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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146342/detection-of-coffee-adulteration-with-soybean-and-corn-by-capillary-electrophoresis-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Daniela Daniel, Fernando Silva Lopes, Vagner Bezerra Dos Santos, Claudimir Lucio do Lago
The detection of coffee adulteration with soybean and corn by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry was accomplished by evaluating the monosaccharides profile obtained after acid hydrolysis of the samples. The acid hydrolysis, using H2SO4 as a catalyst, increases the ionic strength of the sample impairing the electrophoretic separation. Therefore, Ba(OH)2 was used to both neutralize the medium and reduce the content of sulfate by precipitation of BaSO4. The best separation of nine determined monosaccharides (fucose, galactose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, xylose, mannose, fructose and ribose) plus inositol as internal standard was obtained in 500 mmol·L(-1) triethylamine, pH 12...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145418/testosterone-is-protective-against-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-male-intrauterine-growth-restricted-offspring
#2
Suttira Intapad, John Henry Dasinger, Joel M Fahling, Miles A Backstrom, Barbara T Alexander
Placental insufficiency alters the intrauterine environment leading to increased risk for chronic disease including impaired glucose metabolism in low birth weight infants. Using a rat model of low birth weight, we previously reported that placental insufficiency induces a significant increase in circulating testosterone in male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring (mIUGR) in early adulthood that is lost by 12 months of age. Numerous studies indicate testosterone has a positive effect on glucose metabolism in men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140602/the-cardiovascular-safety-of-long-acting-insulin-analogues-in-type-2-diabetes-is-there-a-better-basal-insulin
#3
Chia-Hsuin Chang, Lee-Ming Chuang
In 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested that all new type 2 anti-diabetic drugs, including long-acting insulin analogues, need to be rigorously examined to preclude undesirable cardiovascular risks. The Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial is the first trial to provide conclusive evidence of the cardiovascular safety of insulin glargine. A total of 12,537 people with cardiovascular risk factors plus impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive insulin glargine or standard care...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138275/enhanced-predictive-capability-of-a-1-hour-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Manan Pareek, Deepak L Bhatt, Mette L Nielsen, Ram Jagannathan, Karl-Fredrik Eriksson, Peter M Nilsson, Michael Bergman, Michael H Olsen
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135069/impaired-secretion-of-active-glp-1-in-patients-with-hypertriglyceridaemia-a-novel-lipotoxicity-paradigm
#5
Xiangxiang Wang, Jia Liu, Chaolin Li, Meng Zhao, Lu Liu, Qingbo Guan, Haiqing Zhang, Xu Zhang, Ling Gao, Jiajun Zhao, Yongfeng Song
AIM: Lipotoxicity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that exerts beneficial effects on the number and function of islet β cells. However, the effect of lipotoxicity on GLP-1 secretion is still unknown. METHODS: Twenty-five patients who were newly diagnosed with diabetes were recruited from 400 subjects based on 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Patients were divided into diabetes (DM) and DM combined with hypertriglyceridaemia (DM+HTG) groups according to their serum triglyceride (TG) levels...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132553/dysregulation-of-glucose-metabolism-since-young-adulthood-increases-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#6
Pao-Huan Chen, Yen-Kuang Lin, Chi-Kang Chang, Shuo-Ju Chiang, Shang-Ying Tsai
Aging patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are at a high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, few studies have directly examined the association between metabolic risks and CVDs in patients with BD across the lifespan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine lifetime metabolic risk factors for CVDs in patients with BD. We recruited BD-I patients who were more than 50 years old and had had at least one psychiatric hospitalization. Patients who had a cardiologist-confirmed CVD diagnosis (ICD-9 code 401-414) were assigned to the case group...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126197/impaired-insulin-action-is-associated-with-increased-glucagon-concentrations-in-non-diabetic-humans
#7
Anu Sharma, Ron T Varghese, Meera Shah, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli, Robert A Rizza, Kent R Bailey, Adrian Vella
Context: Abnormal glucagon concentrations contribute to hyperglycemia but the mechanism(s) of α-cell dysfunction in prediabetes are unclear. Objective: We sought to determine the relative contributions of insulin secretion and action to α-cell dysfunction in non-diabetic subjects across the spectrum of glucose tolerance. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. A subset of subjects (n = 120) was studied in the presence and absence of free fatty acid (FFA) elevation, achieved by infusion of intralipid + heparin, to cause insulin resistance...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124047/adiponectin-concentration-in-gestational-diabetic-women-a-case-control-study
#8
Tanin Mohammadi, Zamzam Paknahad
