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Solid tumor research

Xia Zhang, Jingyu Hu, Yan Chen
Betulinic acid (BA), a lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin from tree bark, has the potential to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells without toxicity towards normal cells in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor pharmacological effects of BA consist of triggering apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, regulating the cell cycle and the angiogenic pathway via factors, including specificity protein transcription factors, cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibiting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathways, preventing the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, and affecting the expression of topoisomerase I, p53 and lamin B1...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
A K S Salama, S J Moschos
BACKGROUND: Cancers escape immune surveillance via distinct mechanisms that involve central (negative selection within the thymus) or peripheral (lack of costimulation, receipt of death/anergic signals by tumor, immunoregulatory cell populations) immune tolerance. During the 1990s, moderate clinical benefit was seen using several cytokine therapies for a limited number of cancers. Over the past 20 years, extensive research has been performed to understand the role of various components of peripheral immune tolerance, with the co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1) being the most well characterized at preclinical and clinical levels...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Moon Kyung Joo, Jong-Jae Park, Hoon Jai Chun
Homeobox genes, including HOX and non-HOX genes, have been identified to be expressed aberrantly in solid tumors. In gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, most studies have focused on the function of non-HOX genes including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 1 (CDX1) and CDX2. CDX2 is a crucial factor in the development of pre-cancerous lesions such as Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and its tumor suppressive role has been investigated in colorectal cancers. Recently, several HOX genes were reported to have specific roles in GI cancers; for example, HOXA13 in esophageal squamous cell cancer and HOXB7 in stomach and colorectal cancers...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
P Zarzosa, N Navarro, I Giralt, C Molist, A Almazán-Moga, I Vidal, A Soriano, M F Segura, R Hladun, A Villanueva, S Gallego, J Roma
The use of preclinical models is essential in translational cancer research and especially important in pediatric cancer given the low incidence of each particular type of cancer. Cell line cultures have led to significant advances in cancer biology. However, cell lines have adapted to growth in artificial culture conditions, thereby undergoing genetic and phenotypic changes which may hinder the translational application. Tumor grafts developed in mice from patient tumor tissues, generally known as patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), are interesting alternative approaches to reproducing the biology of the original tumor...
October 7, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Jonas A de Souza, Bonnie J Yap, Kristen Wroblewski, Victoria Blinder, Fabiana S Araújo, Fay J Hlubocky, Lauren H Nicholas, Jeremy M O'Connor, Bruce Brockstein, Mark J Ratain, Christopher K Daugherty, David Cella
BACKGROUND: Cancer and its treatment lead to increased financial distress for patients. To the authors' knowledge, to date, no standardized patient-reported outcome measure has been validated to assess this distress. METHODS: Patients with AJCC Stage IV solid tumors receiving chemotherapy for at least 2 months were recruited. Financial toxicity was measured by the COmprehensive Score for financial Toxicity (COST) measure. The authors collected data regarding patient characteristics, clinical trial participation, health care use, willingness to discuss costs, psychological distress (Brief Profile of Mood States [POMS]), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: General (FACT-G) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL questionnaires...
October 7, 2016: Cancer
Fei Xiong, Jilai Tian, Ke Hu, Xiawen Zheng, Jianfei Sun, Caiyun Yan, Juan Yao, Lina Song, Yu Zhang, Ning Gu
Leukemia, unlike solid tumors, has no definite shape and spreads throughout the whole circulatory system, therefore the therapy of leukemia requires medication to stay longer in the circulatory system. Anisotropic nanoparticles, showing longer blood circulating life than that of isotropic nanoparticles reported in previous research, meet the demands of leukemia therapy. Based on this strategy, superparamagnetic anisotropic nano-assemblies (SANs) were fabricated and loaded with vincristine (VCR) to form VCR-SANs...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Yi-Hong Zhou, Yuanjie Hu, Liping Yu, Chao Ke, Christopher Vo, Hao Hsu, Zhenzhi Li, Anne T Di Donato, Abhishek Chaturbedi, Ji Won Hwang, Eric R Siegel, Mark E Linskey
De-regulated EFEMP1 gene expression in solid tumors has been widely reported with conflicting roles. We dissected EFEMP1 to identify domains responsible for its cell context-dependent dual functions, with the goal being to construct an EFEMP1-derived tumor-suppressor protein (ETSP) that lacked tumor-promoting function. Exon/intron boundaries of EFEMP1 were used as boundaries of functional modules in constructing EFEMP1 variants, with removal of various module(s), and/or mutating an amino acid residue to convert a weak integrin binding-site into a strong one...
