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Solid tumor research

Jiaming Huang, Tianyu Liu, Chunliang Shang, Yunhe Zhao, Wei Wang, Yanchun Liang, Luyan Guo, Shuzhong Yao
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been acknowledged to serve a significant role in cancer biology and abnormal expression in tumors is frequently observed. However, their mechanisms in cervical cancer remain unclear. With a genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression in cervical cancer tissues, the present study aimed to identify lncRNA targets for the further study of cervical cancer. To elucidate the specific role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of this type of cancer, 6 cervical cancer samples paired with normal cervical tissues were obtained...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Rosa Ruchlemer, Michal Amit-Kohn, Ariella Tvito, Irena Sindelovsky, Ari Zimran, David Raveh-Brawer
PURPOSE: Bone loss-osteopenia and osteoporosis-is a recognized consequence of solid tumors in adults, of pediatric hematological malignancies, and of the treatment for these diseases, but little research has been published on the adverse effects of hematological malignancies on the bone in adults. The aim of this study is to identify hematological diseases that are associated with the highest prevalence and severity of osteoporosis. METHODS: We evaluated DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in a cross-section of 181 adult patients with hematological neoplasms, excluding multiple myeloma...
March 16, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Idan Steinberg, Gil Tamir, Israel Gannot
Solid malignant tumors are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Many times complete removal is not possible and alternative methods such as focused hyperthermia are used. Precise control of the hyperthermia process is imperative for the successful application of such treatment. To that end, this research presents a fast method that enables the estimation of deep tissue heat distribution by capturing and processing the transient temperature at the boundary based on a bio-heat transfer model. The theoretical model is rigorously developed and thoroughly validated by a series of experiments...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kusum Vats, Rohit Sharma, Haladhar Dev Sarma, Drishty Satpati, Ashutosh Dash
AIMS: The urokinase plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) over-expressed on tumor cells and their invasive microenvironment are clinically significant molecular targets for cancer research. uPAR-expressing cancerous lesions can be suitably identified and their progression can be monitored with radiolabeled uPAR targeted imaging probes. Hence this study aimed at preparing and evaluating two 68Ga-labeled AE105 peptide conjugates, 68Ga-NODAGA-AE105 and 68Ga-HBED-CC-AE105 as uPAR PET-probes...
March 16, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Milad Moloudizargari, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Ian M Adcock, Frank A Redegeld, Johan Garssen
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have well established anti-cancer properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are among this biologically active family of macromolecules for which various anti-cancer effects have been explained. These PUFAs have a high safety profile and can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo , following a partially selective manner. They also increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by increasing the sensitivity of different cell lines to specific anti-neoplastic drugs...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Yimin Niu, Jianhua Zhu, Yang Li, Huihui Shi, Yaxiang Gong, Rui Li, Qiang Huo, Tao Ma, Yang Liu
The penetration of nanomedicine into solid tumor still constitutes a great challenge for cancer therapy, which lead to the failure of thorough clearance of tumor cells. Aiming at solving this issue, lots of encouraging progress has been made in the development of multistage nanoparticles triggered by various stimuli in the past few years. Besides, the therapeutical effects of nanoagents are also greatly impacted by the complex tumor microenvironment, and remodeling tumor microenvironment has become another important approach for promoting nanoparticles penetration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Hiroshi Maeda, Mahin Khatami
For over six decades reductionist approaches to cancer chemotherapies including recent immunotherapy for solid tumors produced outcome failure-rates of 90% (±5) according to governmental agencies and industry. Despite tremendous public and private funding and initial enthusiasm about missile-therapy for site-specific cancers, molecular targeting drugs for specific enzymes such as kinases or inhibitors of growth factor receptors, the outcomes are very bleak and disappointing. Major scientific reasons for repeated failures of such therapeutic approaches are attributed to reductionist approaches to research and infinite numbers of genetic mutations in chaotic molecular environment of solid tumors that are bases of drug development...
