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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429067/neuronal-oscillations-and-synchronicity-associated-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-during-resting-state-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#1
Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Dario Dornbierer, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, an anesthetic agent, and a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. In previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies, GHB was shown to induce an electrophysiological pattern of "paradoxical EEG-behavioral dissociation" characterized by increased delta and theta oscillations usually associated with sleep during awake states. However, no detailed source localization of these alterations and no connectivity analyses have been performed yet...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428769/individualized-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-in-chronic-tinnitus
#2
Peter M Kreuzer, Timm B Poeppl, Rainer Rupprecht, Veronika Vielsmeier, Astrid Lehner, Berthold Langguth, Martin Schecklmann
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal and temporo-parietal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus have shown significant but only moderate effectiveness with high interindividual variability in treatment response. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the general feasibility of an individualized fronto-temporal rTMS protocol and to explore what criteria are needed for a more detailed evaluation in randomized clinical studies. METHODS: During the first session of a 2-week rTMS protocol, we applied different rTMS protocols to the left and right temporo-parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in 25 tinnitus patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#3
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425491/the-neural-dynamics-underlying-the-interpersonal-effects-of-emotional-expression-on-decision-making
#4
Xuhai Chen, Tingting Zheng, Lingzi Han, Yingchao Chang, Yangmei Luo
Although numerous studies explore the effects of emotion on decision-making, the existing research has mainly focused on the influence of intrapersonal emotions, leaving the influence of one person's emotions on another's decisions underestimated. To specify how interpersonal emotions shape decision-making and delineate the underlying neural dynamics involved, the present study examined brain responses to utilitarian feedback combined with angry or happy faces in competitive and cooperative contexts. Behavioral results showed that participants responded slower following losses than wins when competitors express happiness but responded faster following losses than wins when cooperators express anger...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420200/integrating-spatial-working-memory-and-remote-memory-interactions-between-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#5
REVIEW
Ryan A Wirt, James M Hyman
In recent years, two separate research streams have focused on information sharing between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HC). Research into spatial working memory has shown that successful execution of many types of behaviors requires synchronous activity in the theta range between the mPFC and HC, whereas studies of memory consolidation have shown that shifts in area dependency may be temporally modulated. While the nature of information that is being communicated is still unclear, spatial working memory and remote memory recall is reliant on interactions between these two areas...
April 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414729/an-evaluation-of-mental-workload-with-frontal-eeg
#6
Winnie K Y So, Savio W H Wong, Joseph N Mak, Rosa H M Chan
Using a wireless single channel EEG device, we investigated the feasibility of using short-term frontal EEG as a means to evaluate the dynamic changes of mental workload. Frontal EEG signals were recorded from twenty healthy subjects performing four cognitive and motor tasks, including arithmetic operation, finger tapping, mental rotation and lexical decision task. Our findings revealed that theta activity is the common EEG feature that increases with difficulty across four tasks. Meanwhile, with a short-time analysis window, the level of mental workload could be classified from EEG features with 65%-75% accuracy across subjects using a SVM model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414632/analysis-of-the-spatial-pattern-of-strawberry-angular-leaf-spot-in-california-nursery-production
#7
Christophe Gigot, William W Turechek, Neil McRoberts
In California, angular leaf spot (ALS) is a common disease in strawberry nursery production, and a major concern for nurseries wishing to export plants. As the spatial pattern of a disease can offer insight into pathogen source, mode of dissemination, and how current crop management practices affect epidemic development, an understanding of the spatial pattern of ALS would allow nursery growers to make informed decisions regarding disease management. Ninety seven field assessments of disease incidence were performed at different nursery locations in 2014 and 2015 to quantify ALS spatial pattern under commercial conditions...
April 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414133/complexity-of-weighted-graph-a-new-technique-to-investigate-structural-complexity-of-brain-activities-with-applications-to-aging-and-autism
#8
Mehran Ahmadlou, Hojjat Adeli
In recent years complexity of the brain structure in healthy and disordered subjects has been studied increasingly. But to the best of the authors' knowledge, researchers so far have investigated the structural complexity only in the context of two restricted networks known as Small-World and Scale-free networks; whereas other aspects of the structural complexity of brain activities may be affected by aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as the Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorder. In this study, two general complexity metrics of graphs, Graph Index Complexity and Offdiagonal Complexity are proposed as general measures of complexity, not restricted to SWN only...
