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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044802/differential-and-complementary-roles-of-medial-and-lateral-septum-in-the-orchestration-of-limbic-oscillations-and-signal-integration
#1
Marian Tsanov
Anatomical differences between the medial and lateral septum have associated these nuclei with dissimilar functional roles and behaviors. While the medial septum has been implicated, predominantly, in theta rhythm generation along the septo-hippocampal axis, the lateral septum has mainly been investigated in the context of septo-hypothalamic dialogue. Recent advances suggest that medial and lateral septum are more closely functionally-related than previously appreciated. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the medial septum mediates ascending septo-hippocampal theta propagation, while the lateral septum processes a descending hippocampo-septal and septo-hypothalamic reinforcement signal that mediates navigation during motivated behavior...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044763/theta-band-oscillations-reflect-more-than-entrainment-behavioral-and-neural-evidence-demonstrate-an-active-chunking-process
#2
Xiangbin Teng, Xing Tian, Keith Doelling, David Poeppel
Parsing continuous acoustic streams into perceptual units is fundamental to auditory perception. Previous studies have uncovered a cortical entrainment mechanism in the delta and theta bands (~1-8 Hz) that correlates with formation of perceptual units in speech, music, and other quasi-rhythmic stimuli. Whether cortical oscillations in the delta-theta bands are passively entrained by regular acoustic patterns or play an active role in parsing the acoustic stream is debated. Here we investigate cortical oscillations using novel stimuli with 1/f modulation spectra...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042900/regional-beta-index-of-electroencephalography-may-differentiate-alzheimer-s-disease-from-depression
#3
Kanghee Lee, Ji Won Han, Ki Woong Kim
Differentiating early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from depression with cognitive impairment is challenging in the elderly. To develop a model for differentiating these two conditions using electroencephalography (EEG), we enrolled 11 patients with early probable AD and 11 age- and cognitive function-matched patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and compared the EEG relative powers of 9 scalp regions. Compared to the MDD group, the AD group had a higher global theta relative power (p=0.021). In the MDD group, beta relative power was higher in the mid-central region than in the left or right central regions (p<0...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042188/network-based-brain-stimulation-selectively-impairs-spatial-retrieval
#4
Kamin Kim, Amber Schedlbauer, Matthew Rollo, Suganya Karunakaran, Arne D Ekstrom, Nitin Tandon
BACKGROUND: Direct brain stimulation via electrodes implanted for intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) permits the modulation of endogenous electrical signals with significantly greater spatial and temporal specificity than non-invasive approaches. It also allows for the stimulation of deep brain structures important to memory, such as the hippocampus, that are difficult, if not impossible, to target non-invasively. Direct stimulation studies of these deep memory structures, though, have produced mixed results, with some reporting improvement, some impairment, and others, no consistent changes...
October 5, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041208/passive-compensation-of-laser-induced-higher-order-aberrations-in-high-power-nir-optics
#5
Martin Stubenvoll, Bernd Schäfer, Klaus Mann
We report a method for passive compensation of thermally induced focal shifts and higher-order aberrations of NIR laser processing optics. Theoretical considerations are made on the elimination of aberrations including polarization effects using a multi-stage compensation element with optical flats of both positive and negative dn/dT. A compensation layout is designed and optimized utilizing numerical simulations of thermo-optic effects. Based on these findings, optical elements for compensation of an F-Theta objective are manufactured...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036430/delta-vs-gamma-auditory-steady-state-synchrony-in-schizophrenia
#6
Krishna C Puvvada, Ann Summerfelt, Xiaoming Du, Nithin Krishna, Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Jonathan Z Simon, L Elliot Hong
Background: Delta band (1-4 Hz) neuronal responses support the precision and stability of auditory processing, and a deficit in delta band synchrony may be relevant to auditory domain symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Delta band synchronization elicited by a 2.5 Hz auditory steady state response (ASSR) paradigm, along with those from theta (5 Hz), alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), gamma (40 Hz), and high gamma (80 Hz) frequency ASSR, were compared in 128 patients with schizophrenia, 108 healthy controls, and 55 first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients...
June 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034646/index-of-theta-alpha-ratio-of-the-quantitative-electroencephalogram-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#7
Golshan Fahimi, Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei, Elnaz Fahimi, Hamid Rajebi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder in human beings associated with cognitive, behavioral and motor impairments. The main symptom of AD is dementia, which causes difficulties in carrying out daily practices. Brain waves are altered in people with AD. Relative indices of brain waves can be beneficial in the diagnosis of AD. In this case-control study, 50 patients with AD and 50 matched healthy individuals were enrolled in case and control groups respectively. With recording and analyzing of brain waves with the utilization of quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG), index of theta/alpha ratio was assessed in both groups...