March 1, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Takahiro Yoshida, Nikolai A Sopko, Max Kates, Xiaopu Liu, Gregory Joice, David J McConkey, Trinity J Bivalacqua
There has been increasing awareness of the importance of three-dimensional culture of cancer cells. Tumor cells growing as multicellular spheroids in three-dimensional culture, alternatively called organoids, are widely believed to more closely mimic solid tumors in situ . Previous studies concluded that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for regeneration of the normal urothelium after injury and that β-catenin is upregulated in human bladder cancers, but no clear evidence has been advanced to support the idea that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is directly involved in deregulated proliferation and the other malignant characteristics of bladder cancer cells...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
David B Nelson, Myrna Cb Godoy, Marcelo F Benveniste, Jitesh B Shewale, Jonathan D Spicer, Kyle G Mitchell, Wayne L Hofstetter, Reza J Mehran, David C Rice, Boris Sepesi, Garrett L Walsh, Ara A Vaporciyan, Stephen G Swisher, Jack A Roth, Mara B Antonoff
BACKGROUND: Ground glass opacities pose diagnostic challenges, and even after malignancy is confirmed, prognosis is often unclear. We sought to identify clinicoradiographic features that could predict aggressive tumor biology in lung adenocarcinoma with associated ground glass components. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma from 2008-2013 was performed. Detailed radiographic features were reviewed by two radiologists. Logistic regression was used to identify risks of poor differentiation or a composite outcome of nodal metastases/lymphovascular invasion...
March 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Thais Roque, Laurent Risser, Veerle Kersemans, Sean Smart, Danny Allen, Paul Kinchesh, Stuart Gilchrist, Ana L Gomes, Julia A Schnabel, Michael A Chappell
Predicting tumor growth and its response to therapy remains a major challenge in cancer research and strongly relies on tumor growth models. In this paper, we introduce, calibrate, and verify a novel image-driven reaction-diffusion model of avascular tumor growth. The model allows for proliferation, death and spread of tumor cells, and accounts for nutrient distribution and hypoxia. It is constrained by longitudinal time series of dynamic contrast-enhancement-MRI images. Tumor specific parameters are estimated from two early time points and used to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of the tumor volume and cell densities at later time points...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Angelo Castello, Laura Olivari, Egesta Lopci
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the oldest modalities for cancer treatment. However, as part of a continuous research in medicine, in order to improve therapeutic precision and biological effectiveness, there is an increasing interest into the use of heavy particle (e.g. protons or heavy ions) in the treatment of solid tumors. However, the restricted availability of the technology has concentrated the expertise in highly specialized centers that take care and treat extreme cases and rare pathologies...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mark D Bartholomä
While radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for the treatment of hematological malignancies such as indolent B-cell lymphoma has proven quite successful, clinical results of RIT in solid tumors have only been moderate in the past. The reasons were manifold and can be mostly attributed to the different biological properties of solid tumors vs. hematological cancers. Furthermore, the slow clearance of the radiolabelled antibody prevents the use of radiation doses necessary to achieve clinical responses. The long biological half-life of radioimmunoconjugates results in high background levels and is the main reason for radiation related toxicities...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Yasin Tülüce, Bewar Ali Ahmed, İsmail Koyuncu, Mustafa Durgun
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common tumor, malignant and has developed one of the main reasons of cancer mortality. According to studies conducted recently; carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) is an especially attractive target for cancer therapy, in part since it is limited way expressed in normal tissues on the other hand in a wide variety of solid neoplasia are overexpressed. The aim of this study was to appreciate the effects of CAIX inhibitor, namely novel synthesized sulfonamide derivative (H-4i) with high affinity for CAIX, in CAIX-positive human colorectal cancer cell (HT-29) and CAIX-negative human normal embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Takashi Ishihara, Keiji Nogami, Yasufumi Takeshita, Satoshi Ochi, Midori Shima
Thrombosis and hemorrhage are serious complications in pediatric patients with solid tumors, and enhanced fibrinolysis associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is often observed. Fibrinolytic enzymes also play an important role in metastasis. Limited information is available, however, on the assessment of overall hemostatic function in children with malignant solid tumors. Methods We have investigated comprehensive hemostatic potential in these circumstances using simultaneous thrombin/plasmin generation assay (T/P-GA)...
