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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936426/statistical-comparison-of-mass-spectra-for-identification-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants
#1
Melissa A Bodnar Willard, Victoria L McGuffin, Ruth Waddell Smith
A method for the statistical comparison of mass spectral data is demonstrated for applications in controlled substance analysis. The method uses an unequal variance t-test at each mass-to-charge ratio in the scan range to determine if two spectra are statistically associated or discriminated. If the two spectra are associated, a random-match probability is calculated to estimate the likelihood that the mass spectral fragmentation pattern in question occurs by random chance alone. If the two spectra are discriminated, the fragment ions responsible for the discrimination are determined...
November 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936236/an-evaluation-of-selected-populations-for-hiv-1-vaccine-cohort-development-in-nigeria
#2
Ogbonnaya S Njoku, Mark M Manak, Robert J O'Connell, Ashley L W Shutt, Jennifer A Malia, Richard A Heipertz, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Mark J Milazzo, Gideon Akindiran Akintunde, Abraham S Alabi, Aminu Suleiman, Amos A Ogundeji, Terfa S Kene, Robbie Nelson, Ojor R Ayemoba, Darrell E Singer, Merlin L Robb, Sheila A Peel, Nelson L Michael
Development of a globally effective HIV-1 vaccine will need to encompass Nigeria, one of the hardest hit areas, with an estimated 3.2 million people living with HIV. This cross-sectional Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved study was conducted in 2009-12 at four market sites and two highway settlements sites in Nigeria to identify and characterize populations at high risk for HIV; engage support of local stakeholders; and assess the level of interest in future vaccine studies. Demographic, HIV risk data were collected by structured interviewer-administered questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936146/performance-of-clinical-screening-algorithms-for-tuberculosis-intensified-case-finding-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-western-kenya
#3
Surbhi Modi, Joseph S Cavanaugh, Ray W Shiraishi, Heather L Alexander, Kimberly D McCarthy, Barbara Burmen, Hellen Muttai, Chad M Heilig, Allyn K Nakashima, Kevin P Cain
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of symptom-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), alone and with chest radiography among people living with HIV (PLHIV), including pregnant women, in Western Kenya. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: PLHIV from 15 randomly-selected HIV clinics were screened with three clinical algorithms [World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Health (MOH), and "Improving Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected persons" (ID-TB/HIV) study], underwent chest radiography (unless pregnant), and provided two or more sputum specimens for smear microscopy, liquid culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936105/serogroup-and-clonal-characterization-of-czech-invasive-neisseria-meningitidis-strains-isolated-from-1971-to-2015
#4
Zuzana Jandova, Martin Musilek, Zuzana Vackova, Jana Kozakova, Pavla Krizova
BACKGROUND: This study presents antigenic and genetic characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis strains recovered from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in the Czech Republic in 1971-2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1970 isolates from IMD, referred to the National Reference Laboratory for Meningococcal Infections in 1971-2015, were studied. All isolates were identified and characterized by conventional biochemical and serological tests. Most isolates (82...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936101/susceptibility-to-aminoglycosides-and-distribution-of-aph-and-aac-3-xi-genes-among-corynebacterium-striatum-clinical-isolates
#5
Jesús Navas, Marta Fernández-Martínez, Carlos Salas, María Eliecer Cano, Luis Martínez-Martínez
Corynebacterium striatum is an opportunistic pathogen, often multidrug-resistant, which has been associated with serious infections in humans. Aminoglycosides are second-line or complementary antibiotics used for the treatment of Corynebacterium infections. We investigated the susceptibility to six aminoglycosides and the molecular mechanisms involved in aminoglycoside resistance in a collection of 64 Corynebacterium striatum isolated in our laboratory during the period 2005-2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using E-test...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935690/an-international-inter-laboratory-digital-pcr-study-demonstrates-high-reproducibility-for-the-measurement-of-a-rare-sequence-variant
#6
Alexandra S Whale, Alison S Devonshire, George A Karlin-Neumann, Jack Regan, Leanne Javier, Simon Cowen, Ana Fernandez-Gonzalez, Gerwyn M Jones, Nicholas Redshaw, Julia Beck, Andreas W Berger, Valerie Combaret, Nina Dahl Kjersgaard, Lisa Davis, Frederic Fina, Tim Forshew, Rikke Fredslund Andersen, Silvia Galbiati, Álvaro González Hernández, Charles A Haynes, Filip Janku, Roger Lacave, Justin Lee, Vilas Mistry, Alexandra Pender, Anne Pradines, Charlotte Proudhon, Lao H Saal, Elliot Stieglitz, Bryan Ulrich, Carole A Foy, Helen Parkes, Svilen Tzonev, Jim Francis Huggett
This study tested the claim that digital PCR (dPCR) can offer highly reproducible quantitative measurements in disparate labs. Twenty-one laboratories measured four blinded samples containing different quantities of a KRAS fragment encoding G12D, an important genetic marker for guiding therapy of certain cancers. This marker is challenging to quantify reproducibly using qPCR or NGS due to the presence of competing wild type sequences and the need for calibration. Using dPCR, eighteen laboratories were able to quantify the G12D marker within 12% of each other in all samples...
