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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222559/brain-activity-during-a-lower-limb-functional-task-in-a-real-and-virtual-environment-a-comparative-study
#1
Thaiana Barbosa Ferreira Pacheco, Isabelle Ananda Oliveira Rego, Tania Fernandes Campos, Fabrícia Azevedo da Costa Cavalcanti
BACKGROUND: Virtual Reality (VR) has been contributing to Neurological Rehabilitation because of its interactive and multisensory nature, providing the potential of brain reorganization. Given the use of mobile EEG devices, there is the possibility of investigating how the virtual therapeutic environment can influence brain activity. OBJECTIVE: To compare theta, alpha, beta and gamma power in healthy young adults during a lower limb motor task in a virtual and real environment...
February 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222249/are-non-invasive-fibrosis-markers-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-reliable-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
Hailemichael Desalegn, Hanna Aberra, Nega Berhe, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: In the absence of liver biopsy, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends non-invasive tests, such as APRI (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index) and FIB-4, to assess liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, these tests are not well validated in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, a new marker, GPR (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio), was found to be more accurate in an African setting, but this needs confirmation in other cohorts...
February 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222164/comt-and-drd2-ankk-1-gene-gene-interaction-account-for-resetting-of-gamma-neural-oscillations-to-auditory-stimulus-driven-attention
#3
Manuel Garcia-Garcia, Marc Via, Katarzyna Zarnowiec, Iria SanMiguel, Carles Escera, Immaculada C Clemente
Attention capture by potentially relevant environmental stimuli is critical for human survival, yet it varies considerably among individuals. A large series of studies has suggested that attention capture may depend on the cognitive balance between maintenance and manipulation of mental representations and the flexible switch between goal-directed representations and potentially relevant stimuli outside the focus of attention; a balance that seems modulated by a prefrontostriatal dopamine pathway. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in the cognitive control of attention through studying the effects of two single nucleotide polymorphisms regulating dopamine at the prefrontal cortex and the striatum (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221966/annual-effective-dose-of-gamma-emitters-in-adults-and-children-for-some-types-of-rice-consumed-in-iraq
#4
Ali Abid Abojassim, Dahir Mohammad Dahir, Azhar S Alaboodi, Abbas H Abonasria
This work studies the activity concentration of natural radioactivity in 20 different types of rice, including imported rice and that produced locally. The rice samples were collected from markets and farms in Iraq, and then a natural radioactivity investigation was done in the environmental laboratory of the Kufa University, using gamma-ray spectrometer systems. The research focused on measuring the activity concentration of natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K) to determine the level of the radium equivalent activity, internal hazard indices, and annual effective dose...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220979/more-significance-of-tb-igra-except-for-the-diagnose-of-tuberculosis
#5
Jun-Chi Xu, Ze-Yi Li, Xin-Nian Chen, Cui-Lin Shi, Mei-Ying Wu, Hui Chen, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Hua-Feng Song, Min-Juan Wu, Ping Xu
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB)-interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) test has the characteristics of short time, high specificity, and high sensitivity, but it lacks the correlation research between TB-IGRA test results and body's immune cells, disease progression and prognosis, which is explored in this study. DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out on positive TB-IGRA patients who were infected with TB and diagnosed at our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220841/an-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-strain-with-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-transaminase-activity-shows-an-enhanced-genetic-transformation-ability-in-plants
#6
Satoko Nonaka, Tatsuhiko Someya, Sha Zhou, Mariko Takayama, Kouji Nakamura, Hiroshi Ezura
Agrobacterium tumefaciens has the unique ability to mediate inter-kingdom DNA transfer, and for this reason, it has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. To increase the transformation frequency in plant genetic engineering, we focused on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a negative factor in the Agrobacterium-plant interaction. Recent studies have shown contradictory results regarding the effects of GABA on vir gene expression, leading to the speculation that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. In this study, we examined the effect of GABA on T-DNA transfer using a tomato line with a low GABA content...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220523/inflammation-is-independent-of-steatosis-in-a-murine-model-of-steatohepatitis
#7
Wei Wang, Ming-Jiang Xu, Yan Cai, Zhou Zhou, Haixia Cao, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Pal Pacher, Shusen Zheng, Frank J Gonzalez, Bin Gao
Obesity and alcohol consumption synergistically promote steatohepatitis, and neutrophil infiltration is believed to be associated with steatosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) plays a complex role in lipid metabolism and inflammation, therefore, the purpose of this study was to dissect its role in regulating steatosis and neutrophil infiltration in a clinically relevant mouse steatohepatitis model of 3-month high-fat diet (HFD) feeding plus a binge of ethanol (HFD -plus-binge ethanol)...
