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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064442/tumor-derived-spheroids-relevance-to-cancer-stem-cells-and-clinical-applications
#1
REVIEW
Tatsuya Ishiguro, Hirokazu Ohata, Ai Sato, Kaoru Yamawaki, Takayuki Enomoto, Koji Okamoto
Recently, many types of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been developed to recapitulate the in vivo growth conditions of cancer. The cancer 3D culture methods aim to preserve the biological characteristics of original tumors better than conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, and include tumor-derived organoids, tumor-derived spheroids, organotypic multicellular spheroids, and multicellular tumor spheroids. The 3D culture methods differ in terms of cancer cell sources, protocols for cell handling, and the required time intervals...
January 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062906/programmed-cell-death-1-pathway-inhibition-in-myeloid-malignancies-implications-for-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#2
REVIEW
D C Choi, D Tremblay, C Iancu-Rubin, J Mascarenhas
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic diseases that belong to the spectrum of myeloid malignancies (MyMs), which also include myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative therapeutic approach to many MyMs, the associated morbidity and mortality have necessitated the development of non-HSCT therapeutics for symptom management and disease course modification...
January 6, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056180/clonality-inference-from-single-tumor-samples-using-low-coverage-sequence-data
#3
Nilgun Donmez, Salem Malikic, Alexander W Wyatt, Martin E Gleave, Colin C Collins, S Cenk Sahinalp
Inference of intra-tumor heterogeneity can provide valuable insight into cancer evolution. Somatic mutations detected by sequencing can help estimate the purity of a tumor sample and reconstruct its subclonal composition. Although several methods have been developed to infer intra-tumor heterogeneity, the majority of these tools rely on variant allele frequencies as estimated via ultra-deep sequencing from multiple samples of the same tumor. In practice, obtaining sequencing data from a large number of samples per patient is only feasible in a few cancer types such as liquid tumors, or in rare cases involving solid tumors selected for research...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055978/research-progress-of-neuroblastoma-related-gene-variations
#4
REVIEW
Yanna Cao, Yan Jin, Jinpu Yu, Jingfu Wang, Jie Yan, Qiang Zhao
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor among children, is an embryonal tumor originating from undifferentiated neural crest cell. Neuroblastomas are highly heterogeneous, represented by the wide range of clinical presentations and likelihood of cure, ranging from spontaneous regression to relentless progression despite rigorous multimodal treatments. Approximately, 50% of cases are high-risk with overall survival rates less than 40%. With the efforts to collect large numbers of clinically annotated specimens and the advancements in technologies, researchers have revealed numerous genetic alterations that may drive tumor growth...
December 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053943/novel-oncolytic-viral-therapies-in-patients-with-thoracic-malignancies
#5
REVIEW
Zeeshan Ahmad, Robert A Kratzke
Oncolytic virotherapy is the use of replication-competent viruses to treat malignancies. The potential of oncolytic virotherapy as an approach to cancer therapy is based on historical evidence that certain viral infections can cause spontaneous remission of both hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. Oncolytic virotherapy may eliminate cancer cells through either direct oncolysis of infected tumor cells or indirect immune-mediated oncolysis of uninfected tumor cells. Recent advances in oncolytic virotherapy include the development of a wide variety of genetically attenuated RNA viruses with precise cellular tropism and the identification of cell-surface receptors that facilitate viral transfer to the tissue of interest...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052254/pan-cancer-immunogenomic-analyses-reveal-genotype-immunophenotype-relationships-and-predictors-of-response-to-checkpoint-blockade
#6
Pornpimol Charoentong, Francesca Finotello, Mihaela Angelova, Clemens Mayer, Mirjana Efremova, Dietmar Rieder, Hubert Hackl, Zlatko Trajanoski
The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed the genomic landscapes of human cancers. In parallel, immunotherapy is transforming the treatment of advanced cancers. Unfortunately, the majority of patients do not respond to immunotherapy, making the identification of predictive markers and the mechanisms of resistance an area of intense research. To increase our understanding of tumor-immune cell interactions, we characterized the intratumoral immune landscapes and the cancer antigenomes from 20 solid cancers and created The Cancer Immunome Atlas (https://tcia...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051265/the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-in-nasal-inflammations
#7
K-J Cheng, Y-Y Bao, S-H Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is considered an important transcription factor due to its roles in glycolysis, angiogenesis, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and other cellular pathways. It takes the role in various physiological and pathological states, such as solid tumors, vascular injury, and atherosclerotic lesion progression. In recent studies, HIF is found as a master regulator of body inflammation and immunity, not only in hypoxia but also in normoxia. Nasal inflammation has a close relationship with anoxia...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048441/su-f-t-506-development-and-commissioning-of-the-effective-and-efficient-grid-therapy-using-high-dose-rate-flattening-filter-free-beam-and-multileaf-collimator
#8
M Liu, N Wen, C Beyer, F Siddiqui, I Chetty, B Zhao
