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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684643/neural-dynamics-of-breaking-continuous-flash-suppression
#1
Magdalena Del Río, Mark W Greenlee, Gregor Volberg
Sensory input to the human visual system often becomes accessible to cognition and overt report during processing. We investigated neural precursors of conscious vision using EEG recordings and the popular breaking continuous flash suppression (bCFS) paradigm. In this technique, a mask consisting of high-contrast dynamic patterns is presented to one eye, predominating over a target stimulus presented to the other eye. The time needed for the target stimulus to overcome the suppression is thought to reflect the transition from unconscious to conscious perception...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684437/sleep-dysfunction-following-neonatal-ischemic-seizures-are-differential-by-neonatal-age-of-insult-as-determined-by-qeeg-in-a-mouse-model
#2
S K Kang, S Ammanuel, S Thodupunuri, D A Adler, M V Johnston, S D Kadam
Neonatal seizures associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) pose a challenge in their acute clinical management and are often followed by long-term neurological consequences. We used a newly characterized CD-1 mouse model of neonatal ischemic seizures associated with age-dependent (P7 vs. P10) seizure severity and phenobarbital efficacy (i.e.; PB-resistant vs. PB-efficacious respectively) following unilateral carotid ligation. The long-term consequences following untreated neonatal seizures in P7 vs...
April 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682758/dissociation-of-frontal-midline-delta-theta-and-posterior-alpha-oscillations-a-mobile-eeg-study
#3
Mingli Liang, Michael J Starrett, Arne D Ekstrom
Numerous reports have demonstrated low-frequency oscillations during navigation using invasive recordings in the hippocampus of both rats and human patients. Given evidence, in some cases, of low-frequency synchronization between midline cortex and hippocampus, it is also possible that low-frequency movement-related oscillations manifest in healthy human neocortex. However, this possibility remains largely unexplored, in part due to the difficulties of coupling free ambulation and effective scalp EEG recordings...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681880/exploring-the-role-of-temporoparietal-cortex-in-upright-perception-and-the-link-with-torsional-eye-position
#4
Jorge Otero-Millan, Ariel Winnick, Amir Kheradmand
Upright perception is a key aspect of orientation constancy, as we maintain a stable perception of the world despite continuous movements of our eyes, head, and body. Torsional position of the eyes can impact perception of upright by changing orientation of the images on the retina relative to gravity. Here, we investigated the role of temporoparietal cortex in upright perception with respect to ocular torsion, by means of the inhibitory effect of continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680786/strengthened-functional-connectivity-among-lfps-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex-during-anxiety
#5
Jun Lu, Haoran Dong, Xuyuan Zheng
Theta oscillations in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety-related behaviors. However, the theta-band functional connectivity in mPFC is less well characterized. Therefore, we simultaneously recorded local filed potentials (LFPs) from mPFC in freely behaving rats in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Functional connectivity among LFPs was measured by directed transfer function (DTF) via spectral Granger causal connectivity analysis. Causal network was then identified based on DTF...
April 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675896/verbal-working-memory-related-neural-network-communication-in-schizophrenia
#6
Thomas Kustermann, Tzvetan Popov, Gregory A Miller, Brigitte Rockstroh
Impaired working memory (WM) in schizophrenia is associated with reduced hemodynamic and electromagnetic activity and altered network connectivity within and between memory-associated neural networks. The present study sought to determine whether schizophrenia involves disruption of a frontal-parietal network normally supporting WM and/or involvement of another brain network. Nineteen schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 19 healthy comparison subjects (HC) participated in a cued visual-verbal Sternberg task while dense-array EEG was recorded...
