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Solid tumor research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915673/prognositic-value-of-cd73-adenosinergic-pathway-in-solid-tumor-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#1
Rong Wang, Yingying Zhang, Xia Lin, Yalin Gao, Ying Zhu
CD73 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored cell surface protein that is encoded by NT5E gene, plays multiple roles in tumor processes. Previous studies have presented a potential value of CD73 served as a detectable biomarker for prognosis of several solid tumors, but the results were more controversially. A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to precisely evaluate the prognostic role of CD73 in solid tumors. The included studies were searched in PubMed, Web of Science and EBSCO from Jan 1990 to Jan 2016...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910901/-clinical-research-on-immune-checkpoint-and-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
D Yu, X M Qi, X Zhao, Y Liu, K Xue, C S Jin, L J Wen
T cell immune checkpoint pathways contribute to tumor immune escape. Many studies have shown that immune checkpoint is demonstrably correlated with tumor grade or prognosis in several types of malignancies and immune checkpoint has become a new biological index for tumor detection and prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising tumor outcomes in clinical trials for some advanced solid tumors and it will become a new target for cancer immunotherapy. In this review we will explore the correlation between expressions of immune checkpoint-associated genes and proteins in immune microenviroment and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and specifically will discuss how this pathway can be manipulated with immune therapeutic drugs...
September 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905672/the-influence-of-ketogenic-therapy-on-the-5-r-s-of-radiobiology
#3
Rainer J Klement
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay in the treatment of solid tumors and works by inducing free radical stress in tumor cells, leading to loss of reproductive integrity. The optimal treatment strategy has to consider damage to both tumor and normal cells and is determined by five factors known as the 5 R's of radiobiology: Reoxygenation, DNA Repair, Radiosensitivity, Redistribution in the cell cycle and Repopulation. The aim of this review is (i) to present evidence that these 5 R's are strongly influenced by cellular and whole body metabolism that in turn can be modified through ketogenic therapy in form of ketogenic diets and short term fasting, and (ii) to stimulate new research into this field including some research questions deserving further study...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904641/histone-code-and-long-non-coding-rnas-lncrnas-aberrations-in-lung-cancer-implications-in-the-therapy-response
#4
REVIEW
Abril Marcela Herrera-Solorio, Leonel Armas-López, Oscar Arrieta, Joaquín Zúñiga, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Respiratory diseases hold several genome, epigenome, and transcriptional aberrations as a cause of the accumulated damage promoted by, among others, environmental risk factors. Such aberrations can also come about as an adaptive response when faced with therapeutic oncological drugs. In epigenetic terms, aberrations in DNA methylation patterns, histone code marks balance, and/or chromatin-remodeling complexes recruitment, among Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2) versus Trithorax (TRX) Activator Complex, have been proposed to be affected by several previously characterized functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881849/advances-in-single-cell-rna-sequencing-and-its-applications-in-cancer-research
#5
REVIEW
Sibo Zhu, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Li Jin, Leming Shi
Unlike population-level approaches, single-cell RNA sequencing enables transcriptomic analysis of an individual cell. Through the combination of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools, single-cell RNA-seq can detect more than 10,000 transcripts in one cell to distinguish cell subsets and dynamic cellular changes. After several years' development, single-cell RNA-seq can now achieve massively parallel, full-length mRNA sequencing as well as in situ sequencing and even has potential for multi-omic detection...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879168/the-oncopig-cancer-model-an-innovative-large-animal-translational-oncology-platform
#6
REVIEW
Kyle M Schachtschneider, Regina M Schwind, Jordan Newson, Nickolas Kinachtchouk, Mark Rizko, Nasya Mendoza-Elias, Paul Grippo, Daniel R Principe, Alex Park, Nana H Overgaard, Gregers Jungersen, Kelly D Garcia, Ajay V Maker, Laurie A Rund, Howard Ozer, Ron C Gaba, Lawrence B Schook
Despite an improved understanding of cancer molecular biology, immune landscapes, and advancements in cytotoxic, biologic, and immunologic anti-cancer therapeutics, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. More than 8.2 million deaths were attributed to cancer in 2012, and it is anticipated that cancer incidence will continue to rise, with 19.3 million cases expected by 2025. The development and investigation of new diagnostic modalities and innovative therapeutic tools is critical for reducing the global cancer burden...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877626/tumor-associated-macrophages-nanomedicine-and-imaging-the-axis-of-success-in-the-future-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
Saeid Zanganeh, Ryan Spitler, Gregor Hutter, Jim Q Ho, Mohan Pauliah, Morteza Mahmoudi
