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Impaired fasting glucose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640873/healthy-aging-of-the-left-ventricle-in-relationship-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#1
Chia-Ying Liu, Shenghan Lai, Nadine Kawel-Boehm, Harjit Chahal, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Joao A C Lima, David A Bluemke
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship of cardiovascular structure and function to age is confounded by the high prevalence of traditional risk factors in the United States. The purpose of the study is to compare left ventricular (LV) and aortic structural, and functional parameters in individuals with and without traditional risk factors in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: 3015 study participants (48% men, age 55-94, mean 69.01±9.17 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging from 2010-2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640843/metabolic-milieu-associates-with-impaired-skeletal-characteristics-in-obesity
#2
Heli T Viljakainen, Heikki A Koistinen, Taina Tervahartiala, Timo Sorsa, Sture Andersson, Outi Mäkitie
High leptin concentration, low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance often coexist in obese subjects; this adverse metabolic milieu may be the main culprit for increased fracture risk and impaired bone quality seen in patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of leptin, hs (high sensitivity)- CRP and insulin resistance with bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone characteristics in 55 young obese adults (median BMI 40 kg/m2) and 65 non-obese controls. Mean age of the subjects was 19.5 ± 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635632/glucose-and-lipid-dysmetabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-prediabetes-induced-by-a-high-sucrose-diet
#3
Ana Burgeiro, Manuela G Cerqueira, Bárbara M Varela-Rodríguez, Sara Nunes, Paula Neto, Frederico C Pereira, Flávio Reis, Eugénia Carvalho
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)-received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)-received vehicle (water)...
June 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633585/lipoprotein-a-activated-immunity-insulin-resistance-and-new-onset-diabetes
#4
Ayşem Kaya, Altan Onat, Hüsniye Yüksel, Günay Can, Murat Yüksel, Evin Ademoğlu
OBJECTIVES: Some evidence suggests that serum lipoprotein[Lp](a) may be inversely linked to type-2 diabetes. We aimed to determine in nondiabetic people the relationship of serum [Lp](a) with insulin resistance and new-onset diabetes (NOD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population-based middle-aged adults (n = 1685) were categorized by fasting glucose and stratified to gender, having excluded prevalent diabetic subjects. NOD (n = 90) occurred over a median 5 years' follow-up...
June 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629388/the-albumin-exendin-4-recombinant-protein-e2hsa-improves-glycemic-control-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-spontaneous-diabetic-kkay-mice
#5
Caina Li, Shaocong Hou, Shuainan Liu, Yi Huan, Sujuan Sun, Quan Liu, Zhufang Shen
BACKGROUND: E2HSA is a genetic fusion protein that consists of two tandem exendin-4 molecules that are covalently bonded to recombinant human serum albumin via a peptide linker. Previous studies have demonstrated that E2HSA significantly decreased blood glucose levels, improved β-cell function and promoted β-cell proliferation in diabetic db/dB mice. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of E2HSA on glucose and lipid metabolism in a spontaneous diabetes animal model, KKAy mice. METHODS: E2HSA was acutely administered at doses of 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection in diabetic KKAy mice with exendin-4 (2 μg/kg) as a positive reference, and then the non-fasting blood glucose and food intake levels were dynamically monitored...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628674/hepatic-microvascular-dysfunction-and-increased-advanced-glycation-end-products-are-components-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva Pereira, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita Flores, Karine Lino Rodrigues, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Igor José da Silva, Marcelo Pelajo Machado, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Cassiano F Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Eduardo Tibiriça, Anissa Daliry
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627440/microrna-21-regulates-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-by-targeting-foxo1
#7
Ailing Luo, Haibo Yan, Jichao Liang, Chunyuan Du, Xuemei Zhao, Lijuan Sun, Yong Chen
Abnormal activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes; however, the potential role of microRNAs in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that hepatic expression levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21) were decreased in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-21 decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and inhibited glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes...
