underwent OGTT, we determined the association of anthropometric and laboratory parameters with IGT and whether combining parameters improved the sensitivity of screening for IGT...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072825/dietary-chromium-restriction-of-pregnant-mice-changes-the-methylation-status-of-hepatic-genes-involved-with-insulin-signaling-in-adult-male-offspring
#5
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069811/tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway-targets-pp2a-ampk-foxo1-to-regulate-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#6
Hariom Yadav, Samir Devalaraja, Stephanie Chung, Sushil G Rane
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is essential for normal physiology. Deviation from normal glucose levels, in either direction, increases susceptibility to serious medical complications such as hypoglycemia or diabetes. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is achieved via functional interactions amongst various organs, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain and the endocrine pancreas. The liver is the primary site for endogenous glucose production, especially during states of prolonged fasting. However, enhanced gluconeogenesis is also a signature feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068285/vitamin-k2-improves-anxiety-and-depression-but-not-cognition-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-role-of-blood-glucose
#7
Silvia M Gancheva, Maria D Zhelyazkova-Savova
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. AIM: In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067023/elevated-serum-milk-fat-globule-epidermal-growth-factor-8-levels-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-are-suppressed-by-overweight-or-obese-status
#8
Yuanyuan Li, Wenzhuo Ran, Jiaqiang Zhang, Shi Chen, Yihang Li, Deng Luo, Chen Wang, Weiping Jia
Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured...
January 9, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065464/lipid-metabolism-in-patients-with-chronic-hyperglycemia-after-an-episode-of-acute-pancreatitis
#9
Nicola A Gillies, Sayali A Pendharkar, Ruma G Singh, Varsha M Asrani, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: The importance of dyslipidemia is well recognized in the context of both risk factor for acute pancreatitis and prognostic factor for its in-hospital outcomes. With a growing appreciation of post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus, there is a need to catalogue changes in lipid metabolism after hospitalization due to an acute pancreatitis attack and their associations with glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To investigate lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose homeostasis following acute pancreatitis...
December 23, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063669/longer-term-impact-of-hemiparetic-stroke-on-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-a-pilot-study
#10
Jennifer Klaer, Anja Mähler, Nadja Scherbakov, Lars Klug, Stephan von Haehling, Michael Boschmann, Wolfram Doehner
BACKGROUND: Hemiparetic stroke leads to structural and metabolic alterations of skeletal muscle tissue, thereby contributing to functional impairment associated with stroke. In situ metabolic processes at tissue level in skeletal muscle have not been investigated. We hypothesize that muscular metabolic capacity is limited after hemiparetic stroke, and that changes affect rather the paretic than non-paretic limb. METHODS: Nine male hemiparetic stroke survivors (age, 62±8years; BMI, 28±4kg/m(2); median stroke latency, 23months ranging from 7 to 34months poststroke) underwent dynamic in situ measurements of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at fasting condition and during oral glucose tolerance testing, using bilateral microdialysis...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062198/plasma-from-pre-pubertal-obese-children-impairs-insulin-stimulated-nitric-oxide-no-bioavailability-in-endothelial-cells-role-of-er-stress
#11
Natalia Di Pietro, M Loredana Marcovecchio, Sara Di Silvestre, Tommaso de Giorgis, Vincenzo Giuseppe Pio Cordone, Paola Lanuti, Francesco Chiarelli, Giuseppina Bologna, Angelika Mohn, Assunta Pandolfi
Childhood obesity is commonly associated with early signs of endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impairment of insulin signaling and vascular Nitric Oxide (NO) availability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that endothelial insulin-stimulated NO production and availability was impaired and related to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured with plasma obtained from pre-pubertal obese (OB) children...
