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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323973/how-to-measure-adipose-tissue-insulin-sensitivity
#1
Esben Søndergaard, Ana Elena Espinosa De Ycaza, Maria Morgan-Bathke, Michael D Jensen
Background: Adipose tissue insulin resistance may be a proximate cause of hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance by releasing excess FFA. However, no consensus exists on how to quantify adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We compared three methods for measuring adipose tissue insulin sensitivity ranging from the complex multistep pancreatic clamp technique to the simple adipose tissue insulin resistance index (Adipo-IR). Methods: We completed studies of 25 adults with a wide range of insulin sensitivity...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323804/transtibial-amputation-outcomes-study-taos-comparing-transtibial-amputation-with-and-without-a-tibiofibular-synostosis-ertl-procedure
#2
Michael J Bosse, Saam Morshed, Lisa Reider, William Ertl, James Toledano, Reeza Firoozabadi, Rachel B Seymour, Eben Carroll, Daniel O Scharfstein, Barbara Steverson, Ellen J MacKenzie
The optimal technique for a transtibial amputation in a young, active, and healthy patient is controversial. Proponents of the Ertl procedure (in which the cut ends of the tibia and fibula are joined with a bone bridge synostosis) argue that the residual limb is more stable which confers better prosthetic fit and improved function especially among high-performing individuals. At the same time, the Ertl procedure is associated with longer operative and healing time and may be associated with a higher complication rate compared with the standard Burgess procedure...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320057/psychiatric-diagnoses-and-medication-treatment-among-patients-presenting-for-paediatric-weight-management-associations-with-adiposity-aerobic-fitness-and-cardiometabolic-health
#3
J M Tucker, A Cadieux, K Culver, L Smith, W Stratbucker
We compared anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk and aerobic fitness among obese youth in weight management who were diagnosed with one or more psychiatric disorders (PD), with (PD+M) or without (PD-M) a prescribed psychotropic medication with those with no PD (NPD). Physical measures were evaluated at baseline, and psychiatric diagnoses and related medications were identified from medical records. Of 99 patients 64 (65%) had a diagnosed PD, and of those, 23 (36%) had a related medication (PD+M). Compared to NPD, PD-M had a higher body mass index (BMI) (P = 0...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319786/lower-cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-associated-with-more-time-spent-sedentary-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#4
Davy Vancampfort, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys, Ruud van Winkel, Joseph Firth, Tine Van Damme, Michel Probst
Patients with a psychotic disorder show lower cardiorespiratory fitness and higher mortality rates compared to healthy individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether in patients with first-episode psychosis a low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with decreased physical activity and increased sedentary levels. Twenty-nine outpatients (21 men; 22.8±5.1 years) performed a maximal exercise test to assess their maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), wore a Senswear armband for five consecutive days and were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
March 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319588/physical-activity-and-global-self-worth-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-children
#5
Hudson Reddon, David Meyre, John Cairney
PURPOSE: Physical activity is associated with an array of physical and mental health benefits among children and adolescents. The development of self-worth/self-esteem has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the mental health benefits derived from physical activity. Despite several studies that have analyzed the association between physical activity and self-worth, the results have been inconsistent. It is also uncertain how related physical health measures, such as sedentary behaviour, body composition and fitness influence the relationship between physical activity and self-worth over time...
March 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319587/sedentary-behavior-physical-activity-and-fitness-the-maastricht-study
#6
Jeroen Hpm van der Velde, Annemarie Koster, Julianne D van der Berg, Simone Js Sep, Carla Jh van der Kallen, Pieter C Dagnelie, Miranda T Schram, Ronald Ma Henry, Simone Jpm Eussen, Martien Cjm van Dongen, Coen DA Stehouwer, Nicolaas C Schaper, Hans Hcm Savelberg
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the mutual independent associations of sedentary behavior, lower intensity physical activity (LPA) and higher intensity physical activity HPA (an approximation of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: 2,024 participants were included from The Maastricht Study (mean±SD age: 59.7±8.1 years, 49.6% men). With the activPAL3 activity monitor we assessed sedentary time (ST), sedentary pattern variables (number of sedentary breaks, average sedentary bout duration, and number of prolonged sedentary bouts (≥30 min)), LPA, and HPA...