PURPOSE: Treating bulky tumors with grid therapy (GT) has demonstrated high response rates. Long delivery time (∼15min), with consequent increased risk of intrafraction motion, is a major disadvantage of conventional MLC-based GT (MLC-GT). The goal of this study was to develop and commission a MLC-GT technique with similar dosimetric characteristics, but more efficient delivery. METHODS: Grid plan was designed with 10X-FFF (2400MU/min) beam and MLC in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035989/neuroblastoma-a-paradigm-for-big-data-science-in-pediatric-oncology
#9
REVIEW
Brittany M Salazar, Emily A Balczewski, Choong Yong Ung, Shizhen Zhu
Pediatric cancers rarely exhibit recurrent mutational events when compared to most adult cancers. This poses a challenge in understanding how cancers initiate, progress, and metastasize in early childhood. Also, due to limited detected driver mutations, it is difficult to benchmark key genes for drug development. In this review, we use neuroblastoma, a pediatric solid tumor of neural crest origin, as a paradigm for exploring "big data" applications in pediatric oncology. Computational strategies derived from big data science-network- and machine learning-based modeling and drug repositioning-hold the promise of shedding new light on the molecular mechanisms driving neuroblastoma pathogenesis and identifying potential therapeutics to combat this devastating disease...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025979/driving-gene-engineered-t-cell-immunotherapy-of-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Laura A Johnson, Carl H June
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene-engineered T cell therapy holds the potential to make a meaningful difference in the lives of patients with terminal cancers. For decades, cancer therapy was based on biophysical parameters, with surgical resection to debulk, followed by radiation and chemotherapy to target the rapidly growing tumor cells, while mostly sparing quiescent normal tissues. One breakthrough occurred with allogeneic bone-marrow transplant for patients with leukemia, which provided a sometimes curative therapy...
January 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024135/-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment
#11
REVIEW
Krzysztof Dąbkowski, Barbara Bogacka, Maciej Tarnowski, Teresa Starzyńska
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest solid tumors in humans and an unsolved problem of today's medicine. Experimental studies reveal that the heterogeneous and complex pancreatic cancer microenvironment is responsible, not only for cancer growth, spread, development of metastases, but also for cancer recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. Chemotherapy affecting the cancer stroma is still under clinical and experimental research and remains hope for cure of pancreatic cancer. We present the cancer microenvironment characteristics and summary of experimental studies with use of agents affecting pancreatic cancer stroma...
December 22, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009982/precise-integrin-targeting-near-infrared-imaging-guided-surgical-method-increases-surgical-qualification-of-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-from-gastric-cancer-in-mice
#12
Haidong Cheng, Chongwei Chi, Wenting Shang, Sha Rengaowa, Jianxin Cui, Jinzuo Ye, Shixin Jiang, Yamin Mao, Caoting Zeng, Huiping Huo, Lin Chen, Jie Tian
Peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer represents a common recurrent gastric cancer that seriously affects the survival, prognosis, and quality of life of patients at its advanced stage. In recent years, complete cytoreduction surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been demonstrated to improve the survival and prognosis of patients with malignant tumors including peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. Establishing viable methods of accurately assessing the tumor burden in patients with peritoneal carcinoma and correctly selecting suitable patients in order to improve cytoreduction surgical outcomes and reduce the risk of postoperative complications has become a challenge in the field of peritoneal carcinoma research...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007556/roles-of-ph-and-the-na-h-exchanger-nhe1-in-cancer-from-cell-biology-and-animal-models-to-an-emerging-translational-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Christian Stock, Stine Falsig Pedersen
Acidosis is characteristic of the solid tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells, because they are highly proliferative and anabolic, have greatly elevated metabolic acid production. To sustain a normal cytosolic pH homeostasis they therefore need to either extrude excess protons or to neutralize them by importing HCO3(-), in both cases causing extracellular acidification in the poorly perfused tissue microenvironment. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a ubiquitously expressed acid-extruding membrane transport protein, and upregulation of its expression and/or activity is commonly correlated with tumor malignancy...
December 19, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994638/platelet-12-lipoxygenase-targeting-via-a-newly-synthesized-curcumin-derivative-radiolabeled-with-technetium-99m
#14
Reem Ibrahim Al-Wabli, Tamer Mostafa Mohamed Hafez Sakr, Mohammed Abdou Khedr, Adly Abdallah Selim, Mohamed Abd El-Motaleb Abd El-Rahman, Wafaa Abdou Zaghary
BACKGROUND: One of the most popular techniques for cancer detection is the nuclear medicine technique. The present research focuses on Platelet-12-lipoxygenase (P-12-LOX) as a promising target for treating and radio-imaging tumor tissues. Curcumin was reported to inhibit this enzyme via binding to its active site. RESULTS: A novel curcumin derivative was successfully synthesized and characterized with yield of 74%. It was radiolabeled with the diagnostic radioisotope technetium-99m with 84% radiochemical yield and in vitro stability up to 6 h...