June 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625799/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-a-cystic-fibrosis-patient-to-predict-pulmonary-exacerbation
#8
T B Inman, J A Proudfoot, M Lim, C Demeterco-Berggren
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience a significant decline in pulmonary status before the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). We hypothesized that hyperglycemia may be a factor in the decline of pulmonary function and increased frequency of pulmonary exacerbations. Long term continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has not been reported in patients with CF and impaired glucose tolerance. We performed CGM for three months in a 17year old male with F508del and F553X CF mutations, baseline forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) of 92% predicted, and impaired glucose tolerance to evaluate changes in glucose levels prior to the diagnosis of a pulmonary exacerbation...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621759/a-high-fructose-high-coconut-oil-diet-induces-dysregulating-expressions-of-hippocampal-leptin-and-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-and-spatial-memory-deficits-in-rats
#9
Ching-I Lin, Chu-Fu Shen, Tsui-Han Hsu, Shyh-Hsiang Lin
We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group (n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618766/relationship-between-blood-glucose-levels-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-the-spanish-mediterranean-population
#10
Ángel Arturo López-González, Zoe Manzanero, María Teófila Vicente-Herrero, Sheila García-Agudo, María Gil-Llinás, Francisco Moreno-Morcillo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Diabetes is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an intermediate clinical situation between normal glucose levels and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine how fasting glucose concentrations affect different cardiovascular risk scales. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted with 59,041 Mediterranean Spanish workers. IFG was determined using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617863/the-use-of-metabolic-profiling-to-identify-insulin-resistance-in-veal-calves
#11
Andre J Pantophlet, Han Roelofsen, Marcel P de Vries, Walter J J Gerrits, Joost J G C van den Borne, Roel J Vonk
Heavy veal calves (4-6 months old) are at risk of developing insulin resistance and disturbed glucose homeostasis. Prolonged insulin resistance could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired growth performance. Recently, we discovered that heavy Holstein-Friesian calves raised on a high-lactose or high-fat diet did not differ in insulin sensitivity, that insulin sensitivity was low and 50% of the calves could be considered insulin resistant. Understanding the patho-physiological mechanisms underlying insulin resistance and discovering biomarkers for early diagnosis would be useful for developing prevention strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614254/relationship-of-diabetes-with-renal-dysfunction-in-hypertensive-adults
#12
Yuejuan Wang, Biyan Zhong, Youbao Li, Xianhui Qin, Binyan Wang, Xin Xu, Fanfan Hou, Yong Huo, Xiping Xu
We aimed to examine the relationship of diabetes with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based renal function in the Chinese hypertensive adults.This cross-sectional analysis included a total of 18,641 hypertensive adults aged 45 to 75 years. The relationship of diabetes (a fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or self-reported use of hypoglycemic agents or physician diagnosed diabetes) with glomerular hyperfiltration (an absolute eGFR >90th percentile after adjusting for sex, age), hypofiltration (an eGFR <10th percentile and ≥60 mL/min/1...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611037/inhibition-of-renal-sodium-glucose-co-transport-with-empagliflozin-lowers-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-improves-beta-cell-function-in-subjects-with-impaired-fasting-glucose
#13
Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Hussein Al Jobori, Giuseppe Daniele, John Adams, Eugenio Cersosimo, Curtis Triplitt, Ralph A DeFronzo
To examine the effect of renal sodium glucose co-transporter inhibition with empagliflozin on the fasting plasma glucose concentration and beta cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG).8 subjects with normal fasting glucose and 8 subjects with IFG received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose concentration and beta cell function was measured with a 9-step hyperglycemic clamp before and 48 hours and 14 days after the start of empagliflozin.Empagliflozin caused 50±4 and 45±4 grams glucosuria on day 2 in IFG and NFG subjects, respectively, and the glucosuria was maintained for 2 weeks in both groups...
June 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605280/the-gut-a-key-to-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#14
Jens Juul Holst, Jens Pedersen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer Albrechtsen, Filip Krag Knop
In this communication we discuss the role of the gut for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gastric emptying rates importantly determine postprandial glucose excursions and regulate postprandial secretion of the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It thereby also determines their powerful, amplifying effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion and thus the ability of the body to regulate glucose disposal. Although disturbances in gastric emptying are not consistent findings in type 2 diabetes, the incretin system is seriously impaired, probably associated with insulin resistance and obesity...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601585/prevalence-of-diabetes-and-prediabetes-in-15-states-of-india-results-from-the-icmr-indiab-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#15
Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Mohan Deepa, Rajendra Pradeepa, Jagadish Mahanta, Kanwar Narain, Hiranya Kumar Das, Prabha Adhikari, Paturi Vishnupriya Rao, Banshi Saboo, Ajay Kumar, Anil Bhansali, Mary John, Rosang Luaia, Taranga Reang, Somorjit Ningombam, Lobsang Jampa, Richard O Budnah, Nirmal Elangovan, Radhakrishnan Subashini, Ulagamathesan Venkatesan, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ashok Kumar Das, Sri Venkata Madhu, Mohammed K Ali, Arvind Pandey, Rupinder Singh Dhaliwal, Tanvir Kaur, Soumya Swaminathan, Viswanathan Mohan
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. METHODS: We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory...