2016: Oncoscience
Nora Sundahl, Dorien Clarisse, Marc Bracke, Fritz Offner, Wim Vanden Berghe, Ilse M Beck
Although adverse effects and glucocorticoid resistance cripple their chronic use, glucocorticoids form the mainstay therapy for acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, and play an important role in treatment protocols of both lymphoid malignancies and as adjuvant to stimulate therapy tolerability in various solid tumors. Glucocorticoid binding to their designate glucocorticoid receptor (GR), sets off a plethora of cell-specific events including therapeutically desirable effects, such as cell death, as well as undesirable effects, including chemotherapy resistance, systemic side effects and glucocorticoid resistance...
2016: Oncoscience
Nuno Mendes, Francisco Tortosa, Andreia Valente, Fernanda Marques, António Matos, Tânia S Morais, Ana Isabel Tomaz, Fátima Gärtner, Maria Helena Garcia
Ruthenium-based anti-cancer compounds are proposed as viable alternatives that might circumvent the disadvantages of platinum-based drugs, the only metallodrugs in clinical use for chemotherapy. Organometallic complexes in particular hold great potential as alternative therapeutic agents since their cytotoxicity involve different modes of action and present reduced toxicity profiles. During the last few years our research group has been reporting on a series of organometallic ruthenium(II)-cyclopentadienyl complexes that showed important cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines, surpassing cisplatin in activity...
September 22, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Neha Kaushik, Ki Chun Yoo, Nizam Uddin, Ju Sung Kim, Su Jae Lee, Eun Ha Choi
Highly resistant tumor cells are hard to treat at low doses of plasma. Therefore, researchers have gained more attention to development of enhancers for plasma therapy. Some enhancers could improve the efficacy of plasma towards selectivity of cancer cells damage. In this dataset, we report the application of low doses of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles with addition of plasma treatment. This data consists of the effect of PEG-coated GNP and cold plasma on two solid tumor cell lines T98G glioblastoma and A549 lung adenocarcinoma...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Pilar Santisteban
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy giving rise to one of the most indolent solid cancers, but also one of the most lethal. In recent years, systematic studies of the cancer genome, most importantly those derived from The Cancer Genome Altas (TCGA), have catalogued aberrations in the DNA, chromatin, and RNA of the genomes of thousands of tumors relative to matched normal cellular genomes and have analyzed their epigenetic and protein consequences. Cancer genomics is therefore providing new information on cancer development and behavior, as well as new insights into genetic alterations and molecular pathways...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Bing Sun, Zhou Huang, Shikai Wu, Lijuan Ding, Ge Shen, Lei Cha, Junliang Wang, Santai Song
PURPOSE: Brain metastasis (BM) with a cystic component from breast cancer is rare and largely uncharacterized. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of cystic BM in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. RESULTS: A total of 35 eligible patients with cystic BM and 255 patients with solid BM were analyzed. Three factors were significantly associated with an increased probability of developing cystic lesions: age at diagnosis ≤ 40 years, age at BM ≤ 45 years, and poor histological grade (p < 0...