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an impaired fasting glucose condition during pregnancy. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone that is extensively released by adipocytes which regulates energy homeostasis and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, adiponectin has antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our research was to study about the relationship of adiponectin levels to GDM and glucose intolerance. We selected 25 GDM women and 35 healthy pregnant subjects (18-46 years) who were screened between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation based on the result of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123026/the-klf14-transcription-factor-regulates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#9
Lu Wang, Xin Tong, Fang Gu, Lei Zhang, Wei Chen, Xiaowen Cheng, Liwei Xie, Yongsheng Chang, Huabing Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is a member of the Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins. Despite strong evidence showing that a polymorphism in the Klf14 gene is closely linked to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the physiological and metabolic functions of KLF14 still remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of KLF14 in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Adenoviruses expressing KLF14 (Ad-Klf14) or KLF14-specific shRNAs (Ad-shKlf14) were injected into normal C57BL/6J, db/db diabetic or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121676/naringin-prevents-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-induced-metabolic-complications-in-vivo
#10
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Sindiswa Zondi, Peter M O Owira
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and overt diabetes are known metabolic complications associated with chronic use of HIV-Protease Inhibitors. Naringin is a grapefruit-derived flavonoid with anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the protective effects of naringin on glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion and signaling in vivo. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6) and were daily orally treated with distilled water {3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113496/both-youth-and-long-term-vitamin-d-status-is-associated-with-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-adulthood-a-cohort-study
#11
Feitong Wu, Markus Juonala, Niina Pitkänen, Antti Jula, Terho Lehtimäki, Matthew A Sabin, Katja Pahkala, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Mika Kähönen, Tomi Laitinen, Jorma S A Viikari, Costan G Magnussen, Olli T Raitakari
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether vitamin D status in childhood and adolescence (herein collectively referred to as youth) and the long-term status from youth to adulthood is associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 31-year follow-up study of 2300 participants aged 3-18 years. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association of both (a) baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and (b) the mean of baseline and the latest follow-up 25OHD levels (continuous variable and quartiles) with incident T2DM and IFG (cut-off = 5...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113459/the-combined-effect-of-vitamin-d-and-parathyroid-hormone-concentrations-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-older-patients-with-prediabetes-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Spyridon N Karras, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Vasiliki Antonopoulou, Xanthippi Tsekmekidou, Theocharis Koufakis, Dimitrios G Goulis, Pantelis Zebekakis, Kalliopi Kotsa
BACKGROUND: The combined effect of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone on glucose homeostasis has not been adequately investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the role of parathyroid hormone/vitamin D axis on glucose homeostasis in elderly persons with prediabetes. METHODS: Patients with prediabetes ( n = 144) and healthy age-matched controls ( n = 81) were included in this cross-sectional study. Study parameters included anthropometric characteristics, morning fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose), insulin (fasting plasma insulin), parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function...
November 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113405/breast-cancer-is-associated-to-impaired-glucose-insulin-homeostasis-in-premenopausal-obese-overweight-patients
#13
Raúl M Luque, Laura M López-Sánchez, Alicia Villa-Osaba, Isabel M Luque, Ana L Santos-Romero, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, María Cara-García, Marina Álvarez-Benito, José López-Mirand A, Manuel D Gahete, Justo P Castaño
The association between breast cancer (BCa) presence and altered glucose/insulin metabolism is controversial likely due to an inaccurate insulin resistance (IR) assessment and inappropriate stratification of patients by body-mass index (BMI) and menopausal state. 148 women with suspect of sporadic BCa were stratified by BMI and menopause. Fasting levels of glucose, insulin, glycohemoglobin and selected IR-related and tumor-derived markers were measured. Glucose/insulin levels during OGTT were used to calculate insulin resistance/sensitivity indexes...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113113/dietary-pattern-during-1991-2011-and-its-association-with-cardio-metabolic-risks-in-chinese-adults-the-china-health-and-nutrition-survey
#14
Ming Li, Zumin Shi
Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991-2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009...
