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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918369/the-development-of-biodiversity-conservation-measures-in-china-s-hydro-projects-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Ruiqiao Bai, Xuehua Liu, Xiaofei Liu, Lanmei Liu, Jianping Wang, Sihui Liao, Annah Zhu, Zhouyuan Li
The hydropower capacity of China ranks first in the world and accounts for approximately 20% of the total energy production in the country. While hydropower has substantially contributed to meeting China's renewable energy targets and providing clean energy to rural areas, the development of hydropower in China has been met with significant controversy. Ecologically, hydro projects alter the landscape, with potential impacts to the country's aquatic biodiversity. Over the past four decades in China, various mainstream opinions and misunderstandings have been presented concerning how to alleviate the negative impacts of hydro projects on aquatic ecosystems...
September 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917817/mechanistic-insight-into-degradation-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemical-by-hydroxyl-radical-an-experimental-and-theoretical-approach
#2
Ruiyang Xiao, Lingwei Gao, Zongsu Wei, Richard Spinney, Shuang Luo, Donghong Wang, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Chong-Jian Tang, Weichun Yang
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on formation of free radicals at ambient temperature and pressure are effective for treating endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in waters. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA), a representative EDC by hydroxyl radical (OH) with a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. The second-order rate constant (k) of BPA with OH was experimentally determined to be 7.2 ± 0.34 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917648/challenges-of-conducting-a-prospective-clinical-trial-for-older-patients-lessons-learned-from-ncctg-n0949-alliance
#3
Nadine J McCleary, Joleen Hubbard, Michelle R Mahoney, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Daniel Sargent, Alan Venook, Axel Grothey
OBJECTIVES: While the risk of developing colorectal cancer increases with age, there are limited prospective data regarding best treatment in the older adult population. We launched a phase III trial to evaluate difference in treatment outcome for older adults (aged ≥70years) with advanced colorectal cancer. Here we review the challenges faced and reasons for poor accrual to N0949. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the conceptualization, development and limited results of N0949, a randomized phase III study of fluoropyrimidine/bevacizumab with or without oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX7 or XELOX) as first line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917611/end-of-life-practice-patterns-at-u-s-adult-cystic-fibrosis-care-centers-a-national-retrospective-chart-review
#4
Elaine Chen, Karen Homa, Jessica Goggin, Kathryn A Sabadosa, Sarah Hempstead, Bruce C Marshall, Albert Faro, Elisabeth P Dellon
BACKGROUND: There are many challenges to providing end-of-life care (EOLC) to people with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Chart abstraction was used to examine EOLC in adults with CF who died between 2011 and 2013. RESULTS: We reviewed 248 deaths from 71 CF care centers. Median age at death was 29years (range 18-73). While median FEV1 was in the severe lung disease category (FEV1<40%), 38% had mild or moderate lung disease in the year preceding death...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917258/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-lung-cancer-historical-developments-and-future-strategies
#5
Kevin L M Chua, Iris Sin, Kam W Fong, Melvin L K Chua, Hiroshi Onishi
The application of radiosurgery dose escalation extra-cranially in a moving target, surrounded by critical normal tissue, presents unique dosimetric and clinical challenges. Building on a strong foundation of robust technological advancements and well-planned clinical studies, lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has firmly established its place in the management of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, favourable outcomes and long-term survival still evade a substantial proportion of patients, especially for central and larger peripheral lung tumours...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917251/advances-in-external-beam-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-principle-concerns-in-implementing-a-liver-radiation-program
#6
Stewart Gaede, Michael I Lock
Despite significant advances in diagnosis, surgery and medical oncology, patients with primary and secondary liver cancer have some of the worst prognoses in oncology. In addition, the incidence of liver cancer is expected to increase. For this reason, centres are seeking new treatments and establishing specialized multidisciplinary teams. This article will focus on the evidence and practical data to assist in setting up or improving current process pathways, to provide an efficient and safe radiotherapy program for liver...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916926/informatics-for-precision-medicine-and-healthcare
#7
Jiajia Chen, Yuxin Lin, Bairong Shen
The past decade has witnessed great advances in biomedical informatics. Biomedical informatics is an emerging field of healthcare that aims to translate the laboratory observation into clinical practice. Smart healthcare has also developed rapidly with ubiquitous sensor and communication technologies. It is able to capture the online patient-centric phenotypic variables, thus providing a rich information base for translational biomedical informatics. Biomedical informatics and smart healthcare represent two interrelated disciplines...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916013/the-emergency-department-challenges-and-opportunities-for-suicide-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow, Kalina Babeva, Elizabeth Horstmann
Emergency departments (EDs) can offer life-saving suicide prevention care. This article focuses on the ED and emergency services as service delivery sites for suicide prevention. Characteristics of EDs, models of emergency care, ED screening and brief intervention models, and practice guidelines and parameters are reviewed. A care process model for youths at risk for suicide and self-harm is presented, with guidance for clinicians based on the scientific evidence. Strengthening emergency infrastructure and integrating effective suicide prevention strategies derived from scientific research are critical for advancing suicide prevention objectives...