February 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220368/embolization-of-ruptured-arteriovenous-malformations-in-the-cerebellopontine-angle-cistern
#8
Hidenori Endo, Shin-Ichiro Osawa, Yasushi Matsumoto, Toshiki Endo, Kenichi Sato, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Miki Fujimura, Teiji Tominaga
Among brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), there exist small AVMs predominantly located in the cerebellopontine angle cistern (CPAC) with minimal extension into the pial surface of the brainstem. However, previous studies of CPAC AVMs did not particularly discuss the role of embolization in the treatment of these lesions. This study was conducted to clarify the effectiveness and validity of embolization in the treatment of CPAC AVMs. We retrospectively reviewed five patients with CPAC AVMs who underwent endovascular treatment...
February 20, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220096/investigating-a-weakly-informative-prior-for-item-scale-hyperparameters-in-hierarchical-3pno-irt-models
#9
Yanyan Sheng
The half-t family has been suggested for the scale hyperparameter in Bayesian hierarchical modeling. Two parameters define a half-t distribution: the scale s and the degree-of-freedom ν. When s is set at a finite value that is slightly larger than the actual standard deviation of the parameters, the half-t prior density can be vaguely informative. This paper focused on such densities, and applied them to the hierarchical three-parameter item response theory (IRT) model. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to investigate the performance of such specifications in parameter recovery and model comparisons under situations where the actual variability of item parameters varied, and results suggest that the half-t family does offer advantages over the commonly adopted uniform or inverse-gamma prior density by allowing the variability for item parameters to be either very small or large...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219733/meibocyte-differentiation-and-renewal-insights-into-novel-mechanisms-of-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-mgd
#10
REVIEW
Ho Sik Hwang, Geraint J Parfitt, Donald J Brown, James V Jester
This paper reviews our current understanding of age-related meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and the role of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), in the regulation of meibomian gland function, meibocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis. The studies suggest that PPARγ is a master regulator of meibocyte differentiation and function, whose expression and nuclear signaling coupled with meibocyte renewal is altered during aging, potentially leading to atrophy of the meibomian gland as seen in clinical MGD...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219719/cysteine-deprivation-prevents-induction-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-2-and-adipose-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-cells
#11
Nadia Nabil Haj-Yasein, Ole Berg, Fredrik Jernerén, Helga Refsum, Hilde I Nebb, Knut Tomas Dalen
Plasma cysteine is strongly associated with body fat mass in human cohorts and diets low in cysteine prevents fat accumulation in mice. It is unclear if plasma cysteine affects fat development or if fat accumulation raises plasma cysteine. To determine if cysteine affects adipogenesis, we differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in medium with reduced cysteine. Cells incubated in media with 10-20μM cysteine exhibited reduced capacity to differentiate into triacylglycerol-storing mature adipocytes compared with cells incubated with 50μM cysteine...
February 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219679/thiazolidinediones-abrogate-cervical-cancer-growth
#12
Beverly R Wuertz, Lindsay Darrah, Justin Wudel, Frank G Ondrey
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218889/scaling-human-cancer-risks-from-low-let-to-high-let-when-dose-effect-relationships-are-complex
#13
Igor Shuryak, Albert J Fornace, Kamal Datta, Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Rainer K Sachs, David J Brenner
Health risks from space radiations, particularly from densely ionizing radiations, represent an important challenge for long-ranged manned space missions. Reliable methods are needed for scaling low-LET to high-LET radiation risks for humans, based on animal or in vitro studies comparing these radiations. The current standard metric, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compares iso-effect doses of two radiations. By contrast, a proposed new metric, radiation effects ratio (RER), compares effects of two radiations at the same dose...
February 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218887/pathology-of-serially-sacrificed-female-b6c3f1-mice-chronically-exposed-to-very-low-dose-rate-gamma-rays
#14
I B Tanaka, J Komura, S Tanaka
We have previously reported on life span shortening as well as increased incidence rates in several neoplasms in B6C3F1 mice that were continuously exposed to 21 mGy/day of gamma rays for 400 days. To clarify whether the life shortening was due to early appearance of neoplasms (shortened latency) or increased promotion/progression, 8-week-old female specific-pathogen-free B6C3F1 mice were gamma-ray irradiated at a low dose rate of 20 mGy/day for 400 days. At 100 days postirradiation, 60-90 mice were sacrificed, and thereafter every 100 days alongside the age-matched nonirradiated controls, for 700 days...
