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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656536/mmr-deficiency-does-not-sensitize-or-compromise-the-function-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-low-and-high-let-radiation
#1
Rutulkumar Patel, Yulan Qing, Lucy Kennedy, Yan Yan, John Pink, Brittany Aguila, Amar Desai, Stanton L Gerson, Scott M Welford
One of the major health concerns on long-duration space missions will be radiation exposure to the astronauts. Outside the earth's magnetosphere, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events that are principally composed of protons and He, Ca, O, Ne, Si, Ca, and Fe nuclei. Protons are by far the most common species, but the higher atomic number particles are thought to be more damaging to biological systems. Evaluation and amelioration of risks from GCR exposure will be important for deep space travel...
April 14, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656341/environmental-factors-that-influence-milk-production-of-pantaneiro-ewes-and-the-weight-gain-of-their-lambs-during-the-pre-weaning-period
#2
M L Longo, F M Vargas Junior, K Cansian, M R Souza, P C Burim, A L A Silva, C M Costa, L O Seno
The main objective of this research was to conduct an exploratory study of the lactation curve in order to characterize the productive potential of Pantaneiro ewes and lambs. Fifty ewes were bred using four rams in two different mating seasons. The ewes were kept with their lambs on pasture of Brachiaria brizantha. Ewe body score, ewe weight, and lamb weight were evaluated. Milk sampling was performed every week. In the morning for milk collections, the ewes were treated with 1 UI of oxytocin (intramuscular) for complete milking...
April 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656250/exposure-to-environmental-level-phenanthrene-induces-a-nash-like-phenotype-in-new-born-rat
#3
Jiaojiao Guo, Chonggang Wang, Zhizhun Guo, Zhenghong Zuo
More and more evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Phenanthrene (Phe) is a kind of POP which existed extensively in the environment, but whose toxicity on mammals has so far received less focus. Subcutaneously injection of Phe (0.5, 5, 50 μg/kg) for 21 days induced significant NAFLD/NASH symptoms in new born rats. Exposure to environmental levels of Phe decreased body weight and liver-somatic index; impaired histology of liver; influenced the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) signaling and lipid metabolism in liver; stimulated oxidative stress in the rats' liver; induced the variation of NFκB pathway and liver inflammatory response; and caused liver fibrosis via transforming growth factor β1 (tgfβ1)...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656230/multifractal-approach-for-delineating-uranium-anomalies-related-to-phosphatic-deposits-in-area-3-northern-palmyrides-syria
#4
Jamal Asfahani
Multifractal Concentration-Number (C-N) modeling approach has been developed and applied to Airborne Gamma Spectrometry (AGS) data related to Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Syria. The application of the multifractal approach basically aimed at separating uranium anomalies from background. The AGS technique has been applied for uranium exploration in Syria, where four radioactive parameters were recorded, T.C, eU, eTh, and K%. Log-log plots practiced on those radioactive variables indicate the presence of different uranium anomaly ranges...
March 19, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656123/selenium-supplementation-prevents-metabolic-and-transcriptomic-responses-to-cadmium-in-mouse-lung
#5
Xin Hu, Joshua D Chandler, Jolyn Fernandes, Michael L Orr, Li Hao, Karan Uppal, David C Neujahr, Dean P Jones, Young-Mi Go
BACKGROUND: The protective effect of selenium (Se) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity is well documented, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. METHODS: Male mice fed standard diet were given Cd (CdCl2 , 18 μmol/L) in drinking water with or without Se (Na2 SeO4, 20 μmol/L) for 16 weeks. Lungs were analyzed for Cd concentration, transcriptomics and metabolomics. Data were analyzed with biostatistics, bioinformatics, pathway enrichment analysis, and combined transcriptome-metabolome-wide association study...
April 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656029/gamma-band-oscillations-in-the-early-phase-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Thomas J Reilly, Judith F Nottage, Erich Studerus, Grazia Rutigliano, Andrea I De Micheli, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Philip McGuire
Abnormal gamma oscillations, measured by electroencephalography (EEG), have been associated with chronic psychotic disorders, but their prevalence in the early phase of psychosis is less clear. We sought to address this issues by systematically reviewing the relevant literature. We searched for EEG studies of gamma band oscillations in subjects at high risk for psychosis and in patients with first episode psychosis. The following measures of gamma oscillations were extracted: resting power, evoked power, induced power, connectivity and peak frequency...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655721/gamma-irradiation-assisted-degradation-of-rosmarinic-acid-and-evaluation-of-structures-and-anti-adipogenic-properties
#7
Gyeong Han Jeong, Jae-Hyeon Cho, Cheorun Jo, Sungbeom Lee, Seung Sik Lee, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Byung Yeoup Chung, Tae Hoon Kim
Radiation is a promising technique for improving the safety and shelf-life of processed foods. In the present investigation, the degradation mechanism and bioactivity improvement of rosmarinic acid (RA) were studied in response to various gamma irradiation doses (10, 20, and 50 kGy). RA exposed to gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was completely degraded and showed an increased inhibitory effect against 3 T3-L1 preadipocyte compare to the parent compound. Structures of the newly generated compounds 2-4 from irradiated RA at 50 kGy were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods, including 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS)...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655655/hypothalamic-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-regulates-ghrelin-production-and-food-intake
#8
Qingjie Li, Quan Yu, Li Lin, Heng Zhang, Miao Peng, Chunxia Jing, Geyang Xu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) regulates fatty acid storage, glucose metabolism, and food intake. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate appetite. However, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production were examined in lean- or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice and mHypoE-42 cells, a hypothalamic cell line. 3rd intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral-directed overexpression of PPARγ (Ad-PPARγ) reduced hypothalamic and plasma ghrelin, food intake in both lean C57BL/6J mice and diet-induced obese mice...