The success of any given cancer immunotherapy relies on several key factors. In particular, success hinges on the ability to stimulate the immune system in a controlled and precise fashion, select the best treatment options and appropriate therapeutic agents, and use highly effective tools to accurately and efficiently assess the outcome of the immunotherapeutic intervention. Furthermore, a deep understanding and effective utilization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), nanomedicine and biomedical imaging must be harmonized to improve treatment efficacy...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877002/lymphedema-pathogenesis-and-novel-therapies
#8
Joseph H Dayan, Catherine L Ly, Raghu P Kataru, Babak J Mehrara
Lymphedema affects up to 1 in 6 patients who undergo treatment for a solid tumor in the United States. Its prevalence has increased as more effective oncologic therapies have improved patient survival, but there remains no definitive cure. Recent research has elucidated new details in the pathogenesis of the disease and has demonstrated that it is fundamentally an immunologic progress that ultimately results in inflammation, fibroadipose deposition, impaired lymphangiogenesis, and dysfunctional lymphatic pumping...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875325/-response-evaluation-in-nuclear-medicine-criteria-results-and-pitfalls
#9
REVIEW
J Hoffend, C Sachpekidis, A Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Established criteria to categorize metabolic tumor response to cytotoxic chemotherapies may not be suited to capture the effects of therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) or with kinase inhibitors (KI), such as BRAF or MEK inhibitors. NUCLEAR MEDICINE STANDARD METHODS: To assess the metabolic response to cytotoxic chemotherapy by positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumors (PERCIST) were conceived...
September 5, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866143/construction-of-icg-encapsulated-w18o49-msn-as-a-fluorescence-carrier-for-real-time-tracked-photothermal-therapy
#10
Hui-Quan Wang, Peng-Fei Hu, Yu Zheng, Zhe Zhao, Bin Zheng, Jin Chang, Han-Jie Wang, Jin-Hai Wang
Photothermal therapy (PTT) has drawn tremendous attention because of its high therapeutic efficiency in targeting cells while minimizing the damage to normal tissues and organs. Tungsten oxide (W18O49, WO) plays a pivotal role in PTT development and its use in PTT systems has been extensively studied. However, it is difficult to control morphology of WO through conventional hydrothermal method. Which make its related researches have been limited up to now. In this study, we describe the construction and effects on tumor of a novel nanoplatform based on WO and indocyanine green (ICG) loaded in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for dual-modal PTT and near-infrared imaging...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856927/pharmacoepigenetics-and-pharmacoepigenomics-of-gastrointestinal-cancers
#11
Angela Lopomo, Fabio Coppedè
Our understanding of the epigenetic changes occurring in gastrointestinal cancers has gained tremendous advancements in recent years, and some epigenetic biomarkers are already translated into the clinics for cancer diagnostics. In parallel, pharmacoepigenetics and pharmacoepigenomics of solid tumors are relevant novel, but emerging and promising fields. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the literature to summarize and update the emerging field of pharmacoepigenetics and pharmacoepigenomics of gastrointestinal cancers...
August 31, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840939/viruses-in-cancers-among-the-immunosuppressed
#12
Laila Sara Arroyo Mühr, Zurab Bzhalava, Maria Hortlund, Camilla Lagheden, Sara Nordqvist Kleppe, Davit Bzhalava, Emilie Hultin, Joakim Dillner
Most cancer forms known to be caused by viruses are increased among the immunosuppressed, but several cancer forms without established viral etiology are also increased, notably non-melanoma skin carcinoma (NMSC). We followed all 13429 solid organ transplantation patients in Sweden for cancer occurrence after transplantation. We requested these tumor specimens and sequenced the first 89 specimens received (62 NMSCs, 27 other cancers). The sequences were analyzed for viruses based on two bioinformatics algorithms (paracel-blast (sensitive for detection of known viruses) and hidden Markov model (HMM; sensitive for distantly related viruses))...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838216/bet-inhibitors-a-novel-epigenetic-approach
#13
D B Doroshow, J P Eder, P M LoRusso
Epigenetics has been defined as 'the structural adaptation of chromosomal regions so as to register, signal or perpetuate altered activity states.' Currently, several classes of anticancer drugs function at the epigenetic level, including inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase, histone deacetylase (HDAC), lysine-specific demethylase 1, zeste homolog 2, and bromodomain and extra-terminal motif (BET) proteins.BET proteins have multiple functions, including the initiation and elongation of transcription and cell cycle regulation...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835003/regulation-of-pharmacogene-expression-by-microrna-in-the-cancer-genome-atlas-tcga-research-network
#14
Nayoung Han, Yun-Kyoung Song, Gilbert J Burckart, Eunhee Ji, In-Wha Kim, Jung Mi Oh
Individual differences in drug responses are associated with genetic and epigenetic variability of pharmacogene expression. We aimed to identify the relevant miRNAs which regulate pharmacogenes associated with drug responses. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles derived from data for normal and solid tumor tissues in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. Predicted miRNAs targeted to pharmacogenes were identified using publicly available databases. A total of 95 pharmacogenes were selected from cholangiocarcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma, as well as kidney renal clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and lung squamous cell carcinomas...
