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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549329/abnormal-small-world-brain-functional-networks-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-with-poor-insight
#1
Hui Lei, Yan Cui, Jie Fan, Xiaocui Zhang, Mingtian Zhong, Jinyao Yi, Lin Cai, Dezhong Yao, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on neurobiological correlates of poor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study explored whether specific changes occur in small-world network (SWN) properties in the brain functional network of OCD patients with poor insight. METHOD: Resting-state electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for 12 medication-free OCD patients with poor insight, 50 medication-free OCD patients with good insight, and 36 healthy controls...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549279/control-adjustments-in-speaking-electrophysiology-of-the-gratton-effect-in-picture-naming
#2
Natalia Shitova, Ardi Roelofs, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Accumulating evidence suggests that spoken word production requires different amounts of top-down control depending on the prevailing circumstances. For example, during Stroop-like tasks, the interference in response time (RT) is typically larger following congruent trials than following incongruent trials. This effect is called the Gratton effect, and has been taken to reflect top-down control adjustments based on the previous trial type. Such control adjustments have been studied extensively in Stroop and Eriksen flanker tasks (mostly using manual responses), but not in the picture-word interference (PWI) task, which is a workhorse of language production research...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548564/eating-habits-and-food-additive-intakes-are-associated-with-emotional-states-based-on-eeg-and-hrv-in-healthy-korean-children-and-adolescents
#3
Jin Young Kim, Hye Lim Kang, Dae-Keun Kim, Seung Wan Kang, Yoo Kyoung Park
PURPOSE: Recent study suggests that psychological issues and eating habits are closely related. In this study, we aimed to find the association between eating habits and intakes of artificial sweeteners with emotional states of schoolchildren using quantitatively analyzing objective biosignals. METHODS: The study was conducted at the National Standard Reference Data Center for Korean EEG as a cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighteen healthy children who have not been diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (168 girls and 150 boys; mean age of 11...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548460/internally-generated-hippocampal-sequences-as-a-vantage-point-to-probe-future-oriented-cognition
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Caleb Kemere, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Information processing in the rodent hippocampus is fundamentally shaped by internally generated sequences (IGSs), expressed during two different network states: theta sequences, which repeat and reset at the ∼8 Hz theta rhythm associated with active behavior, and punctate sharp wave-ripple (SWR) sequences associated with wakeful rest or slow-wave sleep. A potpourri of diverse functional roles has been proposed for these IGSs, resulting in a fragmented conceptual landscape. Here, we advance a unitary view of IGSs, proposing that they reflect an inferential process that samples a policy from the animal's generative model, supported by hippocampus-specific priors...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546584/delta-coherence-in-resting-state-eeg-predicts-the-reduction-in-cigarette-craving-after-hypnotic-aversion-suggestions
#5
Xiaoming Li, Ru Ma, Liangjun Pang, Wanwan Lv, Yunlu Xie, Ying Chen, Pengyu Zhang, Jiawen Chen, Qichao Wu, Guanbao Cui, Peng Zhang, Yifeng Zhou, Xiaochu Zhang
Cigarette craving is a key contributor of nicotine addiction. Hypnotic aversion suggestions have been used to help smoking cessation and reduce smoking relapse rates but its neural basis is poorly understood. This study investigated the underlying neural basis of hypnosis treatment for nicotine addiction with resting state Electroencephalograph (EEG) coherence as the measure. The sample consisted of 42 male smokers. Cigarette craving was measured by the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire. The 8-minute resting state EEG was recorded in baseline state and after hypnotic induction in the hypnotic state...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544507/the-effect-of-binaural-beat-technology-on-the-cardiovascular-stress-response-in-military-service-members-with-postdeployment-stress
#6
MeLisa A Gantt, Stephanie Dadds, Debra S Burns, Dale Glaser, Angelo D Moore
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of embedded theta brainwave frequency in music using binaural beat technology (BBT) compared to music alone on the cardiovascular stress response in military service members with postdeployment stress. DESIGN: A double-blinded, randomized, pre- and postintervention trial. METHODS: Seventy-four military services members with complaint of postdeployment stress were randomized to either music with BBT or music alone...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542644/pre-target-neural-oscillations-predict-variability-in-the-detection-of-small-pitch-changes
