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Solid tumor research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150490/gut-roundtable-meeting-paper-selected-recent-advances-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Alexander Gerbes, Fabien Zoulim, Herbert Tilg, Jean-François Dufour, Jordi Bruix, Valérie Paradis, Riad Salem, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Peter R Galle, Tim F Greten, Jean-Charles Nault, Matias A Avila
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks number three among the most frequent causes of death from solid tumors worldwide. With obesity and fatty liver diseases as risk factors on the rise, HCC represents an ever increasing challenge. While there is still no curative treatment for most patients numerous novel drugs have been proposed, but most ultimately failed in phase III trials. This manuscript targets therapeutic advances and most burning issues. Expert key point summaries and urgent research agenda are provided regarding risk factors, including microbiota, need for prognostic and predictive biomarkers and the equivocal role of liver biopsy...
November 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147439/uterine-smooth-muscle-tumor-of-uncertain-malignant-potential-clinicopathologic-sonographic-characteristics-follow-up-and-recurrence
#2
Besim Haluk Bacanakgil, Mustafa Deveci, Emine Karabuk, Zeynep Soyman
Background: Uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is rare tumor, and regarded as sub-classification in uterine smooth muscle tumors between benign and malignant criteria. In this study, we evaluated characteristics of cases with STUMP diagnosis in a 10-year period. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated medical records of patients with histopathological STUMP diagnosis in Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, a tertiary center. We analyzed preoperative demographic, clinical features and postoperative follow-up...
June 2017: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146617/cure-in-advanced-renal-cell-cancer-is-it-an-achievable-goal
#3
Dhanusha Sabanathan, John J Park, Manuel Marquez, Louise Francisco, Natalie Byrne, Howard Gurney
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has historically been of interest in the management of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) because of its relative chemoresistance and the reproducible but low incidence of spontaneous remission in metastatic disease. Recently, targeted immunotherapies in the form of checkpoint inhibitors have shown durable responses in approximately 20%-30% of patients with solid tumors, with a much more acceptable side-effect profile. Anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1)/programmed death receptor ligand 1 antibodies rely on the presence of host T cells in the tumor microenvironment to be stimulated in order to activate an antitumor response...
November 16, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136183/glyphosate-use-and-cancer-incidence-in-the-agricultural-health-study
#4
Gabriella Andreotti, Stella Koutros, Jonathan N Hofmann, Dale P Sandler, Jay H Lubin, Charles F Lynch, Catherine C Lerro, Anneclaire J De Roos, Christine G Parks, Michael C Alavanja, Debra T Silverman, Laura E Beane Freeman
Background: Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with both residential and agricultural uses. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic to humans," noting strong mechanistic evidence and positive associations for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in some epidemiologic studies. A previous evaluation in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) with follow-up through 2001 found no statistically significant associations with glyphosate use and cancer at any site...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135755/management-of-skin-toxicity-caused-by-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitors-an-evidence-based-implementation-project
#5
Xiaolu Guo, Micah D J Peters, Zhenqi Lu
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) bind to and inhibit epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in cancer cells, slowing/preventing tumor growth. As a type of "targeted therapy", they have demonstrated therapeutic effects on solid tumors including colorectal, lung, and head and neck cancers. While effective, various skin reactions are associated with EGFRI therapy which can lead to dose modification or discontinuation as well as discomfort, pain and reduced quality of life...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126914/targeting-immuno-metabolism-to-improve-anti-cancer-therapies
#6
Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer
The immunology community has made significant strides in recent years in using the immune system to target and eliminate cancer. Therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the standard of care treatment for several malignancies, while therapies incorporating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells or checkpoint molecule blockade have been revolutionary. However, these approaches are not optimal for all cancers and in some cases, have failed outright. The greatest obstacle to making these therapies more effective may be rooted in one of the most basic concepts of cell biology, metabolism...
November 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119698/differences-in-the-ultrasound-features-of-papillations-in-unilocular-solid-adnexal-cysts-a-retrospective-international-multicenter-study
#7
Chiara Landolfo, Lil Valentin, Dorella Franchi, Caroline Van Holsbeke, Robert Fruscio, Wouter Froyman, Povilas Sladkevicius, Jeroen Kaijser, Lieveke Ameye, Tom Bourne, Luca Savelli, An Coosemans, Antonia Testa, Dirk Timmerman
OBJECTIVES: The aim is to determine if there are any ultrasound features of papillations or of the cyst wall that can discriminate between benign and malignant unilocular-solid cysts with papillations but no other solid components. METHODS: Patients with an adnexal lesion described at ultrasonography as unilocular-solid with papillations but no other solid components were identified from the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) database derived from seven ultrasound centers...
