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Solid tumor research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777858/cd44-targeted-plga-nanomedicines-for-cancer-chemotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Ankit Saneja, Divya Arora, Robin Kumar, Ravindra Dhar Dubey, Amulya K Panda, Prem N Gupta
In recent years scientific community has drawn a great deal of attention towards understanding the enigma of cluster of differentiation-44 (CD44) in order to deliver therapeutic agents more selectively towards tumor tissues. Moreover, its over-expression in variety of solid tumors has attracted drug delivery researchers to target this receptor with nanomedicines. Conventional nanomedicines based on biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) are often associated with insufficient cellular uptake by cancer cells, due to lack of active targeting moiety on their surface...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769134/advances-on-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cell-therapy-for-oncotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Yanyu Pang, Xiaoyang Hou, Chunsheng Yang, Yanqun Liu, Guan Jiang
Tumor treatment is still complicated in the field of medicine. Tumor immunotherapy has been the most interesting research field in cancer therapy. Application of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has recently achieved excellent clinical outcome in patients, especially those with CD19-positive hematologic malignancies. This phenomenon has induced intense interest to develop CAR-T cell therapy for cancer, especially for solid tumors. However, the performance of CAR-T cell treatment in solid tumor is not as satisfactory as that in hematologic disease...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764162/the-evolving-role-of-immune-oncology-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
Shaheenah Dawood
Metastatic colorectal cancer still remains an essentially non curable disease. However, with advances in chemotherapeutic and personalizing therapeutic approaches with the incorporation of targeted therapy such as anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF agents survival associated with metastatic colorectal cancer has certainly improved over the last two decades. Patients who are not amenable to surgery median survival remain approximately 2 to 3 years. In an attempt to improve prognostic outcome over the last decade research has focused on therapeutic options geared towards harnessing the immune system with success observed with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the realm of a number of solid tumors including lung and renal cancer...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763371/normobaric-hyperoxia-inhibits-the-progression-of-lung-cancer-by-inducing-apoptosis
#4
Sei Won Kim, In Kyoung Kim, Jick Hwan Ha, Chang Dong Yeo, Hyeon Hui Kang, Jin Woo Kim, Sang Haak Lee
Hypoxia is a critical characteristic of solid tumors with respect to cancer cell survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Hyperoxic treatment has been attempted to reverse hypoxia by enhancing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the plasma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of normobaric hyperoxia on the progression of lung cancer to determine whether oxygen toxicity can be used in cancer therapy. Following a tail vein injection of the Lewis lung carcinoma cells, C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a 24-h normobaric hyperoxia/normoxia cycle for two weeks...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755779/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gastrointestinal-malignancies
#5
REVIEW
Vishal Jindal
Gastrointestinal (GIT) tumors are extremely fatal and lethal tumors with limited therapeutic options. Antitumor immunity is new line of research in management of solid tumors. Immune check points are negative regulators of immune system and control the immune response. These checkpoints are exploited by cancer cells. Cancer cells causes early activation of checkpoints and suppress the immune response, and therefore have unchecked growth and metastasis of malignant cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), downregulates these checkpoints and activate the proliferation of cytotoxic T cells which helps in lysis of tumor cells...
April 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753121/revised-modified-recist-criteria-for-assessment-of-response-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-version-1-1
#6
Samuel G Armato, Anna K Nowak
Malignant pleural mesothelioma poses unique difficulties in tumor measurement and response assessment; however, robust and reproducible assessment of response is critically important in the conduct, interpretation, and reporting of clinical trials. The current de-facto standard for the assessment of mesothelioma tumor response, "modified RECIST" (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors), was published in 2004 as a research paper. Practical application of the modified RECIST guidelines has suffered from varied interpretations, resulting in inaccuracies and inconsistencies in tumor response assessment across and within mesothelioma clinical trials...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742735/a-case-report-of-heterozygous-tinf2-gene-mutation-associated-with-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-a-patient-with-dyskeratosis-congenita
#7
Hongchun Du, Yubiao Guo, Di Ma, Kejing Tang, Decheng Cai, Yifeng Luo, Canmao Xie
RATIONALE: Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited disease characterized by the classical mucocutaneous triad. Pulmonary fibrosis, bone marrow failure, and solid tumors are the main causes of mortality in DC. Pathogenic variants in TERT, TERC, and DKC1 have been identified in individuals with familial pulmonary fibrosis. Mutations in TINF2 gene have been reported to be associated with bone marrow failure in most cases. However, the relationship between TINF2 mutation and pulmonary fibrosis is not yet clear...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738914/g4dari-geant4-gate-based-monte-carlo-simulation-interface-for-dosimetry-calculation-in-radiotherapy
#8
Faiçal A A Slimani, Mahdjoub Hamdi, M'hamed Bentourkia
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is widely recognized as an important technique to study the physics of particle interactions in nuclear medicine and radiation therapy. There are different codes dedicated to dosimetry applications and widely used today in research or in clinical application, such as MCNP, EGSnrc and Geant4. However, such codes made the physics easier but the programming remains a tedious task even for physicists familiar with computer programming. In this paper we report the development of a new interface GEANT4 Dose And Radiation Interactions (G4DARI) based on GEANT4 for absorbed dose calculation and for particle tracking in humans, small animals and complex phantoms...