November 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109794/ginsenoside-rg1-inhibits-glucagon-induced-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-through-akt-foxo1-interaction
#15
Qun Liu, Fei-Ge Zhang, Wen-Song Zhang, An Pan, Yi-Lin Yang, Jin-Feng Liu, Ping Li, Bao-Lin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi
Rationale: Glucagon is involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, playing a key role in type 2 diabetes. Ginsenosides are reported to have antidiabetic activities. Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major propanaxatriol-type saponin in ginseng. This study aims to investigate the regulatory effects of Rg1 on glucagon-induced hepatic glucose production. Methods: The effects of Rg1 were investigated in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice and glucagon-challenged C57BL/6J mice. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and pyruvate tolerance test...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109303/insulin-resistance-and-reduced-metabolic-flexibility-cause-or-consequence-of-nafld
#16
EDITORIAL
Amalia Gastaldelli
Whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) precedes insulin resistance (IR) or IR preludes/causes NAFLD has been long debated. Recent studies have shown that there are two phenotypes of NAFLD, 'genetic' vs 'metabolic' NAFLD. The former patients are more at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease the latter are more IR and at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Even if they are not yet diabetics, from a metabolic point of view having NAFLD is equivalent to T2D with reduced peripheral glucose disposal and impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production, but without fasting hyperglycaemia...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108900/irisin-and-leptin-concentrations-in-relation-to-obesity-and-developing-type-2-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-and-a-prospective-case-control-study-nested-in-the-normative-aging-study
#17
Ayse Sahin-Efe, Jagriti Upadhyay, Byung-Joon Ko, Fadime Dincer, Kyung Hee Park, Alexandra Migdal, Pantel Vokonas, Christos Mantzoros
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between irisin and leptin levels in obesity and insulin resistance in a cross sectional study. To assess the potential role of irisin and leptin as a predictive marker of T2DM using a nested case-control study. METHODS: Both studies were designed within the longitudinal VA NAS cohort. The cross sectional study involved 111 non obese and 105 obese subjects who were subdivided into two groups based on their fasting glucose tolerance...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107286/deletion-of-hepatic-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-chrebp-impairs-glucose-homeostasis-and-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice
#18
Tara Jois, Weiyi Chen, Victor Howard, Rebecca Harvey, Kristina Youngs, Claudia Thalmann, Pradip Saha, Lawrence Chan, Michael A Cowley, Mark W Sleeman
OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a transcription factor that responds to glucose and activates genes involved in the glycolytic and lipogenic pathways. Recent studies have linked adipose ChREBP to insulin sensitivity in mice. However, while ChREBP is most highly expressed in the liver, the effect of hepatic ChREBP on insulin sensitivity remains unknown. To clarify the importance of hepatic ChREBP on glucose homeostasis, we have generated a knockout mouse model that lacks this protein specifically in the liver (Liver-ChREBP KO)...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106817/application-of-the-aace-ace-advanced-framework-for-the-diagnosis-of-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-disease-staging-in-a-general-population-from-three-regions-of-venezuela-the-vemsols-study-results
#19
Ramfis Nieto-Martínez, Juan P González-Rivas, Eunice Ugel, Imperia Brajkovich, Alejandro Risquez, W Timothy Garvey, Jeffrey I Mechanick
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity according to the AACE/ACE framework based on a complications-centric model with further application of the Cardiometabolic Disease Staging (CMDS) system in Venezuelan population. METHODS: 1,320 adults were randomly selected from 3 regions. AACE/ACE framework definitions: overweight: body mass index (BMI) 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2) and no obesity-related complications (ORC); obesity stage 0: BMI ≥ 30 and no ORC; stage 1: BMI ≥ 25 and one or more mild-to-moderate ORC; and stage 2: BMI ≥ 25 and one or more severe ORC...
November 6, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106387/loss-of-mtorc1-signaling-alters-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-impairs-glucagon-secretion
#20
Nadejda Bozadjieva, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Jennifer Chase, Xiao-Qing Dai, Kelsey Cummings, Jennifer Gimeno, Danielle Dean, Alvin C Powers, George K Gittes, Markus A Rüegg, Michael N Hall, Patrick E MacDonald, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
Glucagon plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis during fed and fasting states. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of pancreatic α cell mass and function are not completely understood. In the current study, we identified mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) as a major regulator of α cell mass and glucagon secretion. Using mice with tissue-specific deletion of the mTORC1 regulator Raptor in α cells (αRaptorKO), we showed that mTORC1 signaling is dispensable for α cell development, but essential for α cell maturation during the transition from a milk-based diet to a chow-based diet after weaning...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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