March 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319426/high-satisfaction-and-return-to-sports-after-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-in-patients-aged-55-years-and-younger
#7
Grant H Garcia, Joseph N Liu, Alec Sinatro, Hao-Hua Wu, Joshua S Dines, Russell F Warren, David M Dines, Lawrence V Gulotta
BACKGROUND: Young, active candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are a unique group of patients. Not only do they demand longevity and improved function, but they also desire a return to physical activities. PURPOSE: To determine the rate of return to sports in patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent anatomic TSA at a single institution...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319189/lung-function-parameters-improve-prediction-of-vo2peak-in-an-elderly-population-the-generation-100-study
#8
Erlend Hassel, Dorthe Stensvold, Thomas Halvorsen, Ulrik Wisløff, Arnulf Langhammer, Sigurd Steinshamn
Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is an indicator of cardiovascular health and a useful tool for risk stratification. Direct measurement of VO2peak is resource-demanding and may be contraindicated. There exist several non-exercise models to estimate VO2peak that utilize easily obtainable health parameters, but none of them includes lung function measures or hemoglobin concentrations. We aimed to test whether addition of these parameters could improve prediction of VO2peak compared to an established model that includes age, waist circumference, self-reported physical activity and resting heart rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319160/psychometric-assessment-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-brief-illness-perception-questionnaire-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#9
Na Zhang, Richard Fielding, Inda Soong, Karen K K Chan, Conrad Lee, Alice Ng, Wing Kin Sze, Janice Tsang, Victor Lee, Wendy Wing Tak Lam
OBJECTIVE: The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) supposedly evaluates cognitive and emotional representations of illness. This study examined the validity and reliability of a traditional Chinese version of the B-IPQ in Hong Kong Chinese breast cancer survivors. METHODS: 358 Chinese breast cancer survivors who had recently ended their primary treatment completed this B-IPQ Chinese version. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) tested the factor structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318387/a-qualitative-study-of-the-challenges-of-providing-pre-prosthetic-rehabilitation-in-rural-south-africa
#10
Liezel Ennion, Anton Johannesson Johannesson
BACKGROUND: There is a known shortage of rehabilitation staff in rural settings and a sharp increase in the number of lower limb amputations being performed. A lack of adequate pre-prosthetic rehabilitation will result in worse physical and psychological outcomes for a person with a lower limb amputation, and they will not be eligible to be fitted with a prosthesis. OBJECTIVE: To explore therapists' experiences with providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in a rural setting...
March 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318306/physical-education-and-sport
#11
Paul D Loprinzi, Bradley J Cardinal, Marita K Cardinal, Charles B Corbin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between physical education (PE) and sports involvement with physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and beliefs about PA among a national sample of adolescents. SETTING: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey were used. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 459 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. MEASURES: Adolescents self-reported engagement in the above parameters; muscular fitness objectively determined...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317282/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-risk-of-site-specific-cancers-a%C3%A2-long-term-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Trude E Robsahm, Ragnhild S Falk, Trond Heir, Leiv Sandvik, Linda Vos, Jan Erikssen, Steinar Tretli
Based on self-reported physical activity, there is epidemiologic evidence for a beneficial relation between physical activity and colon cancer in men, but findings for other cancers are inconclusive. Measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can provide knowledge about the cancer-preventive value of physical activity. We aimed to assess relationships between CRF and risk of site-specific cancers. A cohort of 1997 healthy Norwegian men, aged 40-59 years at inclusion in 1972-1975, was followed for cancer throughout 2012 using data from the Cancer Registry of Norway...