March 5, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Jason D Merker, Geoffrey R Oxnard, Carolyn Compton, Maximilian Diehn, Patricia Hurley, Alexander J Lazar, Neal Lindeman, Christina M Lockwood, Alex J Rai, Richard L Schilsky, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Patricia Vasalos, Brooke L Billman, Thomas K Oliver, Suanna S Bruinooge, Daniel F Hayes, Nicholas C Turner
Purpose Clinical use of analytical tests to assess genomic variants in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is increasing. This joint review from ASCO and the College of American Pathologists summarizes current information about clinical ctDNA assays and provides a framework for future research. Methods An Expert Panel conducted a literature review on the use of ctDNA assays for solid tumors, including pre-analytical variables, analytical validity, interpretation and reporting, and clinical validity and utility. Results The literature search identified 1,338 references...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Jason D Merker, Geoffrey R Oxnard, Carolyn Compton, Maximilian Diehn, Patricia Hurley, Alexander J Lazar, Neal Lindeman, Christina M Lockwood, Alex J Rai, Richard L Schilsky, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Patricia Vasalos, Brooke L Billman, Thomas K Oliver, Suanna S Bruinooge, Daniel F Hayes, Nicholas C Turner
PURPOSE: - Clinical use of analytical tests to assess genomic variants in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is increasing. This joint review from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists summarizes current information about clinical ctDNA assays and provides a framework for future research. METHODS: - An Expert Panel conducted a literature review on the use of ctDNA assays for solid tumors, including preanalytical variables, analytical validity, interpretation and reporting, and clinical validity and utility...
March 5, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jie Yu, Changxi Wang, Qi Kong, Xiaxia Wu, Jin-Jian Lu, Xiuping Chen
BACKGROUND: As an anthracycline antibiotic, doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most potent and widely used chemotherapeutic agents for various types of solid tumors. Unfortunately, clinical application of this drug results in severe side effects of cardiotoxicity. PURPOSE: We aim to review the research focused on elimination or reduction of DOX cardiotoxicity without affecting its anticancer efficacy by natural products. METHODS: This study is based on pertinent papers that were retrieved by a selective search using relevant keywords in PubMed and ScienceDirect...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ahmed Abu-Zaid, Mohannad Alsabban, Mohammed Abuzaid, Osama Alomar, Ismail A Al-Badawi, Hany Salem
INTRODUCTION: Inherited ABO blood groups have been shown to play possible contributions in the pathogenesis of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic carcinomas. With regard to gynecologic carcinomas, there is a confined number of studies that explored the relationship between ABO blood group and endometrial carcinoma (EC) in the PubMed-indexed literature. To the best of our knowledge, no such study has ever been conducted in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVES: Our study has two objectives: (I) to determine the prevalence of ABO blood groups among Saudi patients with EC, and (II) to explore the relationship between ABO blood group and several clinico-pathological prognostic parameters (namely: menopausal status [age], body mass index [BMI], tumor grade, FIGO [Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique] stage and recurrence) in Saudi patients with EC...
December 18, 2017: Curēus
Cheng-Jeng Tai, Yeu-Ching Shi, Chen-Jei Tai, Li-Jen Kuo, Ray-Jade Chen, Yu-Jia Chang, Ching Tzao, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Chun-Chao Chang, Hung-Yi Chiou, Ching-Hua Su
Context • Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a parasitic mushroom found in the heartwood of Cinnamomum kanehirai and is used as a nutritional supplement. It has an anticancer action, both alone and synergistically with amphotericin B (AmB). Objective • The study intended to assess the efficacy of a T camphoratus ethanol extract (TCEE) combined with AmB for patients with metastatic cancer whose cancer did not respond to multiline chemotherapy or who were unwilling to receive chemotherapy. Design • The research team performed a retrospective analysis as a pilot study...
February 24, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
G T Tsangaris, A K Anagnostopoulos
Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are the most common solid malignancies in childhood and continue to pose a serious burden to modern societies. Existing treatments impose debilitating effects on the developing child, highlighting the need for molecularly targeted treatments with reduced toxicity, and the necessity of markers that reliably assess efficacy of, and tumor response to targeted-therapies of PBTs. On this regard advances in technologies of protein identification and quantification, the large-scale, high-throughput investigation of the proteome, as well the newly-emerging field of "proteogenomics" aim to further our knowledge towards understanding the molecular pathophysiology of PBTs...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
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