April 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674090/oscillatory-local-field-potentials-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-in-heroin-addicts
#7
Shunnan Ge, Xinyi Geng, Xuelian Wang, Nan Li, Lei Chen, Xinjing Zhang, Yongzhi Huang, Yang Li, Yukun Chen, Shouyan Wang, Guodong Gao
OBJECTIVES: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to regulate the motivation and underlie addictive behaviors, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is involved in several psychiatric disorders. Our study aimed to explore the functions of NAc and ALIC electrophysiologically. METHODS: The local field potentials (LFPs) of the NAc and ALIC were recorded from 7 heroin addicts treated with deep brain stimulation. Correlation analysis was made between LFP powers in various frequency bands and the subjects' neuropsychological test scores; coherence was calculated for the LFPs in NAc and ALIC...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674089/biophysical-modeling-of-neural-plasticity-induced-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#8
REVIEW
Marcus T Wilson, Ben D Fulcher, Park K Fung, P A Robinson, Alex Fornito, Nigel C Rogasch
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used noninvasive brain stimulation method capable of inducing plastic reorganisation of cortical circuits in humans. Changes in neural activity following TMS are often attributed to synaptic plasticity via process of long-term potentiation and depression (LTP/LTD). However, the precise way in which synaptic processes such as LTP/LTD modulate the activity of large populations of neurons, as stimulated en masse by TMS, are unclear. The recent development of biophysical models, which incorporate the physiological properties of TMS-induced plasticity mathematically, provide an excellent framework for reconciling synaptic and macroscopic plasticity...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673650/differential-recruitment-of-brain-networks-in-single-digit-addition-and-multiplication-evidence-from-eeg-oscillations-in-theta-and-lower-alpha-bands
#9
Lihan Wang, John Q Gan, Li Zhang, Haixian Wang
Previous neuroimaging research investigating dissociation between single-digit addition and multiplication has suggested that the former placed more reliance on the visuo-spatial processing whereas the latter on the verbal processing. However, there has been little exploration into the disassociation in spatio-temporal dynamics of the oscillatory brain activity in specific frequency bands during the two arithmetic operations. To address this issue, the electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded from 19 participants engaged in a delayed verification arithmetic task...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672678/aberrant-occipital-dynamics-differentiate-hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#10
Alex I Wiesman, Jennifer O'Neill, Mackenzie S Mills, Kevin R Robertson, Howard S Fox, Susan Swindells, Tony W Wilson
Combination antiretroviral therapies have revolutionized the treatment of HIV infection, and many patients now enjoy a lifespan equal to that of the general population. However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a major health concern, with between 30% and 70% of all HIV-infected patients developing cognitive impairments during their life time. One important feature of HAND is visuo-perceptual deficits, but the systems-level neural dynamics underlying these impairments are poorly understood...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672597/naturalistic-music-and-dance-cortical-phase-synchrony-in-musicians-and-dancers
#11
Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi
Expertise in music has been investigated for decades and the results have been applied not only in composition, performance and music education, but also in understanding brain plasticity in a larger context. Several studies have revealed a strong connection between auditory and motor processes and listening to and performing music, and music imagination. Recently, as a logical next step in music and movement, the cognitive and affective neurosciences have been directed towards expertise in dance. To understand the versatile and overlapping processes during artistic stimuli, such as music and dance, it is necessary to study them with continuous naturalistic stimuli...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671055/a-new-perspective-of-the-hippocampus-in-the-origin-of-exercise-brain-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Catarina Rendeiro, Justin S Rhodes
Exercising regularly is a highly effective strategy for maintaining cognitive health throughout the lifespan. Over the last 20 years, many molecular, physiological and structural changes have been documented in response to aerobic exercise training in humans and animals, particularly in the hippocampus. However, how exercise produces such neurological changes remains elusive. A recent line of investigation has suggested that muscle-derived circulating factors cross into the brain and may be the key agents driving enhancement in synaptic plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis from aerobic exercise...