June 7, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598960/relationship-between-serum-glucose-levels-and-intraocular-pressure-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#16
Eytan Cohen, Michal Kramer, Tzippy Shochat, Elad Goldberg, Ilan Krause
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between serum glucose levels and intraocular pressure (IOP) both in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as well as in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of a cross-sectional sample of 18,406 subjects who underwent routine annual screening at a tertiary medical center in 2000 to 2013 were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age of the subjects was 46 (10) years; 68% were male...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597452/impact-of-the-triglyceride-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-ratio-and-the-hypertriglyceremic-waist-phenotype-to-predict-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-insulin-resistance
#17
Helene von Bibra, Sarama Saha, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Gabriele Müller, Peter E H Schwarz
Insulin resistance is the underlying mechanism for the metabolic syndrome and associated dyslipidaemia that theoretically implies a practical tool for identifying individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2-diabetes. Another screening tool is the hypertriglyceremic-waist phenotype (HTW). There is important impact of the ethnic background but a lack of studied European populations for the association of the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and insulin resistance. This observational, retrospective study evaluated lipid ratios and the HTW for predicting the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance in 1932 non-diabetic individuals from Germany in the fasting state and during a glucose tolerance test...
June 8, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596682/diabetes-recurrence-after-metabolic-surgeries-correlates-with-re-impaired-insulin-sensitivity-rather-than-beta-cell-function
#18
Teng Liu, Ming-Wei Zhong, Yi Liu, Dong Sun, Meng Wei, Xin Huang, Yu-Gang Cheng, Qun-Zheng Wu, Dong Wu, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Ke-Xin Wang, San-Yuan Hu, Shao-Zhuang Liu
AIM: To investigate factors causing diabetes recurrence after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB). METHODS: SG and DJB were performed on rats with diabetes induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ). HFD was used to induce diabetes recurrence at 4 wk postoperatively. Body weight, oral glucose tolerance test, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin signaling [IR, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1, IRS2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and AKT in liver and skeletal muscle], oral glucose stimulated insulin secretion, beta-cell morphology (mass, apoptosis and insulin secretion), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, PYY and ghrelin were compared among SG rats with common low-fat diet (SG-LFD), SG with HFD (SG-HFD), DJB rats with LFD (DJB-LFD), DJB with HFD (DJB-HFD) and sham-operation with LFD (Sham) at targeted postoperative times...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596534/circulating-3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic-acid-cmpf-levels-are-associated-with-hyperglycemia-and-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-in-a-chinese-population
#19
Shan Zhang, Peihong Chen, Hua Jin, Jufen Yi, Xinmiao Xie, Meili Yang, Ting Gao, Lili Yang, Cheng Hu, Xueli Zhang, Xuemei Yu
Several recent clinical studies have suggested that the levels of circulating 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) are significantly higher in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study recruited a total of 516 participants. The following patient populations were enrolled: 99 newly diagnosed cases with T2DM, 219 cases with prediabetes [82 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (I - IGT), 66 with isolated impaired fasting glucose (I - IFG) and 71 with impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose (IGT + IFG)], and 198 cases with normal glucose tolerance [NGT, including 99 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients (FDRs) and 99 non-FDRs]...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592603/chronic-fructose-substitution-for-glucose-or-sucrose-in-food-or-beverages-has-little-effect-on-fasting-blood-glucose-insulin-or-triglycerides-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Rebecca A Evans, Michael Frese, Julio Romero, Judy H Cunningham, Kerry E Mills
Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the role of long-term fructose consumption on health. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of other sugars and its effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides.Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for a reduction in fasting glycemic and insulinemic markers after chronic, isoenergetic replacement of glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages by fructose...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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