September 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Nathan J McNeese, Nandita Khera, Sara E Wordingham, Noel Arring, Sharon Nyquist, Amy Gentry, Brian Tomlinson, Nancy J Cooke, Ayan Sen
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an important and complex treatment modality for a variety of hematologic malignancies and some solid tumors. Although outcomes of patients who have undergone HCT and require care in intensive care units (ICUs) have improved over time, mortality rates remain high and there are significant associated costs. Lack of a team-based approach to care, especially during critical illness, is detrimental to patient autonomy and satisfaction, and to team morale, ultimately leading to poor quality of care...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Montree Chaichanyut, Supan Tungjitkusolmun
This research is concerned with microwave ablation analyses using a 2.45 GHz four-tine (4T) antenna for hepatic cancer tissue. In the study, three-dimensional finite-element models were utilized to examine the tissue temperature distributions during and after MW ablation. A preliminary study was first carried out with regard to the specific absorption rates along the 4T antenna insertion depths and the temperature distributions inside the solid and porous liver models with either 3 cm-in-diameter tumor or 5 cm-in-diameter tumor...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
I Morath, T N Hartmann, V Orian-Rousseau
CD44 is a cell adhesion molecule that plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. The role of CD44 in tumorigenesis is due to its binding to extracellular matrix components, including hyaluronan (HA) and osteopontin (OPN), and to messenger molecules, such as growth factors present in the tumor microenvironment. HA and OPN are highly abundant in the leukemic stem cell niche and in solid tumors of various cancer types, where they contribute to the maintenance of the stemness of malignant cells...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
G Santabarbara, P Maione, A Rossi, G Palazzolo, C Gridelli
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancers remain the principal cause of death cancer-related worldwide with a poor survival rate at five years from diagnosis. In patients with NSCLC harboring specific genetic alterations the anti EGFR TKIs and the ALK TKIs have improved the response rate and the quality of life compared to standard platinum-based chemotherapy. New approaches possibly applicable at the major of patients are needed. AREAS COVERED: The discovery that the immune system plays a fundamental role in the fight against cancer...
September 14, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Cherif Akladios, Mihaela Ignat, Didier Mutter, Marc Aprahamian
BACKGROUND: The 3Rs guideline is the gold standard for ethics in animal experimentation. Two of those rules, namely refinement and reduction, require further improvement. The objective of this study was to define pathways to better compliance with these prerequisites. Two methods which move us in this direction are: (1) using small animal imaging techniques for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) follow-up and (2) reduction of the number of control animals included in a study of PDAC progression under treatment...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Stephanie L Ham, Ramila Joshi, Gary D Luker, Hossein Tavana
Solid tumors develop as 3D tissue constructs. As tumors grow larger, spatial gradients of nutrients and oxygen and inadequate diffusive supply to cells distant from vasculature develops. Hypoxia initiates signaling and transcriptional alterations to promote survival of cancer cells and generation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that have self-renewal and tumor-initiation capabilities. Both hypoxia and CSCs are associated with resistance to therapies and tumor relapse. This study demonstrates that 3D cancer cell models, known as tumor spheroids, generated with a polymeric aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) technology capture these important biological processes...
September 7, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Tsutomu Kawaguchi, Shuhei Komatsu, Daisuke Ichikawa, Masahiro Tsujiura, Hiroki Takeshita, Shoji Hirajima, Mahito Miyamae, Wataru Okajima, Takuma Ohashi, Taisuke Imamura, Jun Kiuchi, Hirotaka Konishi, Atsushi Shiozaki, Kazuma Okamoto, Eigo Otsuji
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play important roles in various physiological and developmental processes such as oncogenic or tumor suppressive regulators. Specific miRNA expression signatures have been identified in a number of human cancers. Cell-free miRNAs have recently been stably detected in plasma and serum (circulating miRNAs), and their presence in blood has attracted the attention of researchers due to their potential as non-invasive biomarkers...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yu Yi, Hyun Jin Kim, Peng Mi, Meng Zheng, Hiroyasu Takemoto, Kazuko Toh, Beob Soo Kim, Kotaro Hayashi, Mitsuru Naito, Yu Matsumoto, Kanjiro Miyata, Kazunori Kataoka
For systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to solid tumors, we developed an actively-targeted unimer polyion complex-assembled gold nanoparticle (uPIC-AuNP) by a two-step assembling process. First is the monodispersed uPIC formation from the single molecules of therapeutic siRNA and the block catiomer, cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptide-installed poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine) modified with lipoic acid (LA) at the ω-end (cRGD-PEG-PLL-LA). Second is the surface decoration of a 20nm-sized AuNP with uPICs...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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