May 1, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738227/exclusive-liquid-repellency-an-open-multi-liquid-phase-technology-for-rare-cell-culture-and-single-cell-processing
#9
Chao Li, Jiaquan Yu, Jennifer Schehr, Scott M Berry, Ticiana A Leal, Joshua M Lang, David J Beebe
The concept of high liquid repellency in multi-liquid-phase systems (e.g., aqueous droplets in an oil background) has been applied to areas of biomedical research to realize intrinsic advantages not available in single-liquid-phase systems. Such advantages have included minimizing analyte loss, facile manipulation of single-cell samples, elimination of biofouling, and ease of use regarding loading and retrieving of the sample. In this paper, we present generalized design rules for predicting the wettability of solid-liquid-liquid systems (especially for discrimination between exclusive liquid repellency (ELR) and finite liquid repellency) to extend the applications of ELR...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730801/challenges-and-prospects-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-in-solid-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Vishal Jindal, Ena Arora, Sorab Gupta
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a novel and innovative immunotherapy. CAR-T cells are genetically engineered T cells, carrying MHC independent specific antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecule which can activate an immune response to a cancer specific antigen. This therapy showed great results in hematological malignancies but were unable to prove their worth in solid tumors. Likely reasons for their failure are lack of antigens, poor trafficking, and hostile tumor microenvironment. Excessive amount of research is going on to improve the efficacy of CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors...
May 5, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728788/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-in-pancreatic-cancer-from-research-to-practice
#11
REVIEW
Vishal Jindal, Ena Arora, Muhammad Masab, Sorab Gupta
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is genetically engineered tumor antigen-specific anticancer immunotherapy, which after showing great success in hematological malignancies is currently being tried in advanced solid tumors like pancreatic cancer. Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and dense fibrous stroma are some of the limitation in the success of this novel therapy. However, genetic modifications and combination therapy is the topic of the research to improve its efficacy. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge, limitations, and future prospects for CAR T cell therapy in pancreatic cancer...
May 4, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726787/role-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-6-inhibitors-in-the-current-and-future-eras-of-cancer-treatment
#12
S Parylo, A Vennepureddy, V Dhar, P Patibandla, A Sokoloff
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors, which act by inhibiting progression from the G1 to S phases of the cell cycle, include palbociclib, ribociclib, abemaciclib, and trilaciclib. Palbociclib and ribociclib are currently food and drug administration-approved for use in combination with aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with metastatic hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. Palbociclib is also food and drug administration-approved for use in combination with fulvestrant in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer progressing after endocrine therapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725351/immune-related-concepts-in-biology-and-treatment-of-germ-cell-tumors
#13
REVIEW
Michal Chovanec, Ugo De Giorgi, Michal Mego
Germ-cell tumors (GCTs) are highly curable with chemotherapy. Salvage chemotherapy or surgery can cure a proportion of patients, but the ones failing these treatments will die of their disease in the young age. Immune checkpoint pathways are emerging as powerful targetable biomarkers, and a significant preclinical and clinical research is underway to widen our knowledge and expand the treatment possibilities with immune therapy. The concept of immune modulation that was currently adopted in many solid tumors is understudied in GCTs...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719868/hydrogel-microenvironments-for-cancer-spheroid-growth-and-drug-screening
#14
REVIEW
Yunfeng Li, Eugenia Kumacheva
Multicellular cancer spheroids (MCSs) have emerged as a promising in vitro model that replicates many features of solid tumors in vivo. Biomimetic hydrogel scaffolds for MCS growth offer a broad spectrum of biophysical and biochemical cues that help to recapitulate the behavior of natural extracellular matrix, essential for regulating cancer cell behavior. This perspective highlights recent advances in the development of hydrogel environments for MCS growth, release, and drug screening. We review the use of different types of hydrogels for MCS growth, the effect of biophysical and biochemical cues on MCS fate, the isolation of MCSs from hydrogel scaffolds, the utilization of microtechnologies, and the applications of MCSs grown in hydrogels...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715512/hmgb1-contributes-to-adriamycin-induced-cardiotoxicity-via-up-regulating-autophagy
#15
Peihua Luo, Yi Zhu, Min Chen, Hao Yan, Bo Yang, Xiaochun Yang, Qiaojun He
Adriamycin (ADR) is one of the most widely used and effective anthracycline antitumor agents in the treatment of certain hematological malignancies and solid tumors. However, the severe cardiotoxicity of ADR limits its clinical application. So far, the mechanism of the cardiotoxicity of ADR has not been completely clarified. In our research, cardiomyocyte autophagy and cardiac damage were observed in accompany ADR treatment, and autophagy appeared earlier than cardiac damage. Inhibition of autophagy by silencing ATG7 improved the survival rate of cardiomyocytes treated with ADR...