August 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034618/altered-electroencephalography-spectral-profiles-in-rats-with-different-patterns-of-experimental-brain-dysplasia
#8
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Władysław Węglarz, Krzysztof Janeczko
BACKGROUND: Malformations of cortical development, such as focal cortical dysplasia, are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy. Multiple animal models were created in attempts to recapitulate features of human malformations of cortical development. These manipulations give rise to various focal or diffuse anatomical abnormalities, accompanied by altered susceptibility to epileptic seizures. Both in humans and in models of dysplasia, the question of timing of the initiating insult is important...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033825/acute-stress-affects-the-expression-of-hippocampal-mu-oscillations-in-an-age-dependent-manner
#9
Samir Takillah, Jérémie Naudé, Steve Didienne, Claude Sebban, Brigitte Decros, Esther Schenker, Michael Spedding, Alexandre Mourot, Jean Mariani, Philippe Faure
Anxiolytic drugs are widely used in the elderly, a population particularly sensitive to stress. Stress, aging and anxiolytics all affect low-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) independently, but the interactions between these factors remain unclear. Here, we compared the effects of stress (elevated platform, EP) and anxiolytics (diazepam, DZP) on extracellular field potentials (EFP) in the PFC, parietal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral parts) of adult (8 months) and aged (18 months) Wistar rats...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033807/walking-through-architectural-spaces-the-impact-of-interior-forms-on-human-brain-dynamics
#10
Maryam Banaei, Javad Hatami, Abbas Yazdanfar, Klaus Gramann
Neuroarchitecture uses neuroscientific tools to better understand architectural design and its impact on human perception and subjective experience. The form or shape of the built environment is fundamental to architectural design, but not many studies have shown the impact of different forms on the inhabitants' emotions. This study investigated the neurophysiological correlates of different interior forms on the perceivers' affective state and the accompanying brain activity. To understand the impact of naturalistic three-dimensional (3D) architectural forms, it is essential to perceive forms from different perspectives...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033799/a-critical-assessment-of-directed-connectivity-estimates-with-artificially-imposed-causality-in-the-supramammillary-septo-hippocampal-circuit
#11
Calvin K Young, Ming Ruan, Neil McNaughton
Algorithms for estimating directed connectivity have become indispensable to further understand the neurodynamics between functionally coupled brain areas. The evaluation of directed connectivity on the propagation of brain activity has largely been based on simulated data or toy models, where various hidden properties of neurophysiological data may not be fully recapitulated. In this study, directionality was unequivocally manipulated in the freely moving rat in a unique dataset, where normal oscillatory interactions between the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) and hippocampus (HPC) were attenuated by temporary medial septal (MS) inactivation, and replaced by electrical stimulation of the fornix to evaluate the performance of several directed connectivity assessment methods...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033283/developmental-trajectory-of-mismatch-negativity-and-visual-event-related-potentials-in-healthy-controls-implications-for-neurodevelopmental-vs-neurodegenerative-models-of-schizophrenia
#12
Cheryl M Corcoran, Anastasia Stoops, Migyung Lee, Antigona Martinez, Pejman Sehatpour, Elisa C Dias, Daniel C Javitt
Sensory processing deficits are core features of schizophrenia, reflected in impaired generation of event-related potential (ERP) measures such as auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and visual P1. To understand the potential time course of development of deficits in schizophrenia, we obtained MMN to unattended duration, intensity and frequency deviants, and visual P1 to attended LSF stimuli, in 43 healthy individuals ages 6 to 25years (mean 17), and compared results to data from 30 adult schizophrenia patients (mean age 38)...
October 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031639/oscillatory-neural-representations-in-the-sensory-thalamus-predict-neuropathic-pain-relief-by-deep-brain-stimulation
#13
Yongzhi Huang, Alexander L Green, Jonathan Hyam, James Fitzgerald, Tipu Z Aziz, Shouyan Wang
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the function of sensory thalamic neural activity is essential for developing and improving interventions for neuropathic pain. However, there is a lack of investigation of the relationship between sensory thalamic oscillations and pain relief in patients with neuropathic pain. This study aims to identify the oscillatory neural characteristics correlated with pain relief induced by deep brain stimulation (DBS), and develop a quantitative model to predict pain relief by integrating characteristic measures of the neural oscillations...