April 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653355/monte-carlo-method-for-gamma-spectrometry-based-on-geant4-toolkit-efficiency-calibration-of-be6530-detector
#9
Guembou Shouop Cebastien Joel, Ndontchueng Moyo Maurice, Nguelem Mekongtso Eric Jilbert, Motapon Ousmanou, Strivay David
The combination of gamma-ray spectrometry, the development of related Monte Carlo method and the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) toolkit have been developed for gamma spectrometry simulation. The main objective was to validate simulation models of broad energy germanium (BEGe) detector geometry built in our laboratory (BE6530 model). Monte Carlo simulation of the geometry of BE6530 detector for efficiency calibration was carried out with GEANT4 toolkit. The simulated efficiencies curves using MC were compared with experimental results...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652748/the-scintigraphic-biodistribution-and-histopathological-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-experimental-131i-administration-on-the-gastrointestinal-system-and-the-demonstration-of-the-na-i-symporter-by-immunohistochemistry-in-rats
#10
Rahsan Yilmaz, Nihat Yumusak, Murat Sadic, Hasan I Atilgan, Meliha Korkmaz, Faruk Bozkaya
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate histopathological changes and biodistribution of iodine-131 (I) in the gastrointestinal system (GIS) and also Na/I Symporter (NIS) presence by immunohistochemically in the experimental treatment of rats with radioactive iodine (RAI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into experimental and control groups as random early group 2 (24 h), intermediate group 3 (3 weeks), and late period group 4 (3 months). Experimental groups were administered 100 MBq (∼3 mCi, 12 mCi/kg) by orogastric route with orogastric tube...
April 12, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652619/circulating-cytokine-chemokine-concentrations-respond-to-ionizing-radiation-doses-but-not-radiation-dose-rates-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-and-interleukin-18
#11
Juliann G Kiang, Joan T Smith, Sara R Hegge, Natalia I Ossetrova
Exposure to ionizing radiation is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological incidents. It is known that ionizing radiation affects cytokine/chemokine concentrations in the blood of B6D2F1 mice. It is not clear whether radiation dose rates would vary the physiological response. Therefore, in this study we utilized data from two experiments using B6D2F1 female mice exposed to six different dose rates ranging from low to high rates. In one experiment, mice received a total dose of 8 Gy (LD0/30 ) of 60 Co gamma radiation at four dose rates: 0...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652567/a-khorasan-wheat-based-replacement-diet-improves-risk-profile-of-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Monica Dinu, Anne Whittaker, Giuditta Pagliai, Ilaria Giangrandi, Barbara Colombini, Anna Maria Gori, Claudia Fiorillo, Matteo Becatti, Alessandro Casini, Stefano Benedettelli, Francesco Sofi
OBJECTIVE: KAMUT khorasan is an ancient grain with widely acclaimed health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a replacement diet with ancient khorasan wheat products in patients with NAFLD, in comparison to a similar replacement diet with control products made from organic semi-whole-grain modern wheat. METHODS: Forty NAFLD patients (12 M/28 F; age 55.2 ± 10.4 years) with mild to moderate liver steatosis were included. The experimental design was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm study with 20 participants assigned to consume either KAMUT khorasan or control wheat products (pasta, bread, crackers, biscuits) over a 3-month period...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652232/long-term-tumor-control-following-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-jugular-paraganglioma-using-3d-volumetric-segmentation
#13
Neil S Patel, Matthew L Carlson, Bruce E Pollock, Colin L W Driscoll, Brian A Neff, Robert L Foote, Christine M Lohse, Michael J Link
OBJECTIVE The morbidity of gross-total resection of jugular paraganglioma (JP) is often unacceptable due to the potential for irreversible lower cranial neuropathy. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used at the authors' institution since 1990 for the treatment of JP and other benign intracranial tumors. Conventional means of assessing tumor progression using linear measurements or elliptical approximations are imprecise due to the irregular shape and insinuating growth pattern of JP. The objective of this study was to assess long-term tumor control in these patients by using slice-by-slice 3D volumetric segmentation of serial MRI data...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652168/evidence-for-dose-and-dose-rate-effects-in-human-and-animal-radiation-studies
#14
M P Little
For stochastic effects such as cancer, linear-quadratic models of dose are often used to extrapolate from the experience of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors to estimate risks from low doses and low dose rates. The low dose extrapolation factor (LDEF), which consists of the ratio of the low dose slope (as derived via fitting a linear-quadratic model) to the slope of the straight line fitted to a specific dose range, is used to derive the degree of overestimation (if LDEF > 1) or underestimation (if LDEF < 1) of low dose risk by linear extrapolation from effects at higher doses...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651711/baclofen-to-prevent-relapse-in-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-dependent-patients-a-multicentre-open-label-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Harmen Beurmanjer, Rama M Kamal, Cor A J de Jong, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Arnt F A Schellekens
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependence is associated with a severe, potentially lethal, withdrawal syndrome and relapse rates as high as 60% within 3 months of detoxification. Baclofen has been shown to decrease self-administration of GHB in mice and reduce relapse in a case series of GHB-dependent patients. Controlled studies on the effectiveness of baclofen to prevent relapse in GHB-dependent patients are lacking. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of baclofen in preventing relapse in GHB-dependent patients...
