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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475078/damage-of-the-temporal-lobe-and-apoe-status-determine-neural-compensation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Laura Prieto Del Val, Jose L Cantero, Daniel Baena, Mercedes Atienza
In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the APOE4 genotype is associated with accelerated memory decline, likely due to the impact of neuropathology on main cerebral networks required for successful memory retrieval and/or to decreased capacity for recruiting secondary networks that might compensate for that brain damage. Here, we tested this hypothesis in twenty-six healthy older adults and thirty-four MCI patients, of which sixteen were APOE4 carriers. Compared to controls, MCI showed hippocampal volume reduction, cortical thinning in frontal, temporal and parietal regions, and dysfunctional EEG oscillations across fronto-temporal networks...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474854/evidence-for-a-neural-signature-of-musical-preference-during-silence
#2
Joucla Coralie, Nicolier Magali, Giustiniani Julie, Brunotte Gaelle, Noiret Nicolas, Monnin Julie, Magnin Eloi, Pazart Lionel, Moulin Thierry, Haffen Emmanuel, Vandel Pierre, Gabriel Damien
One of the most basic and person-specific affective responses to music is liking. The present investigation sought to determine whether liking was preserved during spontaneous auditory imagery. To this purpose, we inserted two-second silent intervals into liked and disliked songs, a method known to automatically recreate a mental image of these songs. Neural correlates of musical preference were measured by high-density electroencephalography in twenty subjects who had to listen to a set of five pre-selected unknown songs the same number of times for two weeks...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473981/theta-frequency-decreases-throughout-the-hippocampal-formation-in-a-focal-epilepsy-model
#3
A Kilias, U Häussler, K Heining, U P Froriep, C A Haas, U Egert
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by focal, recurrent spontaneous seizures, sclerosis and granule cell dispersion in the hippocampal formation. Changes in theta rhythm properties have been correlated with the severity of hippocampal restructuring and were suggested as a cause of memory deficits accompanying epilepsy. For severe sclerosis, it has even been questioned whether theta band oscillations persists. We asked how theta oscillations change with graded restructuring along the longitudinal hippocampal axis and whether these changes correlate with the overall severity of temporal lobe epilepsy...
February 23, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473165/neural-oscillations-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-after-electrical-stimulation-of-the-amygdala-relevance-to-acute-stress-processing
#4
Aina Luque-García, Vicent Teruel-Martí, Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Albert Adell, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Joana Martínez-Ricós
The stress system coordinates the adaptive reactions of the organism to stressors. So, dysfunctions in this circuit may correlate to anxiety-related disorders, including depression. Comprehending the dynamics of this network may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these diseases. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brainstem nodes by triggering endocrine, autonomic and behavioural stress responses. The medial prefrontal cortex plays a significant role in regulating reactions to stressors, and is specifically important for limiting fear responses...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468778/behavioral-preference-in-sequential-decision-making-and-its-association-with-anxiety
#5
Dandan Zhang, Ruolei Gu
In daily life, people often make consecutive decisions before the ultimate goal is reached (i.e., sequential decision-making). However, this kind of decision-making has been largely overlooked in the literature. The current study investigated whether behavioral preference would change during sequential decisions, and the neural processes underlying the potential changes. For this purpose, we revised the classic balloon analogue risk task and recorded the electroencephalograph (EEG) signals associated with each step of decision-making...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467635/oscillatory-brain-responses-reflect-anticipation-during-comprehension-of-speech-acts-in-spoken-dialog
#6
Rosa S Gisladottir, Sara Bögels, Stephen C Levinson
Everyday conversation requires listeners to quickly recognize verbal actions, so-called speech acts , from the underspecified linguistic code and prepare a relevant response within the tight time constraints of turn-taking. The goal of this study was to determine the time-course of speech act recognition by investigating oscillatory EEG activity during comprehension of spoken dialog. Participants listened to short, spoken dialogs with target utterances that delivered three distinct speech acts (Answers, Declinations, Pre-offers)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467615/decoding-english-alphabet-letters-using-eeg-phase-information
#7
YiYan Wang, Pingxiao Wang, Yuguo Yu
Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG) contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467145/electrophysiological-signatures-of-spatial-boundaries-in-the-human-subiculum
#8
Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F Miller, Andrew J Watrous, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A Worrell, Brent M Berry, Joshua P Aronson, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R Das, Joel M Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs
Environmental boundaries play a crucial role in spatial navigation and memory across a wide range of distantly-related species. In rodents, boundary representations have been identified at the single-cell level in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation. While studies of hippocampal function and spatial behavior suggest that similar representations might exist in humans, boundary-related neural activity has not been identified electrophysiologically in humans until now. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed intracranial recordings from the hippocampal formation of surgical epilepsy patients (of both sexes) while they performed a virtual spatial navigation task and compared the power in three frequency bands (1-4 Hz, 4-10 Hz, 30-90 Hz) for target locations near and far from the environmental boundaries...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462702/cell-type-specific-intrinsic-perithreshold-oscillations-in-hippocampal-gabaergic-interneurons
#9
Young-Jin Kang, Hannah Elisabeth Smashey Lewis, Mason William Young, Gubbi Govindaiah, Lazar John Greenfield, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Sang-Hun Lee
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning, memory, and spatial processing through coordinated network activity including theta and gamma oscillations. Recent evidence suggests that hippocampal subregions (e.g., CA1) can generate these oscillations at the network level, at least in part, through GABAergic interneurons. However, it is unclear whether specific GABAergic interneurons generate intrinsic theta and/or gamma oscillations at the single cell level. Since major types of CA1 interneurons (i.e., parvalbumin-positive basket cells (PVBCs), cannabinoid type 1 receptor-positive basket cells (CB1 BCs), Schaffer collateral-associated cells (SCAs), neurogliaform cells and ivy cells) are thought to play key roles in network theta and gamma oscillations in the hippocampus, we tested the hypothesis that these cells generate intrinsic perithreshold oscillations at the single cell level...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462656/eeg-phase-states-at-stimulus-onset-in-a-variable-isi-go-nogo-task-effects-on-erp-components
#10
Robert J Barry, Jack S Fogarty, Frances M De Blasio, Diana Karamacoska
Previous EEG-ERP dynamics studies found non-random "preferred" EEG phases at stimulus onset in a fixed interstimulus interval (ISI) equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo paradigm, with substantial effects on ERP components. Here we changed to a variable ISI task to prevent/reduce preferential phase occurrence. Discrete Fourier transforms decomposed prestimulus EEG at Cz for each trial to calculate the phase of different frequencies at stimulus onset; we combined these into the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands, and then sorted trials into phase quartiles for each...
February 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459720/controlling-striatal-function-via-anterior-frontal-cortex-stimulation
#11
Mieke van Holstein, Monja I Froböse, Jacinta O'Shea, Esther Aarts, Roshan Cools
Motivational, cognitive and action goals are processed by distinct, topographically organized, corticostriatal circuits. We aimed to test whether processing in the striatum is under causal control by cortical regions in the human brain by investigating the effects of offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over distinct frontal regions associated with motivational, cognitive and action goal processing. Using a three-session counterbalanced within-subject crossover design, continuous theta burst stimulation was applied over the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or premotor cortex, immediately after which participants (N = 27) performed a paradigm assessing reward anticipation (motivation), task (cognitive) switching, and response (action) switching...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459372/detecting-unattended-stimuli-depends-on-the-phase-of-pre-stimulus-neural-oscillations
#12
Anthony M Harris, Paul E Dux, Jason B Mattingley
Neural oscillations appear important for perception and attention processes, as stimulus detection is dependent upon the phase of 7-11 Hz oscillations prior to stimulus onset. Previous work has examined stimulus detection at attended locations, but it is unknown whether unattended locations are also subject to phasic modulation by ongoing oscillatory activity, as would be predicted by theories proposing a role for neural oscillations in organizing general neural processing. Here we recorded brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG) while human participants of both sexes detected brief visual targets preceded by a spatial cue, and determined whether performance for cued (attended) and uncued (unattended) targets was influenced by oscillatory phase across a range of frequencies...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458058/lithium-modulates-the-muscarinic-facilitation-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-theta-gamma-coupling-in-the-hippocampal-prefrontal-pathway
#13
Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar, João P Leite, Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rodrigo N Romcy-Pereira
Mood disorders are associated to functional unbalance in mesolimbic and frontal cortical circuits. As a commonly used mood stabilizer, lithium acts through multiple biochemical pathways, including those activated by muscarinic cholinergic receptors crucial for hippocampal-prefrontal communication. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of lithium on prefrontal cortex responses under cholinergic drive. Lithium-treated rats were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with a ventricular cannula for muscarinic activation, a recording electrode in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and a stimulating electrode in the intermediate hippocampal CA1...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454641/beyond-the-frn-broadening-the-time-course-of-eeg-and-erp-components-implicated-in-reward-processing
#14
REVIEW
James E Glazer, Nicholas J Kelley, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Vijay A Mittal, Robin Nusslock