October 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030299/enhancing-early-consolidation-of-human-episodic-memory-by-theta-eeg-neurofeedback
#14
Roman Rozengurt, Limor Shtoots, Aviv Sheriff, Ofir Sadka, Daniel A Levy
Consolidation of newly formed memories is readily disrupted, but can it be enhanced? Given the prominent role of hippocampal theta oscillations in memory formation and retrieval, we hypothesized that upregulating theta power during early stages of consolidation might benefit memory stability and persistence. We used EEG neurofeedback to enable participants to selectively increase theta power in their EEG spectra following episodic memory encoding, while other participants engaged in low beta-focused neurofeedback or passively viewed a neutral nature movie...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029302/acute-kynurenine-challenge-disrupts-sleep-wake-architecture-and-impairs-contextual-memory-in-adult-rats
#15
Ana Pocivavsek, Annalisa M Baratta, Jessica A Mong, Shaun S Viechweg
Study Objectives: Tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway may represent a key molecular link between sleep loss and cognitive dysfunction. Modest increases in the kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, result in cognitive impairments. As glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmissions are critically involved in modulation of sleep, our current experiments tested the hypothesis that elevated KYNA adversely impacts sleep quality...
September 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028974/temporal-dynamics-of-human-frontal-and-cingulate-neural-activity-during-conflict-and-cognitive-control
#16
Eleonora Bartoli, Christopher R Conner, Cihan M Kadipasaoglu, Sudha Yellapantula, Matthew J Rollo, Cameron S Carter, Nitin Tandon
Cognitive control refers to the ability to produce flexible, goal-oriented behavior in the face of changing task demands and conflicting response tendencies. A classic cognitive control experiment is the Stroop-color naming task, which requires participants to name the color in which a word is written while inhibiting the tendency to read the word. By comparing stimuli with conflicting word-color associations to congruent ones, control processes over response tendencies can be isolated. We assessed the spatial specificity and temporal dynamics in the theta and gamma bands for regions engaged in detecting and resolving conflict in a cohort of 13 patients using a combination of high-resolution surface and depth recordings...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028501/interindividual-variability-in-response-to-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-in-healthy-adults
#17
Ali Jannati, Gabrielle Block, Lindsay M Oberman, Alexander Rotenberg, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
OBJECTIVE: We used complete-linkage cluster analysis to identify healthy subpopulations with distinct responses to continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). METHODS: 21 healthy adults (age±SD, 36.9±15.2years) underwent cTBS of left motor cortex. Natural log-transformed motor evoked potentials (LnMEPs) at 5-50min post-cTBS (T5-T50) were calculated. RESULTS: Two clusters were found; Group 1 (n=12) that showed significant MEP facilitation at T15, T20, and T50 (p's<0...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028500/neural-network-topology-in-adhd-evidence-for-maturational-delay-and-default-mode-network-alterations
#18
T W P Janssen, A Hillebrand, A Gouw, K Geladé, R Van Mourik, A Maras, J Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with widespread brain abnormalities in white and grey matter, affecting not only local, but global functional networks as well. In this study, we explored these functional networks using source-reconstructed electroencephalography in ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. We expected evidence for maturational delay, with underlying abnormalities in the default mode network. METHODS: Electroencephalograms were recorded in ADHD (n=42) and TD (n=43) during rest, and functional connectivity (phase lag index) and graph (minimum spanning tree) parameters were derived...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027129/protein-glass-surface-interactions-and-ion-desalting-in-electrospray-ionization-with-submicron-emitters
#19
Zije Xia, Evan R Williams
Theta glass electrospray emitters can rapidly mix solutions to investigate fast reactions that occur as quickly as 1 μs, but emitters with submicron tips have the unusual properties of desalting protein ions and affecting the observed abundances of some proteins as a result of protein-surface interactions. The role of protein physical properties on ion signal was investigated using 1.7 ± 0.1 μm and 269 ± 7 nm emitters and 100 mM aqueous ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate solutions. Protein ion desalting occurs for both positive and negative ions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024670/a-meta-analysis-suggests-different-neural-correlates-for-implicit-and-explicit-learning
#20
Roman F Loonis, Scott L Brincat, Evan G Antzoulatos, Earl K Miller
A meta-analysis of non-human primates performing three different tasks (Object-Match, Category-Match, and Category-Saccade associations) revealed signatures of explicit and implicit learning. Performance improved equally following correct and error trials in the Match (explicit) tasks, but it improved more after correct trials in the Saccade (implicit) task, a signature of explicit versus implicit learning. Likewise, error-related negativity, a marker for error processing, was greater in the Match (explicit) tasks...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
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