January 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061844/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-a-nigerian-population-with-impaired-fasting-blood-glucose-level-and-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Victor M Oguoma, Ezekiel U Nwose, Ifeoma I Ulasi, Adeseye A Akintunde, Ekene E Chukwukelu, Phillip T Bwititi, Ross S Richards, Timothy C Skinner
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and there are reports of increasing prevalence of prediabetes in Nigeria. This study therefore characterised CVDs risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes. METHODS: Data from 4 population-based cross-sectional studies on 2447 apparently healthy individuals from 18 - 89 years were analysed. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected and classified...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056894/study-protocol-the-norfolk-diabetes-prevention-study-ndps-a-46%C3%A2-month-multi-centre-randomised-controlled-parallel-group-trial-of-a-lifestyle-intervention-with-or-without-additional-support-from-lay-lifestyle-mentors-with-type-2-diabetes-to-prevent-transition
#13
Melanie Pascale, Nikki Murray, Max Bachmann, Garry Barton, Allan Clark, Amanda Howe, Colin Greaves, Mike Sampson
BACKGROUND: This 7 year NIHR programme [2011-2018] tests the primary hypothesis that the NDPS diet and physical activity intervention will reduce the risk of transition to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in groups at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. The NDPS programme recognizes the need to reduce intervention costs through group delivery and the use of lay mentors with T2DM, the realities of normal primary care, and the complexity of the current glycaemic categorisation of T2DM risk. METHODS: NDPS identifies people at highest risk of T2DM on the databases of 135 general practices in the East of England for further screening with ab fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c]...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055029/gastrointestinal-transcriptomic-response-of-metabolic-vitamin-b12-pathways-in-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#14
Priscila Sala, Giliane Belarmino, Raquel S Torrinhas, Natasha M Machado, Danielle C Fonseca, Graziela R Ravacci, Robson K Ishida, Ismael F M S Guarda, Eduardo G de Moura, Paulo Sakai, Marco A Santo, Ismael D C G da Silva, Claudia C A Pereira, Angela F Logullo, Steven Heymsfield, Daniel Giannella-Neto, Dan L Waitzberg
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly prevalent and may contribute to postoperative complications. Decreased production of intrinsic factor owing to gastric fundus removal is thought to have a major role, but other components of B12 metabolism may also be affected. We evaluated changes in the expression levels of multiple B12 pathway-encoding genes in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues to evaluate the potential roles in contributing to post-RYGB B12 deficiency...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054586/hepatic-mir-291b-3p-mediated-glucose-metabolism-by-directly-targeting-p65-to-upregulate-pten-expression
#15
Jun Guo, Lin Dou, Xiangyu Meng, Zhenzhen Chen, Weili Yang, Weiwei Fang, Chunxiao Yang, Xiuqing Huang, Weiqing Tang, Jichun Yang, Jian Li
Several studies have suggested an important role of miR-291b-3p in the development of embryonic stem cells. In previous study, we found that the expression of miR-291b-3p was significantly upregulated in the liver of db/db mice. However, the role of miR-291b-3p in glucose metabolism and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-291b-3p was abundantly expressed in the liver. Of note, hepatic miR-291b-3p expression was upregulated in HFD-fed mice and induced by fasting in C57BL/6 J normal mice...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054411/peach-gum-polysaccharides-improve-the-spermatogenesis-of-kkay-mice-with-impaired-reproduction-system
#16
Li Qian, Wenjun Wang, Jie Song, Dezhong Chen
PROBLEM: Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Nevertheless, the effect of PGPs on the spermatogenesis of KKAy mice with impaired reproduction system remains undetermined. METHOD OF STUDY: PGPs were extracted with hot water. KKAy mice were randomly divided into two groups, namely, control and PGPs (treated with 100 mg/kg PGPs). RESULTS: Oral administration of PGPs decreased the levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and nitrate nitrogen level in the testes of KKAy mice...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053538/inverse-relationship-of-cardioankle-vascular-index-with-bmi-in-healthy-japanese-subjects-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Daiji Nagayama, Haruki Imamura, Yuta Sato, Takashi Yamaguchi, Noriko Ban, Hidetoshi Kawana, Masahiro Ohira, Atsuhito Saiki, Kohji Shirai, Ichiro Tatsuno
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052966/role-of-adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-the-natural-history-of-t2dm-results-from-the-san-antonio-metabolism-study
#18
Amalia Gastaldelli, Melania Gaggini, Ralph A DeFronzo
In the transition from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the role of β-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance (IR) is well established. However, the impact of dysfunctional adipose tissue has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin (Adipo-IR) in a large group of NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects.302 subjects with varying glucose tolerance received OGTT and euglycemic insulin clamp...
January 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050707/effect-of-parental-obesity-and-gestational-diabetes-on-child-neuropsychological-and-behavioral-development-at-4%C3%A2-years-of-age-the-rhea-mother-child-cohort-crete-greece
#19
Vasiliki Daraki, Theano Roumeliotaki, Katerina Koutra, Vaggelis Georgiou, Mariza Kampouri, Andriani Kyriklaki, Marina Vafeiadi, Stathis Papavasiliou, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
Studies have suggested an association between maternal obesity pre-pregnancy and gestational diabetes (GDM) with impaired offspring neurodevelopment, but it is not clear if these associations are explained by shared familiar characteristics. We aimed to assess the associations of maternal and paternal obesity, maternal glucose intolerance in early pregnancy and GDM, with offspring neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. We included 772 mother-child pairs from the "Rhea" Mother-Child cohort in Crete, Greece. Data on maternal/paternal body mass index (BMI) and maternal fasting serum samples for glucose and insulin measurements were collected at 12 weeks of gestation...
January 3, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049936/high-pulse-wave-velocity-has-a-strong-impact-on-early-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-a-japanese-general-male-population
#20
Takuro Kubozono, Masaaki Miyata, Shin Kawasoe, Satoko Ojima, Shiro Yoshifuku, Hironori Miyahara, Shigeho Maenohara, Mitsuru Ohishi
BACKGROUND: Although there have been several reports on the risk factors associated with intima-media thickness (IMT), many questions remain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between IMT and cardiovascular risk factors in a Japanese general population.Methods and Results:The study group consisted of 1,583 male subjects undergoing routine health checkups. IMT of the common carotid artery was measured by high-resolution ultrasonography. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using an automated device...
December 29, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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