#7
Esther Florin, Dominique Vuvan, Isabelle Peretz, Sylvain Baillet
Pitch discrimination is important for language or music processing. Previous studies indicate that auditory perception depends on pre-target neural activity. However, so far the pre-target electrophysiological conditions which enable the detection of small pitch changes are not well studied, but might yield important insights into pitch-processing. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) source imaging to reveal the pre-target effects of successful auditory detection of small pitch deviations from a sequence of standard tones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542392/acute-exercise-does-not-modify-brain-activity-and-memory-performance-in-app-ps1-mice
#8
Angelica Miki Stein, Victor Munive, Ana M Fernandez, Angel Nuñez, Ignacio Torres Aleman
Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). With an increasingly aging population, development of affordable screening techniques to determine cognitive status will help identify population-at-risk for further follow-up. Because physical exercise is known to modulate cognitive performance, we used it as a functional test of cognitive health. Mice were submitted to treadmill running at moderate speed for 30 min, and their brain activity was monitored before and after exercise using electrocorticogram (ECG) recordings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542210/drosophila-dna-polymerase-theta-utilizes-both-helicase-like-and-polymerase-domains-during-microhomology-mediated-end-joining-and-interstrand-crosslink-repair
#9
Kelly Beagan, Robin L Armstrong, Alice Witsell, Upasana Roy, Nikolai Renedo, Amy E Baker, Orlando Scharer, Mitch McVey
Double strand breaks (DSBs) and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are toxic DNA lesions that can be repaired through multiple pathways, some of which involve shared proteins. One of these proteins, DNA Polymerase θ (Pol θ), coordinates a mutagenic DSB repair pathway named microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) and is also a critical component for bypass or repair of ICLs in several organisms. Pol θ contains both polymerase and helicase-like domains that are tethered by an unstructured central region. While the role of the polymerase domain in promoting MMEJ has been studied extensively both in vitro and in vivo, a function for the helicase-like domain, which possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity, remains unclear...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540588/proteomic-analysis-of-the-phycobiliprotein-antenna-of-the-cryptophyte-alga-guillardia-theta-cultured-under-different-light-intensities
#10
Thomas Kieselbach, Otilia Cheregi, Beverley R Green, Christiane Funk
Plants and algae have developed various light-harvesting mechanisms for optimal delivery of excitation energy to the photosystems. Cryptophyte algae have evolved a novel soluble light-harvesting antenna utilizing phycobilin pigments to complement the membrane-intrinsic Chl a/c-binding LHC antenna. This new antenna consists of the plastid-encoded β-subunit, a relic of the ancestral phycobilisome, and a novel nuclear-encoded α-subunit unique to cryptophytes. Together, these proteins form the active α1β·α2β-tetramer...
May 24, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539635/regulation-of-chloroplast-and-nucleomorph-replication-by-the-cell-cycle-in-the-cryptophyte-guillardia-theta
#11
Ryo Onuma, Neha Mishra, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
The chloroplasts of cryptophytes arose through a secondary endosymbiotic event in which a red algal endosymbiont was integrated into a previously nonphotosynthetic eukaryote. The cryptophytes retain a remnant of the endosymbiont nucleus (nucleomorph) that is replicated once in the cell cycle along with the chloroplast. To understand how the chloroplast, nucleomorph and host cell divide in a coordinated manner, we examined the expression of genes/proteins that are related to nucleomorph replication and chloroplast division as well as the timing of nuclear and nucleomorph DNA synthesis in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539421/sound-making-actions-lead-to-immediate-plastic-changes-of-neuromagnetic-evoked-responses-and-induced-beta-band-oscillations-during-perception
#12
Bernhard Ross, Masihullah Barat, Takako Fujioka
Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as vocalization or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at beta-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539393/phencyclidine-pcp-administration-during-neurodevelopment-alters-network-activity-in-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-adult-rats
#13
Celia Kjaerby, Nanna Hovelsø, Nils Ole Dalby, Florence Sotty