March 20, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317122/an-anthropomorphic-abdominal-phantom-for-deformable-image-registration-accuracy-validation-in-adaptive-radiation-therapy
#13
Yuliang Liao, Linjing Wang, Xiangdong Xu, Haibin Chen, Jiawei Chen, Guoqian Zhang, Huaiyu Lei, Ruihao Wang, Shuxu Zhang, Xuejun Gu, Xin Zhen, Linghong Zhou
PURPOSE: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for geometric accuracy and dose summation accuracy evaluations of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). METHOD: Organ molds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra and two metastasis tumors, were 3D printed using contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ molds were molded with deformable gels made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316256/investigation-on-the-compatibility-of-xanthan-gum-and-calcium-polysulfide-and-the-rheological-properties-of-xg-solutions
#14
Dengfeng Liu, Liming Ren, Chunyu Wen, Jun Dong
The application of shear thinning xanthan gum (XG) solutions as the delivery media can solve the bypassing problem induced by heterogeneity, especially when low permeable zones in aquifer are present. A series of experiments were carried out to investigate the compatibility of XG and calcium polysulfide (CPS) aiming at chromium contamination in groundwater. In addition, rheological properties of XG solutions under subsurface conditions related to delivery were studied. Results indicated that: (1) the presence of XG could slow down reduction of hexavalent chromium by CPS, and the reaction fitted well with the second order kinetics...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315526/survivor-fitness-an-exercise-program-for-young-survivors-and-patients-with-cancer
#15
Jose A Acevedo
Young survivors of cancer often face challenges reintegrating into their schools and communities after treatment. Maintaining a physically active lifestyle is recommended, but finding appropriate exercises that cater to their needs can be difficult. As a result, the pilot fitness program Move4Fun/Move4Fitness was developed. This 12-week basic fitness program teaches young survivors of cancer appropriate exercises and how they can exercise on their own with limited space and equipment. Participants experienced physical and mental transformations demonstrated through weight loss, building of muscle, and increased self-confidence...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315285/effects-of-plyometric-training-on-physical-fitness-in-prepuberal-soccer-athletes
#16
Yassine Negra, Helmi Chaabene, Senda Sammoud, Raja Bouguezzi, Mohamed Aymen Abbes, Younés Hachana, Urs Granacher
This study aimed at examining the effects of plyometric training on stable (SPT) vs. unstable (UPT) surfaces on physical fitness in prepuberal soccer players. Male athletes were randomly assigned to SPT (n=18; age=12.7±0.2 years) or UPT (n=16; age=12.2±0.5 years). Both groups conducted 3 regular soccer training sessions per week combined with either 2 SPT or UPT sessions. Assessment of jumping ability (countermovement jump [CMJ], and standing long jump [SLJ]), speed (10-m, 20-m, 30-m sprint), agility (Illinois agility test [IAT]), and balance (stable [SSBT], unstable [USBT] stork balance test; stable [SYBT], unstable [UYBT] Y balance test) was conducted pre-and post-training...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314994/amino-acids-intake-and-physical-fitness-among-adolescents
#17
Luis Gracia-Marco, Silvia Bel-Serrat, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, Yannis Manios, Ascensión Marcos, Denes Molnar, Kurt Widhalm, Angela Polito, Jeremy Vanhelst, Maria Hagströmer, Michael Sjöström, Anthony Kafatos, Stefaan de Henauw, Ángel Gutierrez, Manuel J Castillo, Luis A Moreno
The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test...
March 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314543/effects-of-coping-flexibility-on-cardiovascular-reactivity-to-task-difficulty
#18
Tsukasa Kato
OBJECTIVE: Coping flexibility refers to an individual's ability to effectively modify his or her coping behavior to better fit the nature of each stressful situation they encounter. More flexible coping is believed to produce more adaptive psychological functioning and physical health. METHODS: We examined the relationship between coping flexibility and cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to psychological stress. Challenging tasks of two difficulty levels were presented to 24 men and 24 women aged 18 to 24years...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314078/high-physical-fitness-is-associated-with-reduction-in-basal-and-exercise-induced-inflammation
#19
Øyunn Kleiven, Magnus Bjørkavoll-Bergseth, Tor Melberg, Øyvind Skadberg, Rolf Bergseth, Jone Selvåg, Bjørn Auestad, Pål Aukrust, Torbjørn Aarsland, Stein Ørn
C-reactive protein (CRP) increases after strenuous exercise. It has been a concern that prolonged strenuous exercise may be harmful, and induce a deleterious inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to 1) Assess and quantify the magnitude of CRP response following an endurance cycling competition in healthy middle-aged recreational cyclists. 2) Identify important determinants of this response. 3) Identify the relationship between CRP, myocardial damage (cardiac Troponin I (cTnI)) and myocardial strain (B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP))...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303944/relationships-between-strength-and-endurance-parameters-and-air-depletion-rates-in-professional-firefighters
#20
Stephanie Windisch, Wolfgang Seiberl, Ansgar Schwirtz, Daniel Hahn
The aim of this study was to quantify the physical demands of a simulated firefighting circuit and to establish the relationship between job performance and endurance and strength fitness measurements. On four separate days 41 professional firefighters (39 ± 9 yr, 179.6 ± 2.3 cm, 84.4 ± 9.2 kg, BMI 26.1 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) performed treadmill testing, fitness testing (strength, balance and flexibility) and a simulated firefighting exercise. The firefighting exercise included ladder climbing (20 m), treadmill walking (200 m), pulling a wire rope hoist (15 times) and crawling an orientation section (50 m)...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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