Most reward-related electroencephalogram (EEG) studies focus exclusively on the feedback-related negativity (FRN, also known as feedback negativity or FN, medial-frontal negativity or MFN, feedback error-related negativity or fERN, and reward positivity or RewP). This component is usually measured approximately 200-300 ms post-feedback at a single electrode in the frontal-central area (e.g., Fz or FCz). The present review argues that this singular focus on the FRN fails to leverage EEG's greatest strength, its temporal resolution, by underutilizing the rich variety of event-related potential (ERP) and EEG time-frequency components encompassing the wider temporal heterogeneity of reward processing...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451889/effects-of-patterned-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-on-soleus-spinal-motor-neuron-excitability
#15
Samuel Jimenez, Laura Mordillo-Mateos, Michele Dileone, Michela Campolo, Carmen Carrasco-Lopez, Fabricia Moitinho-Ferreira, Tomas Gallego-Izquierdo, Hartwig R Siebner, Josep Valls-Solé, Juan Aguilar, Antonio Oliviero
Spinal plasticity is thought to contribute to sensorimotor recovery of limb function in several neurological disorders and can be experimentally induced in animals and humans using different stimulation protocols. In healthy individuals, electrical continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) of the median nerve has been shown to change spinal motoneuron excitability in the cervical spinal cord as indexed by a change in mean H-reflex amplitude in the flexor carpi radialis muscle. It is unknown whether continuous TBS of a peripheral nerve can also shift motoneuron excitability in the lower limb...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448391/relationship-between-the-mechanisms-of-gamma-rhythm-generation-and-the-magnitude-of-the-macroscopic-phase-response-function-in-a-population-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-modified-quadratic-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#16
Akihiko Akao, Yutaro Ogawa, Yasuhiko Jimbo, G Bard Ermentrout, Kiyoshi Kotani
Gamma oscillations are thought to play an important role in brain function. Interneuron gamma (ING) and pyramidal interneuron gamma (PING) mechanisms have been proposed as generation mechanisms for these oscillations. However, the relation between the generation mechanisms and the dynamical properties of the gamma oscillation are still unclear. Among the dynamical properties of the gamma oscillation, the phase response function (PRF) is important because it encodes the response of the oscillation to inputs...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447453/in-silico-genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-glutathione-s-transferase-gene-family-in-vigna-radiata-l-wilczek
#17
Swati Vaish, Praveen Awasthi, Siddharth Tiwari, Shailesh Kumar Tiwari, Divya Gupta, Mahesh Kumar Basantani
Plant glutathione S-transferases are integral to normal plant metabolism, and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. GST gene family has been characterized in diverse plant species using molecular biology and bioinformatics approaches. In the current study, in silico analysis identified 44 GSTs in Vigna radiata. Of the total 44 GSTs identified, chromosomal locations of 31 GSTs were confirmed. The pI value of GST proteins ranged from 5.10 to 9.40. The predicted molecular weights ranged from 13.12 to 50 kDa. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that all GSTs were predominantly localized in the cytoplasm...
February 15, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446381/ketamine-blocks-bursting-in-the-lateral-habenula-to-rapidly-relieve-depression
#18
Yan Yang, Yihui Cui, Kangning Sang, Yiyan Dong, Zheyi Ni, Shuangshuang Ma, Hailan Hu
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has attracted enormous interest in mental health research owing to its rapid antidepressant actions, but its mechanism of action has remained elusive. Here we show that blockade of NMDAR-dependent bursting activity in the 'anti-reward center', the lateral habenula (LHb), mediates the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine in rat and mouse models of depression. LHb neurons show a significant increase in burst activity and theta-band synchronization in depressive-like animals, which is reversed by ketamine...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446044/electrophysiological-correlates-of-encoding-processes-in-a-full-report-visual-working-memory-paradigm
#19
Kyle W Killebrew, Gennadiy Gurariy, Candace E Peacock, Marian E Berryhill, Gideon P Caplovitz
Why are some visual stimuli remembered, whereas others are forgotten? A limitation of recognition paradigms is that they measure aggregate behavioral performance and/or neural responses to all stimuli presented in a visual working memory (VWM) array. To address this limitation, we paired an electroencephalography (EEG) frequency-tagging technique with two full-report VWM paradigms. This permitted the tracking of individual stimuli as well as the aggregate response. We recorded high-density EEG (256 channel) while participants viewed four shape stimuli, each flickering at a different frequency...
February 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445334/post-task-effects-on-eeg-brain-activity-differ-for-various-differential-learning-and-contextual-interference-protocols
#20
Diana Henz, Alexander John, Christian Merz, Wolfgang I Schöllhorn
A large body of research has shown superior learning rates in variable practice compared to repetitive practice. More specifically, this has been demonstrated in the contextual interference (CI) and in the differential learning (DL) approach that are both representatives of variable practice. Behavioral studies have indicate different learning processes in CI and DL. Aim of the present study was to examine immediate post-task effects on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activation patterns after CI and DL protocols that reveal underlying neural processes at the early stage of motor consolidation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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