April 28, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709910/a-novel-strategy-to-increase-the-yield-of-exosomes-extracellular-vesicles-for-an-expansion-of-basic-research
#16
Sherif E Emam, Hidenori Ando, Amr Selim Abu Lila, Taro Shimizu, Masami Ukawa, Keiichiro Okuhira, Yu Ishima, Mahmoud A Mahdy, Fakhr-Eldin S Ghazy, Tatsuhiro Ishida
Exosomes are tiny extracellular vesicles that are usually harvested in small quantities. Such small yield has been an obstacle for the expansion of the basic research regarding exosome analysis and applications in drug delivery. To increase exosome yield, we attempted to stimulate tumor cells via the addition of liposomes in vitro. Neutral, cationic-bare or PEGylated liposomes were incubated with four different tumor cell lines. The stimulatory effect of liposomal formulations on exosome secretion and cellular uptake propensity of the collected exosome by mother cells or different cells was evaluated...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684498/multi-modal-characterization-of-vasculature-and-nanoparticle-accumulation-in-five-tumor-xenograft-models
#17
Einar Sulheim, Jana Kim, Annemieke van Wamel, Eugene Kim, Sofie Snipstad, Igor Vidic, Ingeborg Hovde Grimstad, Marius Widerøe, Sverre H Torp, Steinar Lundgren, David J Waxman, Catharina de Lange Davies
Preclinical research has demonstrated that nanoparticles and macromolecules can accumulate in solid tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, drug loaded nanoparticles often fail to show increased efficacy in clinical trials. A better understanding of how tumor heterogeneity affects nanoparticle accumulation could help elucidate this discrepancy and help in patient selection for nanomedicine therapy. Here we studied five human tumor models with varying morphology and evaluated the accumulation of 100 nm polystyrene nanoparticles...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682513/lung-cancer-stem-cells-origin-characteristics-and-therapy
#18
REVIEW
D Prabavathy, Y Swarnalatha, Niveditha Ramadoss
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have gained an increasing attention recently in cancer research. CSCs have ability to generate new tumor through their stem cell properties, essentially self-renewal potential and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Extensive evidences report that CSCs are resistant to many conventional therapies and mediate tumor recurrence. CSCs of lung cancer are well recognized by their specific markers such as CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 together with the CSC characteristics including spheroid and colony formation...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676899/large-hollow-cavity-luminous-nanoparticles-with-near-infrared-persistent-luminescence-and-tunable-sizes-for-tumor-afterglow-imaging-and-chemo-photodynamic-therapies
#19
Jun Wang, Jinlei Li, Jiani Yu, Hongwu Zhang, Bingbo Zhang
Persistent luminous nanoparticles (PLNPs) have been capturing increasing attention in biomedical imaging because of their long-life emission and concomitant benefits (e.g., zero-autofluorescence background, high signal-to-noise ratio). Although there are quite some synthetic methodologies to synthesize PLNPs, those for constructing functional structured PLNPs remain largely unexplored. Herein we report the design principle, synthesis route, and proof-of-concept applications of hollow structured PLNPs with near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence, namely afterglow, and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemical/photodynamic therapies...
April 20, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676642/immunomethylomics-a-novel-cancer-risk-prediction-tool
#20
Karl T Kelsey, John K Wiencke
There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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