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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921217/don-t-make-me-angry-you-wouldn-t-like-me-when-i-m-angry-volitional-choices-to-act-or-inhibit-are-modulated-by-subliminal-perception-of-emotional-faces
#1
Jim Parkinson, Sarah Garfinkel, Hugo Critchley, Zoltan Dienes, Anil K Seth
Volitional action and self-control-feelings of acting according to one's own intentions and in being control of one's own actions-are fundamental aspects of human conscious experience. However, it is unknown whether high-level cognitive control mechanisms are affected by socially salient but nonconscious emotional cues. In this study, we manipulated free choice decisions to act or withhold an action by subliminally presenting emotional faces: In a novel version of the Go/NoGo paradigm, participants made speeded button-press responses to Go targets, withheld responses to NoGo targets, and made spontaneous, free choices to execute or withhold the response for Choice targets...
December 5, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920976/resting-state-theta-band-connectivity-and-graph-analysis-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Mengqi Xing, Reza Tadayonnejad, Annmarie MacNamara, Olusola Ajilore, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan, Alex Leow, Heide Klumpp
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state studies show generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with disturbances in networks involved in emotion regulation, emotion processing, and perceptual functions, suggesting a network framework is integral to elucidating the pathophysiology of gSAD. However, fMRI does not measure the fast dynamic interconnections of functional networks. Therefore, we examined whole-brain functional connectomics with electroencephalogram (EEG) during resting-state...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916830/influence-of-fragrances-on-human-psychophysiological-activity-with-special-reference-to-human-electroencephalographic-response
#3
REVIEW
Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Songmun Kim
The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence...
November 29, 2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916756/-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-for-higher-brain-function-deficits
#4
Yukichi Inoue
The management of higher brain dysfunctions such as stroke-induced unilateral spatial neglect (USN) or aphasia is crucial because these dysfunctions have devastating neurological repercussions on the patients' daily life and quality of life. Impairment of the physiological interhemispheric rivalry is often the result of brain insults such as strokes or traumatic injuries, and it may lead to USN or aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method, is a promising tool for restoring the pathological imbalance in interhemispheric rivalry by either suppressing the hyperactivity of the unaffected hemisphere or facilitating hypoactivity in the affected hemisphere...
December 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912066/cell-type-specific-optical-recording-of-membrane-voltage-dynamics-in-freely-moving-mice
#5
Jesse D Marshall, Jin Zhong Li, Yanping Zhang, Yiyang Gong, François St-Pierre, Michael Z Lin, Mark J Schnitzer
Electrophysiological field potential dynamics are of fundamental interest in basic and clinical neuroscience, but how specific cell types shape these dynamics in the live brain is poorly understood. To empower mechanistic studies, we created an optical technique, TEMPO, that records the aggregate trans-membrane voltage dynamics of genetically specified neurons in freely behaving mice. TEMPO has >10-fold greater sensitivity than prior fiber-optic techniques and attains the noise minimum set by quantum mechanical photon shot noise...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#6
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908841/study-of-gene-polymorphisms-of-glutathione-s-transferase-t1-m1-in-egyptian-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Naglaa Barseem, Mona Elsamalehy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of glutathione S- transferase mu 1 (GST M1) and glutathione S- transferase theta 1 (GST T1) polymorphisms with the development of T1DM and disease-related risk factors. METHODS: Sixty-four diabetic children and 41 controls were enrolled and subjected to fasting glucose, serum creatinine, lipid profile, HbA1c and evaluation of GST T1 and M1 genetic polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: There were significantly higher fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and cholesterol in the diabetics...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907050/when-is-the-brain-dead-living-like-electrophysiological-responses-and-photon-emissions-from-applications-of-neurotransmitters-in-fixed-post-mortem-human-brains
#8