February 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218473/epigenetic-silencing-of-diacylglycerol-kinase-gamma-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
Masahiro Kai, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Akiko Sato, Hiro-O Yamano, Takeshi Niinuma, Hiroshi Kitajima, Taku Harada, Hironori Aoki, Reo Maruyama, Mutsumi Toyota, Tomo Hatahira, Hiroshi Nakase, Tamotsu Sugai, Toshiharu Yamashita, Minoru Toyota, Hiromu Suzuki
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are important regulators of cell signaling and have been implicated in human malignancies. Whether epigenetic alterations are involved in the dysregulation of DGKs in cancer is unknown, however. We therefore analyzed methylation of the promoter CpG islands of DGK genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. We found that DGKG, which encodes DGKγ, was hypermethylated in all CRC cell lines tested (n = 9), but was not methylated in normal colonic tissue. Correspondingly, DGKG expression was suppressed in CRC cell lines but not in normal colonic tissue, and was restored in CRC cells by treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218036/chemopreventive-effect-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-atorvastatin-in-rats-with-bladder-cancer
#16
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Eman G Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Samar M Al-Tantawy
Bladder cancer remains a huge concern for the medical community because of its incidence and prevalence rates, as well as high percentage of recurrence and progression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin proved anti-inflammatory effects through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mechanism. However, their chemopreventive effect still remained to be examined and clarified. In this study, bladder cancer was induced in rats by the chemical carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine...
February 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217917/a-comprehensive-phylogenetic-analysis-of-copper-transporting-p1b-atpases-from-bacteria-of-the-rhizobiales-order-uncovers-multiplicity-diversity-and-novel-taxonomic-subtypes
#17
Ciro Cubillas, Fabiola Miranda-Sánchez, Antonio González-Sánchez, José Pedro Elizalde, Pablo Vinuesa, Susana Brom, Alejandro García-de Los Santos
The ubiquitous cytoplasmic membrane copper transporting P1B-1 and P1B-3 -type ATPases pump out Cu(+) and Cu(2+) , respectively, to prevent cytoplasmic accumulation and avoid toxicity. The presence of five copies of Cu-ATPases in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti is remarkable; it is the largest number of Cu(+) -transporters in a bacterial genome reported to date. Since the prevalence of multiple Cu-ATPases in members of the Rhizobiales order is unknown, we performed an in silico analysis to understand the occurrence, diversity and evolution of Cu(+) -ATPases in members of the Rhizobiales order...
February 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217873/radiosurgery-for-arteriovenous-malformations-and-the-impact-on-headaches
#18
Greg Bowden, Jonathon Cavaleri, Hideyuki Kano, Edward Monaco, Ajay Niranjan, John Flickinger, L Dade Lunsford
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can underlie many diverse neurological signs and symptoms. Headaches are a common presentation that can have a significant impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated Gamma Knife(®) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) outcomes in patients with AVMs and associated headaches. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 102 patients with AVMs who underwent SRS between 1995 and 2013...
February 20, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217759/frontal-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-concentrations-are-associated-with-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#19
Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Richard A E Edden, Nicolaas A J Puts, Ashley D Harris, Huaihou Chen, Amanda M Garcia, Talia R Seider, Damon G Lamb, John B Williamson, Ronald A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain's principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with perceptual and attentional functioning. Recent application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides in vivo evidence for decreasing GABA concentrations during adulthood. It is unclear, however, how age-related decrements in cerebral GABA concentrations contribute to cognitive decline, or whether previously reported declines in cerebral GABA concentrations persist during healthy aging...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217019/-99m-tc-tetrofosmin-uptake-correlates-with-the-sensitivity-of-glioblastoma-cell-lines-to-temozolomide
#20
George A Alexiou, Xanthi Xourgia, Paraskevi Gerogianni, Evrysthenis Vartholomatos, John A Kalef-Ezra, Andreas D Fotopoulos, Athanasios P Kyritsis
(99m)Tc-tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-TF) is a single-photon emission computed tomography tracer that has been used for brain tumor imaging. The aim of the study was to assess if (99m)Tc-TF uptake by glioblastoma cells correlates with their response to temozolomide (TMZ). We investigated the correlation of TMZ antitumor effect with the (99m)Tc-TF uptake in two glioblastoma cell lines. The U251MG cell line is sensitive to TMZ, whereas T98G is resistant. Viability and proliferation of the cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion assay and xCELLigence system...
January 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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