November 8, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113662/practice-variation-in-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-for-melanoma-patients-in-different-geographical-regions-in-the-netherlands
#8
J Verstijnen, S Damude, H J Hoekstra, S Kruijff, A J Ten Tije, W J Louwman, E Bastiaannet, M M Stuiver
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of solid evidence for treatment benefit of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) as part of loco-regional surgical treatment of non-distant metastatic melanoma, there might be variation in surgical treatment strategies in the Netherlands. The objective of the current study was to assess differences in the performance of SLNB, in geographical regions in the Netherlands, of non-distant metastatic melanoma patients (American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I-III)...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108254/the-impacts-of-genetic-polymorphisms-in-genes-of-base-excision-repair-pathway-on-the-efficacy-and-acute-toxicities-of-chemo-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#9
Jing Wang, Chengxian Guo, Xiaochang Gong, Fan Ao, Yuling Huang, Lihua Huang, Yiqiang Tang, Chunling Jiang, Xiaoxue Xie, Qing Dong, Min Huang, Jingao Li
Purpose: To explore whether polymorphisms in base excision repair (BER) pathway genes are predictors of (chemo)radiotherapy outcome in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We genotyped five potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of three genes in the BER pathway in 174 NPC patients who were treated with (chemo)radiotherapy. Sequenom MassArray was used for SNPs analysis. The efficacy at the end of radiotherapy and at 3 months after radiotherapy was evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103757/liquid-biopsy-an-emerging-prognostic-and-predictive-tool-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-hnscc-focus-on-circulating-tumor-cells-ctcs
#10
REVIEW
P Economopoulou, I Kotsantis, E Kyrodimos, E S Lianidou, A Psyrri
Molecular diversity and continuing evolution of metastatic tumors are not easily captured by tissue biopsies. Development of non-invasive diagnostic tools, such asanalysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and exosomes provides the opportunity to assess a blood sample in order to monitor tumor change and extract molecular information from cancers at a given time. "Liquid biopsy", which refers to molecular analysis of tumor's genetic features based on circulating genetic material in the peripheral blood, is already used to monitor disease response and track mechanisms of drug resistance in solid tumors...
November 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100385/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-vorinostat-and-panobinostat-induce-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-multidrug-resistant-sarcoma-cell-lines
#11
Eva Bernhart, Nicole Stuendl, Heike Kaltenegger, Christian Windpassinger, Nicholas Donohue, Andreas Leithner, Birgit Lohberger
Synovial sarcoma and high grade chondrosarcoma are characterized by their lack of response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, the tendency to develop lung metastases, and low survival rates. Research within the field prioritizes the development and expansion of new treatment options for dealing with unresectable or metastatic diseases. Numerous clinical trials using histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi) have shown specific efficacy as an active antitumor agent for treating a variety of solid tumors. However, as of yet the effect of different HDACi on synovial- and chondrosarcoma cells has not been investigated...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098766/some-statistical-considerations-in-the-clinical-development-of-cancer-immunotherapies
#12
Bo Huang
Immuno-oncology has emerged as an exciting new approach to cancer treatment. Common immunotherapy approaches include cancer vaccine, effector cell therapy, and T-cell-stimulating antibody. Checkpoint inhibitors such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed death-1/L1 antagonists have shown promising results in multiple indications in solid tumors and hematology. However, the mechanisms of action of these novel drugs pose unique statistical challenges in the accurate evaluation of clinical safety and efficacy, including late-onset toxicity, dose optimization, evaluation of combination agents, pseudoprogression, and delayed and lasting clinical activity...
November 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096892/cancer-stem-cells-and-metastasis
#13
Sushmita Bose Nandy, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
Decades of cancer research have led to substantial progress in the treatment of primary breast cancers. Despite of the advancement in this field, treating a metastatic disease has remained a mammoth task. One of the possible theories explaining metastatic disease involves the cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been shown to be an integral part of solid tumors. The process of metastasis involves the fine orchestration between CSCs and other microenvironmental factors. This chapter will provide an overview about the process of metastasis and the interactive role of CSCs with the components of the microenvironment in each phase of the metastatic cascade...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078734/ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-unravelling-a-germline-connection
#14
Seema Chandrakant Parte, Andrei S Smolenkov, Surinder K Batra, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Sham Sunder Kakar
Ovarian cancer is most lethal among gynaecological cancers with often fatal consequences due to lack of effective bio-markers and relapse which propels ovarian cancer research into unique directions to establish solid targeted therapeutics. 'Ovarian stem cells' expressing germline, pluripotent markers serve as novel paradigm with potential to address infertility, menopause and probably influence tumor initiation. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) pose vital role in tumor recurrence and hence it is extremely important to study them with respect to ovarian stem cells across various cancer stages and normal ovaries...