Michael A Persinger, Nicolas Rouleau, Nirosha J Murugan, Lucas W E Tessaro, Justin N Costa
The structure of the post-mortem human brain can be preserved by immersing the organ within a fixative solution. Once the brain is perfused, cellular and histological features are maintained over extended periods of time. However, functions of the human brain are not assumed to be preserved beyond death and subsequent chemical fixation. Here we present a series of experiments which, together, refute this assumption. Instead, we suggest that chemical preservation of brain structure results in some retained functional capacity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905666/spectral-electroencephalography-profile-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-at-sleep-onset-in-narcolepsy-type-1
#9
F Pizza, R Ferri, S Vandi, F Rundo, M Iloti, G Neccia, G Plazzi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) period (SOREMP), the hallmark of narcolepsy, may be a specific state and not the simple anticipation of REM sleep. METHODS: We analyzed the electroencephalographic spectral content in untreated patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) during the sleep-onset period (SOP) and during nocturnal REM sleep in two consecutive nocturnal recordings from 31 patients with NT1 (mean age 34 ± 15 years, 18 males) and a single nocturnal recording from 36 controls (mean age 38 ± 13 years, 21 males)...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905227/a-practical-guide-to-forensic-nursing-amar-angela-f-and-sekula-l-kathleen-a-practical-guide-to-forensic-nursing-392pp-%C3%A2-38-85-sigma-theta-tau-international-kindle-edition-9781940446349-1940446341-formula-see-text
#10
(no author information available yet)
This fascinating publication describes in depth the roles and responsibilities of forensic nurses in the US, who are often involved in the scientific investigation of violent and sexual crimes. However, these duties differ from those of nurses in forensic or secure settings in the UK, who work primarily with offenders who have mental health problems and who are in hospital, prison or police cells.
December 1, 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903722/adenosine-kinase-deficiency-in-the-brain-results-in-maladaptive-synaptic-plasticity
#11
Ursula S Sandau, Mariana Colino-Oliveira, Abbie Jones, Bounmy Saleumvong, Shayla Q Coffman, Long Liu, Catarina Miranda-Lourenço, Cátia Palminha, Vânia L Batalha, Yiming Xu, Yuqing Huo, Maria J Diógenes, Ana M Sebastião, Detlev Boison
: Adenosine kinase (ADK) deficiency in human patients (OMIM:614300) disrupts the methionine cycle and triggers hypermethioninemia, hepatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, and seizures. To identify whether this neurological phenotype is intrinsically based on ADK deficiency in the brain or if it is secondary to liver dysfunction, we generated a mouse model with a brain-wide deletion of ADK by introducing a Nestin-Cre transgene into a line of conditional ADK deficient Adk(fl/fl) mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903706/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#12
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) particularly in temporal brain structures serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed-matching-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903639/automated-classification-of-pain-perception-using-high-density-electroencephalography-data
#13
Gaurav Misra, Wei-En Wang, Derek B Archer, Arnab Roy, Stephen A Coombes
Translating brief millisecond-long pain-eliciting stimuli to the subjective perception of pain is associated with changes in theta, alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations over sensorimotor cortex. However, when a pain-eliciting stimulus continues for minutes, regions beyond the sensorimotor cortex such as the prefrontal cortex are also engaged. Abnormalities in prefrontal cortex have been associated with chronic pain states, but conventional millisecond-long EEG paradigms do not engage prefrontal regions. In the current study we collected high-density EEG data during an experimental paradigm in which subjects experienced a 4 second low or high intensity pain-eliciting stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903440/auditory-cortical-delta-entrainment-interacts-with-oscillatory-power-in-multiple-fronto-parietal-networks
#14
Anne Keitel, Robin A A Ince, Joachim Gross, Christoph Kayser
The timing of slow auditory cortical activity aligns to the rhythmic fluctuations in speech. This entrainment is considered to be a marker of the prosodic and syllabic encoding of speech, and has been shown to correlate with intelligibility. Yet, whether and how auditory cortical entrainment is influenced by the activity in other speech-relevant areas remains unknown. Using source-localized MEG data, we quantified the dependency of auditory entrainment on the state of oscillatory activity in fronto-parietal regions...