April 12, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651625/clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-severe-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-patients
#16
Yan Zhang, Gang Liu, Mengdi Jiang, Weibi Chen, Yanbo He, Yingying Su
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data concerning the characteristics and duration of the critical manifestations, treatment response, and long-term outcomes of severe anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis patients compared to those of non-severe patients are limited. This observational study was performed to explore the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. METHODS: According to their characteristics on admission to the neurology intensive care unit, patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were divided into a severe group and a non-severe group...
April 12, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651336/pi3k-p38-and-jak-stat-signalling-in-bronchial-tissue-from-patients-with-asthma-following-allergen-challenge
#17
Thomas Southworth, Sarah Mason, Alan Bell, Isabel Ramis, Marta Calbet, Anna Domenech, Neus Prats, Montserrat Miralpeix, Dave Singh
Background: Inhaled allergen challenges are often used to evaluate novel asthma treatments in early phase clinical trials. Current novel therapeutic targets in asthma include phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) delta and gamma, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathways. The activation of these pathways following allergen exposure in atopic asthma patients it is not known. Methods: We collected bronchial biopsies from 11 atopic asthma patients at baseline and after allergen challenge to investigate biomarkers of PI3K, p38 MAPK and JAK/STAT activation by immunohistochemistry...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651025/cardiac-eccentric-remodeling-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Valeria Pascale, Rosa Finelli, Rocco Giannotti, Enrico Coscioni, Raffaele Izzo, Francesco Rozza, Dario Caputo, Paolo Moscato, Guido Iaccarino, Michele Ciccarelli
It is known that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a higher risk of coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. Abnormalities in cardiac geometry appear to be involved in the setting of the cardiovascular risk, but it has never been specifically investigated in RA. We enrolled 44 patients with RA compared to 131 subjects without RA (normal, N): The RA aged between 18 and 70 years (mean 48.3 ± 2.1), 25 females, BMI 27.6 ± 0.9; N, of equal age (48.6 ± 1.2, n.s.), included 80 females (BMI 26...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650047/care-cascade-for-targeted-tuberculosis-testing-and-linkage-to-care-in-homeless-populations-in-the-united-states-a-meta-analysis
#19
Andrea Parriott, Mohsen Malekinejad, Amanda P Miller, Suzanne M Marks, Hacsi Horvath, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: Homelessness increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease and latent TB infection (LTBI), but persons experiencing homelessness often lack access to testing and treatment. We assessed the yield of TB testing and linkage to care for programs targeting homeless populations in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature, adapting Cochrane systematic review methods. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and abstracted key data on the testing to care cascade: number of persons reached, recruited for testing, tested for LTBI, with valid test results, referred to follow-up care, and initiating care...
April 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649984/bb-cl-amidine-as-a-novel-therapeutic-for-canine-and-feline-mammary-cancer-via-activation-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-pathway
#20
Melissa M Ledet, Robyn Anderson, Rebecca Harman, Aaron Muth, Paul R Thompson, Scott A Coonrod, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
BACKGROUND: Mammary cancer is highly prevalent in dogs and cats and results in a poor prognosis due to critically lacking viable treatment options. Recent human and mouse studies have suggested that inhibiting peptidyl arginine deiminase enzymes (PAD) may be a novel breast cancer therapy. Based on the similarities between human breast cancer and mammary cancer in dogs and cats, we hypothesized that PAD inhibitors would also be an effective treatment for mammary cancer in these animals...
April 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
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