October 27, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076913/comparison-between-different-pet-and-ct-based-imaging-interpretation-criteria-at-interim-imaging-in-patients-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#15
Lucia Baratto, Guido A Davidzon, Mateen Moghbel, Negin Hatami, Andrei Iagaru, Erik S Mittra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of interim PET (iPET) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) using 5 different imaging interpretation criteria: Deauville 5-point scale criteria, International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria, Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) 1.0. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records from 38 patients with DLBCL who underwent baseline and iPET at our institution...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071436/measurement-and-scan-reproducibility-of-parameters-of-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-in-renal-tumor-and-normal-renal-parenchyma-a-preliminary-research-at-3-0%C3%A2-t-mr
#16
Jingjing Pan, Hongtao Zhang, Fengyuan Man, Yanguang Shen, Yingwei Wang, Yan Zhong, Lu Ma, Haiyi Wang, Huiyi Ye
PURPOSE: To prospectively estimate measurement and scan reproducibility of parameters of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) in renal tumors, normal renal cortex, and medulla. METHODS: Twenty-four consecutive patients (twelve males and twelve females; median age 56.7 years, range 32-71 years) with 25 renal tumors (20 renal cell carcinomas, one urothelium carcinoma, three angiomyolipomas, and one oncocytoma) were examined twice using IVIM1 and IVIM2 with 9 and 16 b values, respectively, at 3...
October 25, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069824/sensitive-detection-of-pd-l1-expression-on-circulating-epithelial-tumor-cells-cetcs-could-be-a-potential-biomarker-to-select-patients-for-treatment-with-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-early-and-metastatic-solid-tumors
#17
Dorothea Sonja Schott, Monika Pizon, Ulrich Pachmann, Katharina Pachmann
BACKGROUND: The current cancer research strongly focuses on immune therapies, where the PD-1, with its ligands plays an important role. It is known that PD-L1 is frequently up-regulated in a number of different cancers and the relevance of this pathway has been extensively studied and therapeutic approaches targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 have been developed. We used a non-invasive, real-time biopsy for determining PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in CETCs of solid cancer patients. METHODS: CETCs were determined from blood of 128 patients suffering from breast (72), prostate (27), colorectal (18) and lung (11) cancer...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069748/clinical-impact-of-high-serum-hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Takahiro Tsuji, Yuichi Sakamori, Hiroaki Ozasa, Yoshitaka Yagi, Hitomi Ajimizu, Yuto Yasuda, Tomoko Funazo, Takashi Nomizo, Hironori Yoshida, Hiroki Nagai, Ken Maeno, Tetsuya Oguri, Toyohiro Hirai, Young Hak Kim
Activation of c-MET through hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increases tumorigenesis, induces resistance, and is associated with poor prognosis in various solid tumors. However, the clinical value of serum HGF (sHGF) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially those receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, remains unknown. Here, we show that sHGF may be useful to predict tumor response and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced NSCLC. A total of 81 patients with NSCLC were investigated...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050362/mir-708-5p-a-microrna-with-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas J Monteleone, Carol S Lutz
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They are crucial for normal development and maintaining homeostasis. Researchers have discovered that dysregulated miRNA expression contributes to many pathological conditions, including cancer. miRNAs can augment or suppress tumorigenesis based on their expression and transcribed targetome in various cell types. In recent years, researchers have begun to identify miRNAs commonly dysregulated in cancer...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048884/nanotechnology-for-multimodal-synergistic-cancer-therapy
#20
Wenpei Fan, Bryant Yung, Peng Huang, Xiaoyuan Chen
The complexity, diversity, and heterogeneity of tumors seriously undermine the therapeutic potential of treatment. Therefore, the current trend in clinical research has gradually shifted from a focus on monotherapy to combination therapy for enhanced treatment efficacy. More importantly, the cooperative enhancement interactions between several types of monotherapy contribute to the naissance of multimodal synergistic therapy, which results in remarkable superadditive (namely "1 + 1 > 2") effects, stronger than any single therapy or their theoretical combination...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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