April 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670503/mobile-phone-chips-reduce-increases-in-eeg-brain-activity-induced-by-mobile-phone-emitted-electromagnetic-fields
#13
Diana Henz, Wolfgang I Schöllhorn, Burkhard Poeggeler
Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670114/entrainment-of-theta-not-alpha-oscillations-is-predictive-of-the-brightness-enhancement-of-a-flickering-stimulus
#14
Jennifer K Bertrand, Nathan J Wispinski, Kyle E Mathewson, Craig S Chapman
Frequency-dependent brightness enhancement, where a flickering light can appear twice as bright as an equiluminant constant light, has been reported to exist within the alpha (8-12 Hz) band. Could oscillatory neural activity be driving this perceptual effect? Here, in two experiments, human subjects reported which of two flickering stimuli were brighter. Strikingly, 4 Hz stimuli were reported as brighter more than 80% of the time when compared to all other tested frequencies, even though all stimuli were equiluminant and of equal temporal length...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668394/it-s-the-other-way-around-early-modulation-of-sensory-distractor-processing-induced-by-late-response-conflict
#15
Bernhard Pastötter, Christian Frings
Understanding the neural processes that maintain goal-directed behavior is a major challenge for the study of attentional control. Although much of the previous work on the issue has focused on prefrontal brain areas, little is known about the contribution of sensory brain processes to the regulation of attentional control. The present EEG study examined brain oscillatory activities invoked in the processing of response conflict in a lateralized Eriksen single-flanker task, in which target letters were presented at fixation and single distractor letters were presented either left or right to the targets...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666572/characterization-of-peripheral-activity-states-and-cortical-local-field-potentials-of-mice-in-an-elevated-plus-maze-test
#16
Toya Okonogi, Ryota Nakayama, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
Elevated plus maze (EPM) tests have been used to assess animal anxiety levels. Little information is known regarding how physiological activity patterns of the brain-body system are altered during EPM tests. Herein, we monitored cortical local field potentials (LFPs), electrocardiograms (ECGs), electromyograms (EMGs), and respiratory signals in individual mice that were repeatedly exposed to EPM tests. On average, mouse heart rates were higher in open arms. In closed arms, the mice occasionally showed decreased heart and respiratory rates lasting for several seconds or minutes, characterized as low-peripheral activity states of peripheral signals...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665982/oscillatory-activity-and-cortical-coherence-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#17
Muhammad Nazmuddin, D L Marinus Oterdoom, J Marc C van Dijk, Jonathan C van Zijl, Anne K Kampman, Gea Drost, Teus van Laar, Martijn Beudel
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is a new potential treatment for Parkinson's Disease dementia (PDD) and other types of dementia. To get a better understanding of this structure, its local neurophysiological properties and cortical connectivity patterns were studied. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded DBS local field potentials (LFPs) and electroencephalography (EEG) in two patients with PDD. Both patients had DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with one or more distal contacts close to or inside the NBM...
March 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664924/evidence-supporting-a-role-for-astrocytes-in-the-regulation-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-neuronal-oscillations-through-the-ca2-binding-protein-s100%C3%AE
#18
Adam T Brockett, Gary A Kane, Patrick K Monari, Brandy A Briones, Pierre-Antoine Vigneron, Gabriela A Barber, Andres Bermudez, Uma Dieffenbach, Alexander D Kloth, Timothy J Buschman, Elizabeth Gould
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is important for cognitive flexibility, the ability to switch between two task-relevant dimensions. Changes in neuronal oscillations and alterations in the coupling across frequency ranges have been correlated with attention and cognitive flexibility. Here we show that astrocytes in the mPFC of adult male Sprague Dawley rats, participate in cognitive flexibility through the astrocyte-specific Ca2+ binding protein S100β, which improves cognitive flexibility and increases phase amplitude coupling between theta and gamma oscillations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664887/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-potentiation-inhibits-learning-in-a-computational-network-model
#19
Kingsley P Storer, George N Reeke
BACKGROUND: Propofol produces memory impairment at concentrations well below those abolishing consciousness. Episodic memory, mediated by the hippocampus, is most sensitive. Two potentially overlapping scenarios may explain how γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) potentiation by propofol disrupts episodic memory-the first mediated by shifting the balance from excitation to inhibition while the second involves disruption of rhythmic oscillations. We use a hippocampal network model to explore these scenarios...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662434/review-of-the-neural-oscillations-underlying-meditation
#20
REVIEW
Darrin J Lee, Edwin Kulubya, Philippe Goldin, Amir Goodarzi, Fady Girgis
Objective: Meditation is one type of mental training that has been shown to produce many cognitive benefits. Meditation practice is associated with improvement in concentration and reduction of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, different forms of meditation training are now being used as interventions for a variety of psychological and somatic illnesses. These benefits are thought to occur as a result of neurophysiologic changes. The most commonly studied specific meditation practices are focused attention (FA), open-monitoring (OM), as well as transcendental meditation (TM), and loving-kindness (LK) meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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