October 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#9
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915887/professional-fulfillment-and-parenting-work-life-balance-in-female-physicians-in-basic-sciences-and-medical-research-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-survey-of-all-80-medical-schools-in-japan
#10
Yuka Yamazaki, Takanori Uka, Eiji Marui
BACKGROUND: In Japan, the field of Basic Sciences encompasses clinical, academic, and translational research, as well as the teaching of medical sciences, with both an MD and PhD typically required. In this study, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of a Basic Sciences career path could offer the professional advancement and personal fulfillment that many female medical doctors would find advantageous. Moreover, encouraging interest in Basic Sciences could help stem shortages that Japan is experiencing in medical fields, as noted in the three principal contributing factors: premature resignation of female clinicians, an imbalance of female physicians engaged in research, and a shortage of medical doctors in the Basic Sciences...
September 15, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915673/prognositic-value-of-cd73-adenosinergic-pathway-in-solid-tumor-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#11
Rong Wang, Yingying Zhang, Xia Lin, Yalin Gao, Ying Zhu
CD73 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored cell surface protein that is encoded by NT5E gene, plays multiple roles in tumor processes. Previous studies have presented a potential value of CD73 served as a detectable biomarker for prognosis of several solid tumors, but the results were more controversially. A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to precisely evaluate the prognostic role of CD73 in solid tumors. The included studies were searched in PubMed, Web of Science and EBSCO from Jan 1990 to Jan 2016...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915311/can-increased-spatial-resolution-solve-the-crossing-fiber-problem-for-diffusion-mri
#12
Kurt Schilling, Yurui Gao, Vaibhav Janve, Iwona Stepniewska, Bennett A Landman, Adam W Anderson
It is now widely recognized that voxels with crossing fibers or complex geometrical configurations present a challenge for diffusion MRI (dMRI) reconstruction and fiber tracking, as well as microstructural modeling of brain tissues. This "crossing fiber" problem has been estimated to affect anywhere from 30% to as many as 90% of white matter voxels, and it is often assumed that increasing spatial resolution will decrease the prevalence of voxels containing multiple fiber populations. The aim of this study is to estimate the extent of the crossing fiber problem as we progressively increase the spatial resolution, with the goal of determining whether it is possible to mitigate this problem with higher resolution spatial sampling...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915075/responding-to-patient-requests-for-hastened-death-physician-aid-in-dying-and-the-clinical-oncologist
#13
Rebecca A Spence, Charles D Blanke, Thomas J Keating, Lynne P Taylor
Physician aid in dying (PAD) or assisted suicide is becoming legal in more US jurisdictions. Meanwhile, the needs of terminally ill patients with cancer are receiving greater attention, including the integration of palliative care into oncology practice. This article highlights a case vignette of a patient with advanced cancer who requests PAD from her oncologist, as a backdrop to help the practicing oncologist examine his or her moral stance regarding participation in aid in dying. The article concludes by offering a framework within which the practicing oncologist can receive and process a patient's request for PAD...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914769/multifunctional-nanotechnology-enabled-sensors-for-rapid-capture-and-detection-of-pathogens
#14
REVIEW
Fatima Mustafa, Rabeay Y A Hassan, Silvana Andreescu
Nanomaterial-based sensing approaches that incorporate different types of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures in conjunction with natural or synthetic receptors as molecular recognition elements provide opportunities for the design of sensitive and selective assays for rapid detection of contaminants. This review summarizes recent advancements over the past ten years in the development of nanotechnology-enabled sensors and systems for capture and detection of pathogens. The most common types of nanostructures and NPs, their modification with receptor molecules and integration to produce viable sensing systems with biorecognition, amplification and signal readout are discussed...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914744/cardiac-computed-tomography-before-and-after-cardiac-surgery
#15
Fernanda Erthal, Joao R Inacio, Samir Hazra, Vincent Chan, Benjamin J W Chow
Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a noninvasive imaging technique that has been rapidly adopted into clinical practice. Over the past decade, technological advances have improved CCTA accuracy, and there is an increasing amount of data supporting its prognostic value in the assessment of coronary artery disease. Recently, "appropriate use criteria" has been used as a tool to minimize inappropriate testing and reduce patient exposure to unnecessary risk and inconclusive studies. This review will summarize the appropriate uses of CCTA in patients before and after cardiac surgery...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914644/systemic-therapy-in-advanced-melanoma-integrating-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-into-clinical-practice
#16
Inês P Silva, Georgina V Long
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we review the results from relevant phase III trials and discuss treatment strategies for challenging subgroups of melanoma patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Targeted therapies induce rapid responses in the majority of BRAF-mutant patients, however, 50% of these responders will develop resistance within approximately 13 months. In contrast, inhibitors of checkpoints on T cells, particularly inhibitors of PD-1, induce responses in 40-55% of patients (monotherapy or whenever combined with anti-CTLA-4), and these responses tend to be durable...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914268/impact-of-hipaa-s-minimum-necessary-standard-on-genomic-data-sharing
#17
Barbara J Evans, Gail P Jarvik
This article provides a brief introduction to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule's minimum necessary standard, which applies to sharing of genomic data, particularly clinical data, following 2013 Privacy Rule revisions. This research used the Thomson Reuters Westlaw database and law library resources in its legal analysis of the HIPAA privacy tiers and the impact of the minimum necessary standard on genomic data sharing. We considered relevant example cases of genomic data-sharing needs...
September 14, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914267/developing-a-common-framework-for-evaluating-the-implementation-of-genomic-medicine-interventions-in-clinical-care-the-ignite-network-s-common-measures-working-group
#18
Lori A Orlando, Nina R Sperber, Corrine Voils, Marshall Nichols, Rachel A Myers, R Ryanne Wu, Tejinder Rakhra-Burris, Kenneth D Levy, Mia Levy, Toni I Pollin, Yue Guan, Carol R Horowitz, Michelle Ramos, Stephen E Kimmel, Caitrin W McDonough, Ebony B Madden, Laura J Damschroder
PurposeImplementation research provides a structure for evaluating the clinical integration of genomic medicine interventions. This paper describes the Implementing Genomics in Practice (IGNITE) Network's efforts to promote (i) a broader understanding of genomic medicine implementation research and (ii) the sharing of knowledge generated in the network.MethodsTo facilitate this goal, the IGNITE Network Common Measures Working Group (CMG) members adopted the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide its approach to identifying constructs and measures relevant to evaluating genomic medicine as a whole, standardizing data collection across projects, and combining data in a centralized resource for cross-network analyses...
September 14, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914155/psychological-foundations-of-xenophilia-understanding-and-measuring-the-motivational-functions-of-exploratory-cross-cultural-contact
#19
Stefan Stürmer, Alison E F Benbow
Two multipart studies (total N = 1,638) were conducted to introduce and test a functional perspective on exploratory cross-cultural contact. Studies 1a and 1b addressed the lack of standardized measures and developed a psychometrically valid inventory of six individual motivational functions: knowledge and understanding, value expression, professional advancement, social development, personal-, and group-image concerns. Studies 2a and 2b produced experimental evidence that different environments offer differing "fulfillment opportunities" such that the motivating potential of a distinct contact function results from a function by environment fit...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914090/exploring-the-theoretical-foundations-of-visual-art-programmes-for-people-living-with-dementia
#20
Gill Windle, Samantha Gregory, Teri Howson-Griffiths, Andrew Newman, Dave O'Brien, Anna Goulding
Despite the growing international innovations for visual arts interventions in dementia care, limited attention has been paid to their theoretical basis. In response, this paper explores how and why visual art interventions in dementia care influence changes in outcomes. The theory building process consists of a realist review of primary research on visual art programmes. This aims to uncover what works, for whom, how, why and in what circumstances. We undertook a qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives of art programmes, and then synthesised these two pieces of work alongside broader theory to produce a conceptual framework for intervention development, further research and practice...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
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