Symptoms of schizophrenia have been linked to insults during neurodevelopment such as NMDA receptor antagonist exposure. In animal models, this leads to schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms as well as molecular and functional changes within hippocampal and prefrontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine how administration with the NMDA receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), during neurodevelopment affects functional network changes within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We recorded field potentials in vivo following electrical brainstem stimulation and observed a suppression of evoked theta power in ventral hippocampus, while evoked gamma power in mPFC was enhanced in rats administered neonatally with PCP...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536546/only-three-fingers-write-but-the-whole-brain-works-a-high-density-eeg-study-showing-advantages-of-drawing-over-typing-for-learning
#14
Audrey L H van der Meer, F R Ruud van der Weel
Are different parts of the brain active when we type on a keyboard as opposed to when we draw visual images on a tablet? Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in young adults to study brain electrical activity as they were typing or describing in words visually presented Pictionary(TM) words using a keyboard, or as they were drawing pictures of the same words on a tablet using a stylus. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536507/dopamine-modulates-delta-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-behaving-rats
#15
Victoria Andino-Pavlovsky, Annie C Souza, Robson Scheffer-Teixeira, Adriano B L Tort, Roberto Etchenique, Sidarta Ribeiro
Dopamine release and phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC) have independently been implicated in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. To causally investigate whether dopamine release affects phase-amplitude comodulation between different frequencies in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from the medial PFC (mPFC) of behaving rats, we used RuBiDopa, a light-sensitive caged compound that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine when irradiated with visible light. LFP power did not change in any frequency band after the application of light-uncaged dopamine, but significantly strengthened phase-amplitude comodulation between delta and gamma oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536500/the-impact-of-single-session-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-posterior-superior-temporal-sulcus-on-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Hsing-Chang Ni, June Hung, Chen-Te Wu, Yu-Yu Wu, Chee-Jen Chang, Rou-Shayn Chen, Ying-Zu Huang
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years) completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation) in a randomized order with a 1-week interval...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536269/a-cognition-related-neural-oscillation-pattern-generated-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-can-control-operant-learning-in-rats
#17
Samuel Hernández-González, Celia Andreu-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel Martín-Pascual, Agnès Gruart, José María Delgado-García
The prelimbic (PrL) cortex constitutes one of the highest levels of cortical hierarchy dedicated to the execution of adaptive behaviors. We have identified a specific local field potential (LFP) pattern generated in the PrL cortex, associated with cognition-related behaviors, and used it to trigger the activation of a visual display on a touch screen as part of an operant conditioning task. Rats learned to increase the presentation rate of the selected theta/beta-gamma transition pattern across training sessions...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#18
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2 g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531229/protein-kinase-c-theta-is-dispensable-for-suppression-mediated-by-cd25-cd4-regulatory-t-cells
#19
Kerstin Siegmund, Nikolaus Thuille, Katarzyna Wachowicz, Natascha Hermann-Kleiter, Gottfried Baier
The activation of conventional T cells upon T cell receptor stimulation critically depends on protein kinase C theta (PKCθ). However, its role in regulatory T (Treg) cell function has yet to be fully elucidated. Using siRNA or the potent and PKC family-selective pharmacological inhibitor AEB071, we could show that murine Treg-mediated suppression in vitro is independent of PKCθ function. Likewise, Treg cells of PKCθ-deficient mice were fully functional, showing a similar suppressive activity as wild-type CD25+CD4+ T cells in an in vitro suppression assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529478/slow-and-fast-responses-two-mechanisms-of-trial-outcome-processing-revealed-by-eeg-oscillations
#20
Nikita A Novikov, Yulia M Nurislamova, Natalia A Zhozhikashvili, Evgenii E Kalenkovich, Anna A Lapina, Boris V Chernyshev
Cognitive control includes maintenance of task-specific processes related to attention, and non-specific regulation of motor threshold. Depending upon the nature of the behavioral tasks, these mechanisms may predispose to different kinds of errors, with either increased or decreased response time (RT) of erroneous responses relative to correct responses. Specifically, slow responses are related to attentional lapses and decision uncertainty, these conditions tending to delay RTs of both erroneous and correct responses...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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