April 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412532/spectral-analysis-highlight-developmental-eeg-changes-in-preterm-infants-without-overt-brain-damage
#9
Agnese Suppiej, Elisa Cainelli, Ambra Cappellari, Daniele Trevisanuto, Laura Balao, Maria Grazia Di Bono, Patrizia S Bisiacchi
Early markers of neurological outcome in the absence of overt brain damage are scarce in extreme prematurity. The aim of this study was to compare spectral EEG values of infants born near term with those of infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA) but having attained near term age. We aimed also to evaluate whether spectral EEG features were related with neurological outcome. The ELGA group consisted of 12 neonates born between 23+2 and 27+6 weeks; the control group consisted of nine infants born 34-35+2 weeks, tested within the first week of life...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411417/heart-rate-variability-and-cordance-in-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-as-biomarkers-of-depression-and-treatment-response
#10
Marcel A Pawlowski, Mary Gazea, Bastian Wollweber, Martin Dresler, Florian Holsboer, Martin E Keck, Axel Steiger, Marek Adamczyk, Thorsten Mikoteit
OBJECTIVES: The relevance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in affective disorders originates from its well-known abnormalities in depressed patients, who display disinhibition of REM sleep reflected by increased frequency of rapid eye movements (REM density). In this study we examined whether heart rate variability (HRV) and prefrontal theta cordance, both derived from REM sleep, could represent biomarkers of antidepressant treatment response. METHODS: In an open-label, case-control design, thirty-three in-patients (21 females) with a depressive episode were treated with various antidepressants for four weeks...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410395/the-role-of-temporal-predictability-for-early-attentional-adjustments-after-conflict
#11
Klaas Bombeke, Zachary D Langford, Wim Notebaert, C Nico Boehler
A frequently-studied phenomenon in cognitive-control research is conflict adaptation, or the finding that congruency effects are smaller after incongruent trials. Prominent cognitive control accounts suggest that this adaptation effect can be explained by transient conflict-induced modulations of selective attention, reducing congruency effects on the next trial. In the present study, we investigated these possible attentional modulations in four experiments using the Stroop and Flanker tasks, dissociating possible enhancements of task-relevant information from suppression of task-irrelevant information by varying when this information was presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404455/modulation-of-itbs-after-effects-via-concurrent-directional-tdcs-a-proof-of-principle-study
#12
Sara Tremblay, Ricci Hannah, Vishal Rawji, John C Rothwell
BACKGROUND: Polarising currents can modulate membrane potentials in animals, affecting the after-effect of theta burst stimulation (TBS) on synaptic strength. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a similar phenomenon could also be observed in human motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) during monophasic intermittent TBS (iTBS). METHODS: TDCS was applied during posterior-anterior iTBS using three different conditions: posterior-anterior TDCS (anode 3...