2016: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990412/potential-role-of-circulating-tumor-cell-detection-and-monitoring-in-breast-cancer-a-review-of-current-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Malgorzata Banys-Paluchowski, Natalia Krawczyk, Tanja Fehm
The phenomenon of hematogenous tumor cell dissemination in patients with solid tumors has been extensively explored over the last decades. Breast cancer research investigated at first disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow; however, the focus soon moved to circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood as blood is easily accessible without an invasive procedure. The prognostic significance of CTC presence has been shown in large studies both in adjuvant and metastatic setting and commercially available detection assays have been evaluated for monitoring in clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975234/pharmacokinetics-and-derivation-of-an-anticancer-dosing-regimen-for-the-novel-anti-cancer-agent-isobutyl-deoxynyboquinone-ib-dnq-a-nqo1-bioactivatable-molecule-in-the-domestic-felid-species
#16
Alycen P Lundberg, Joshua M Francis, Malgorzata Pajak, Elizabeth I Parkinson, Kathryn L Wycislo, Thomas J Rosol, Megan E Brown, Cheryl A London, Levent Dirikolu, Paul J Hergenrother, Timothy M Fan
Isobutyl-deoxynyboquinone (IB-DNQ) is a selective substrate for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), an enzyme overexpressed in many solid tumors. Following activation by NQO1, IB-DNQ participates in a catalytic futile reduction/reoxidation cycle with consequent toxic reactive oxygen species generation within the tumor microenvironment. To elucidate the potential of IB-DNQ to serve as a novel anticancer agent, in vitro studies coupled with in vivo pharmacokinetic and toxicologic investigations in the domestic felid species were conducted to investigate the tractability of IB-DNQ as a translationally applicable anticancer agent...
December 14, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960523/the-effect-of-cage-shape-on-nanoparticle-based-drug-carriers-anticancer-drug-release-and-efficacy-via-receptor-blockade-using-dextran-coated-iron-oxide-nanocages
#17
Sham Rampersaud, Justin Fang, Zengyan Wei, Kristina Fabijanic, Stefan Silver, Trisha Jaikaran, Yuleisy Ruiz, Murielle Houssou, Zhiwei Yin, Shengping Zheng, Ayako Hashimoto, Ayuko Hoshino, David Lyden, Shahana Mahajan, Hiroshi Matsui
Although a range of nanoparticles have been developed as drug delivery systems in cancer therapeutics, this approach faces several important challenges concerning nanocarrier circulation, clearance, and penetration. The impact of reducing nanoparticle size on penetration through leaky blood vessels around tumor microenvironments via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect has been extensively examined. Recent research has also investigated the effect of nanoparticle shape on circulation and target binding affinity...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939100/single-pulse-electrical-stimulation-to-probe-functional-and-pathological-connectivity-in-epilepsy
#18
Riki Matsumoto, Takeharu Kunieda, Dileep Nair
In the last decade, single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) has been used as an investigational tool in the field of epilepsy surgery. Direct cortical stimulation applied at a frequency of ∼1Hz can probe cortico-cortical connections by averaging electrocorticogram time-lock to the stimuli (2×20-30 trials). These evoked potentials that emanate from adjacent and remote cortices have been termed cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). Although limited to patients undergoing invasive presurgical evaluations with intracranial electrodes, CCEP provides a novel way to explore inter-areal connectivity in vivo in the living human brain to probe functional brain networks such as language and cognitive motor networks...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931799/oncocytic-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-clinicopathological-and-genetic-analysis-and-indolent-clinical-course-in-14-cases
#19
Guiyan Han, Wenjuan Yu, Jing Chu, Yan Liu, Yanxia Jiang, Yujun Li, Wei Zhang
A sort of PRCC with distinct eosinophilic cytoplasm named Oncocytic Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma (OPRCC) has been increasingly attracting the attention of researchers recently. However, owing to the rarity of OPRCC, the clinicopathological and genetic features of the tumor have still not been well elucidated and whether it should be regarded as an independent subtype of PRCC remains controversial. Herein, a cohort of 14 OPRCCs was studied with the aim of revealing the distinct clinicopathological features, facilitating the classification and correct diagnosis of OPRCC...
January 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930094/cancer-stem-cell-hypothesis-for-therapeutic-innovation-in-clinical-oncology-taking-the-root-out-not-chopping-the-leaf
#20
Kevin Dzobo, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Lamech M Mwapagha, Nasir Al-Awwad, Collet Dandara, M Iqbal Parker
Clinical oncology is in need of therapeutic innovation. New hypotheses and concepts for translation of basic research to novel diagnostics and therapeutics are called for. In this context, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis rests on the premise that tumors comprise tumor cells and a subset of tumor-initiating cells, CSCs, in a quiescent state characterized by slow cell cycling and expression of specific stem cell surface markers with the capability to maintain a tumor in vivo. The CSCs have unlimited self-renewal abilities and propagate tumors through division into asymmetric daughter cells...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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