September 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829692/end-of-life-intensity-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer-a-californian-population-based-study-that-shows-disparities
#15
Emily E Johnston, Elysia Alvarez, Olga Saynina, Lee Sanders, Smita Bhatia, Lisa J Chamberlain
PURPOSE: Cancer is the leading cause of nonaccidental death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). High-intensity end-of-life care is expensive and may not be consistent with patient goals. However, the intensity of end-of-life care for AYA decedents with cancer-especially the effect of care received at specialty versus nonspecialty centers-remains understudied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based analysis with the California administrative discharge database that is linked to death certificates...
September 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828581/optimizing-tumor-immune-response-through-combination-of-radiation-and-immunotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Alissar El Chediak, Ali Shamseddine, Larry Bodgi, Jean-Pierre Obeid, Fady Geara, Youssef H Zeidan
Radiation therapy and immunotherapy are two highly evolving modalities for the treatment of solid tumors. Immunotherapeutic drugs can either stimulate the immune system via immunogenic pathways or target co-inhibitory checkpoints. An augmented tumor cell recognition by host immune cells can be achieved post-irradiation, as irradiated tissues can release chemical signals which are sensed by the immune system resulting in its activation. Different strategies combining both treatment modalities were tested in order to achieve a better therapeutic response and longer tumor control...
August 21, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820501/interleukin-armed-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Y Huang, D Li, D-Y Qin, H-F Gou, W Wei, Y-S Wang, Y-Q Wei, W Wang
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T) are endowed with cytotoxic specificity to tumor cells. Although CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy presents curable therapeutic potential for hematological malignancies, achieving substantial efficacy for solid tumors remain challenging. Researchers have exploited many strategies to enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of CAR-T cells for solid tumors, among which cytokine-armed CAR-T cells improve the proliferation, survival, homing and other properties of CAR-T cells...
August 18, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808589/anti-angiogenic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors-potential-pathways-therapy-and-current-strategies-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Ahmed M Al-Abd, Abdulmohsin J Alamoudi, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim, Thikryat A Neamatallah, Osama M Ashour
Recent strategies for the treatment of cancer, other than just tumor cell killing have been under intensive development, such as anti-angiogenic therapeutic approach. Angiogenesis inhibition is an important strategy for the treatment of solid tumors, which basically depends on cutting off the blood supply to tumor micro-regions, resulting in pan-hypoxia and pan-necrosis within solid tumor tissues. The differential activation of angiogenesis between normal and tumor tissues makes this process an attractive strategic target for anti-tumor drug discovery...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802831/validation-of-a-targeted-rna-sequencing-assay-for-kinase-fusion-detection-in-solid-tumors
#19
Julie W Reeser, Dorrelyn Martin, Jharna Miya, Esko A Kautto, Ezra Lyon, Eliot Zhu, Michele R Wing, Amy Smith, Matthew Reeder, Eric Samorodnitsky, Hannah Parks, Karan R Naik, Joseph Gozgit, Nicholas Nowacki, Kurtis D Davies, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Lianbo Yu, Aharon G Freud, Joshua Coleman, Dara L Aisner, Sameek Roychowdhury
Kinase gene fusions are important drivers of oncogenic transformation and can be inhibited with targeted therapies. Clinical grade diagnostics using RNA sequencing to detect gene rearrangements in solid tumors are limited, and the few that are available require prior knowledge of fusion break points. To address this, we have analytically validated a targeted RNA sequencing assay (OSU-SpARKFuse) for fusion detection that interrogates complete transcripts from 93 kinase and transcription factor genes. From a total of 74 positive and 36 negative control samples, OSU-SpARKFuse had 93...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800308/cancer-stem-cells-as-functional-biomarkers
#20
Vito D'Andrea, Alessandra Panarese, Maya Tonda, Marco Biffoni, Massimo Monti
According to the American Association of Cancer Research (AACR), a Cancer Stem Cell is a cell within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that constitutes the tumor [1]. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are involved in the metastatic process, in the resistance to therapeutic treatments of many types of human cancers and consequently in the onset of recurrences. Numerous translational studies have been conducted to understand CSC characteristics and evaluate association between CSC-related biomarkers and clinical outcomes...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
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