March 23, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402573/humor-drawings-evoked-temporal-and-spectral-eeg-processes
#13
Regina W Y Wang, Hsien-Chu Kuo, Shang-Wen Chuang
The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401931/early-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-a-transgenic-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Illsung L Joo, Aaron Y Lai, Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Margaret M Koletar, Adrienne Dorr, Mary E Brown, Lynsie A M Thomason, John G Sled, JoAnne McLaurin, Bojana Stefanovic
Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathologically characterized by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neurodegeneration, is thought to involve early-onset neurovascular abnormalities. Hitherto studies on AD-associated neurovascular injury have used animal models that exhibit only a subset of AD-like pathologies and demonstrated some Aβ-dependent vascular dysfunction and destabilization of neuronal network. The present work focuses on the early stage of disease progression and uses TgF344-AD rats that recapitulate a broader repertoire of AD-like pathologies to investigate the cerebrovascular and neuronal network functioning using in situ two-photon fluorescence microscopy and laminar array recordings of local field potentials, followed by pathological analyses of vascular wall morphology, tau hyperphosphorylation, and amyloid plaques...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401703/tacrolimus-population-pharmacokinetics-according-to-cyp3a5-genotype-and-clinical-factors-in-chinese-adult-kidney-transplant-recipients
#15
REVIEW
H J Zhang, D Y Li, H J Zhu, Y Fang, T S Liu
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Tacrolimus is characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and a considerable inter- and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability. The aim of our study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in adult kidney transplant of Chinese patients, identify factors especially CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism that explain variability, and determine dosage regimens. METHODS: Pharmacogenomic data obtained from 83 Chinese kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400257/phase-amplitude-coupled-persistent-theta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-in%C3%A2-vitro
#16
Nicholas W Johnson, Mazhar Özkan, Adrian P Burgess, Emma J Prokic, Keith A Wafford, Michael J O'Neill, Stuart D Greenhill, Ian M Stanford, Gavin L Woodhall
In vivo, theta (4-7 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) neuronal network oscillations are known to coexist and display phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). However, in vitro, these oscillations have for many years been studied in isolation. Using an improved brain slice preparation technique we have, using co-application of carbachol (10 μM) and kainic acid (150 nM), elicited simultaneous theta (6.6 ± 0.1 Hz) and gamma (36.6 ± 0.4 Hz) oscillations in rodent primary motor cortex (M1). Each oscillation showed greatest power in layer V...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400244/the-interconnection-of-mental-fatigue-and-aging-an-eeg-study
#17
Stefan Arnau, Tina Möckel, Gerhard Rinkenauer, Edmund Wascher
Mental fatigue, a state of reduced alertness and decreased overall performance due to prolonged cognitive activity, is a major cause for a large number of accidents in traffic and industry. Against the background of an aging workforce, the investigation of the interconnection of mental fatigue and aging is of great practical relevance. In the present study, a group of younger and a group of older adults performed a cognitive task for 3h. The experimental design also comprised breaks with various durations. Beside behavioral data, the spectral properties of the ongoing EEG with respect to time on task and breaks were analyzed...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400232/practical-application-of-3-substituted-2-6-difluoropyridines-in-drug-discovery-facile-synthesis-of-novel-protein-kinase-c-theta-inhibitors
#18
Taisuke Katoh, Yoshihide Tomata, Masaki Setoh, Satoshi Sasaki, Takafumi Takai, Yayoi Yoshitomi, Tomoya Yukawa, Hideyuki Nakagawa, Shoji Fukumoto, Tetsuya Tsukamoto, Yoshihisa Nakada
We previously reported a facile preparation method of 3-substituted-2,6-difluoropyridines, which were easily converted to 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines by nucleophilic aromatic substitution with good regioselectivity and yield. In this study, we demonstrate the synthetic utility of 3-substituted-2,6-difluoropyridines in drug discovery via their application in the synthesis of various 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines, including macrocyclic derivatives, as novel protein kinase C theta inhibitors in a moderate to good yield...
April 2, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399098/-eeg-spectral-characteristics-during-heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-in-healthy-people
#19
D B Demin, L V Poskotinova
AIM: To evaluate changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral characteristics during a single session of heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty adolescents, aged 16-17 years, were studied. Adolescents of the BF-group (n=110) conducted HRV BF session to enhance vagal influences on the heart rhythm. Adolescents of the control group (n=40) remained in relaxed resting state. EEG was recorded with eyes closed before and after BF training...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397030/electroencephalographic-evidence-of-altered-top-down-attentional-modulation-in-fibromyalgia-patients-during-a-working-memory-task
#20
Alberto J González-Villar, Marina Pidal-Miranda, Manuel Arias, Dolores Rodríguez-Salgado, María T Carrillo-de-la-Peña
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome involving widespread pain of unclear pathophysiology. FM patients frequently complain about cognitive symptoms that interfere with their daily life activities. Several studies have reported attentional deficits and working memory impairment in FM patients. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in these alterations are still poorly understood. In this study we recorded electroencephalographic activity in 32 women with FM and 30 matched controls while they performed a 2-back working memory task...
April 10, 2017: Brain Topography
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