November 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902711/eeg-to-primary-rewards-predictive-utility-and-malleability-by-brain-stimulation
#15
Nicole Prause, Greg J Siegle, Choi Deblieck, Allan Wu, Marco Iacoboni
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is thought to affect reward processing mechanisms, which may increase and decrease reward sensitivity. To test the ability of TBS to modulate response to strong primary rewards, participants hypersensitive to primary rewards were recruited. Twenty men and women with at least two opposite-sex, sexual partners in the last year received two forms of TBS. Stimulations were randomized to avoid order effects and separated by 2 hours to reduce carryover. The two TBS forms have been demonstrated to inhibit (continuous) or excite (intermittent) the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using different pulse patterns, which links to brain areas associated with reward conditioning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902586/neurological-psychological-and-cognitive-disorders-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-on-conservative-and-replacement-therapy
#16
Silvia Lai, Oriano Mecarelli, Patrizia Pulitano, Roberto Romanello, Leonardo Davi, Alessia Zarabla, Amalia Mariotti, Maria Carta, Giorgia Tasso, Luca Poli, Anna Paola Mitterhofer, Massimo Testorio, Nicla Frassetti, Paola Aceto, Alessandro Galani, Carlo Lai
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in the world. Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders, related to CKD, could contribute to the morbidity, mortality, and poor quality of life of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the neurological, psychological, and cognitive imbalance in patients with CKD on conservative and replacement therapy.Seventy-four clinically stable patients affected by CKD on conservative therapy, replacement therapy (hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD)), or with kidney transplantation (KT) and 25 healthy controls (HC), matched for age and sex were enrolled...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900437/bdnf-and-ltp-ltd-like-plasticity-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#17
L Marsili, A Suppa, F Di Stasio, D Belvisi, N Upadhyay, I Berardelli, M Pasquini, S Petrucci, M Ginevrino, G Fabbrini, F Cardona, G Defazio, A Berardelli
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics and often associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Responses to intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS/cTBS), which probe long-term potentiation (LTP)-/depression (LTD)-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1), are reduced in GTS. ITBS-/cTBS-induced M1 plasticity can be affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism. We investigated whether the BDNF polymorphism influences iTBS-/cTBS-induced LTP-/LTD-like M1 plasticity in 50 GTS patients and in 50 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899890/causal-role-of-thalamic-interneurons-in-brain-state-transitions-a-study-using-a-neural-mass-model-implementing-synaptic-kinetics
#18
Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya, Thomas P Bond, Louise O'Hare, Daniel Turner, Simon J Durrant
Experimental studies on the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) of mammals and rodents show that the inhibitory interneurons (IN) receive around 47.1% of their afferents from the retinal spiking neurons, and constitute around 20-25% of the LGN cell population. However, there is a definite gap in knowledge about the role and impact of IN on thalamocortical dynamics in both experimental and model-based research. We use a neural mass computational model of the LGN with three neural populations viz. IN, thalamocortical relay (TCR), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), to study the causality of IN on LGN oscillations and state-transitions...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896315/altered-oscillatory-dynamics-of-ca1-parvalbumin-basket-cells-during-theta-gamma-rhythmopathies-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Diego Lopez-Pigozzi, François Laurent, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, Mario Valderrama, Manuel Valero, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Elena Cid, Daniel Gomez-Dominguez, Beatriz Gal, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Recent reports in human demonstrate a role of theta-gamma coupling in memory for spatial episodes and a lack of coupling in people experiencing temporal lobe epilepsy, but the mechanisms are unknown. Using multisite silicon probe recordings of epileptic rats engaged in episodic-like object recognition tasks, we sought to evaluate the role of theta-gamma coupling in the absence of epileptiform activities. Our data reveal a specific association between theta-gamma (30-60 Hz) coupling at the proximal stratum radiatum of CA1 and spatial memory deficits...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#20
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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