December 9, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935623/reducing-blood-volume-requirements-for-clinical-pathology-testing-in-toxicologic-studies-points-to-consider
#7
Florence Poitout-Belissent, Adam Aulbach, Niraj Tripathi, Lila Ramaiah
In preclinical safety assessment, blood volume requirements for various endpoints pose a major challenge. The goal of this working group was to review current practices for clinical pathology (CP) testing in preclinical toxicologic studies, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of methods for reducing blood volume requirements. An industry-wide survey was conducted to gather information on CP instrumentation and blood collection practices for hematology, clinical biochemistry, and coagulation evaluation in laboratory animals involved in preclinical studies...
December 9, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935322/physical-activity-and-cognition-a-mediating-role-of-efficient-sleep
#8
Kristine A Wilckens, Kirk I Erickson, Mark E Wheeler
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity benefits executive control, but the mechanism through which this benefit occurs is unclear. Sleep is a candidate mechanism given that it improves with exercise and has restorative effects on the prefrontal cortex. The present cross-sectional study examined the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between physical activity and executive control in young and older adults. PARTICIPANTS: Young (n = 59) and older (n = 53) community-dwelling adults ages 21-30 and 55-80...
December 9, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935320/missing-laboratory-results-data-in-electronic-health-databases-implications-for-monitoring-diabetes-risk
#9
James H Flory, Jason Roy, Joshua J Gagne, Kevin Haynes, Lisa Herrinton, Christine Lu, Elisabetta Patorno, Azadeh Shoaibi, Marsha A Raebel
AIM: Laboratory test (lab) results may be useful to detect incident diabetes in electronic health record and claims-based studies. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: Using the Mini-Sentinel distributed database, we assessed the value of lab results added to diagnosis codes and dispensing claims to identify incident diabetes. RESULTS: Inclusion of lab results increased the number of diabetes outcomes identified by 21%. In settings where capture of lab results was relatively complete, the absence of lab results was associated with implausibly low rates of the outcome...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935090/clinical-utility-of-closure-times-using-the-platelet-function-analyzer-pfa-100-200
#10
Emmanuel J Favaloro
The 'platelet function analyzer' (PFA)-100 was first introduced to us in 1995. Since then, the instrument has appeared in over 50 reviews and almost 1000 publications. Recently, the PFA-100 has been 'upgraded' to the PFA-200, which has transformed the user interface and electronic management, but retained the fundamental mechanics, and essentially provides the same results. The PFA-100/200 has conceivable clinical utility to screen for von Willebrand Disease (VWD) and platelet disorders, and in monitoring desmopressin (DDAVP) therapy in both, and possibly anti-platelet therapy...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935046/test-anxiety-in-the-nursing-skills-laboratory-a-concept-analysis
#11
Deborah L Miller, Jo-Ann V Sawatzky
BACKGROUND: The concept of test anxiety has been well documented within the health education literature, with much of the literature addressing the clinical environment and simulation laboratories. Minimal exploration of test anxiety has been conducted within the context of a nursing skills laboratory. AIM: This concept analysis of test anxiety will provide clarity to the meaning and use of this concept within the nursing educational setting of a controlled skills laboratory...
December 9, 2016: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934884/rapid-affordable-and-portable-medium-throughput-molecular-device-for-zika-virus
#12
Kamfai Chan, Scott C Weaver, Pui-Yan Wong, Sherly Lie, Eryu Wang, Mathilde Guerbois, Siva Praneeth Vayugundla, Season Wong
Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained global attention as an etiologic agent of fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Existing immuno-based rapid tests often fail to distinguish between Zika and related flaviviruses that are common in affected regions of Central and South Americas and the Caribbean. The US CDC and qualified state health department laboratories can perform the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ZIKV test using highly sophisticated instruments with long turnaround times...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934819/trend-of-human-brucellosis-over-a-decade-at-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-karnataka
#13
D P Patil, G S Ajantha, C Shubhada, P A Jain, A Kalabhavi, P C Shetty, M Hosamani, S Appannanavar, R D Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933497/a-review-and-investigation-of-the-effect-of-nanophotocatalytic-ozonation-process-for-phenolic-compound-removal-from-real-effluent-of-pulp-and-paper-industry
#14
Hamed Biglari, Mojtaba Afsharnia, Vali Alipour, Rasoul Khosravi, Kiomars Sharafi, Amir Hossein Mahvi
Phenol and its derivatives are the major environmental pollutants discharged from paper and pulp industries into water bodies. All these compounds and chlorinated phenolic compounds in particular are very toxic to fauna and flora, even at relatively low concentration. This study aimed to investigate the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the effluent of pulp and paper industries using a combination of ozonation and photocatalytic processes. Firstly, a certain volume from the effluent of paper and pulp industries containing certain phenol concentrations was obtained and fed into a prefabricated reactor at laboratory scale...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933493/norovirus-gii-pe-genotype-tracking-a-foodborne-outbreak-on-a-cruise-ship-through-molecular-epidemiology-brazil-2014
#15
Simone Guadagnucci Morillo, Adriana Luchs, Audrey Cilli, Cibele Daniel Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky
Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the most common cause of foodborne outbreaks. In 2014, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV became the suspected etiology. Here we present the molecular identification of the NoV strains and the use of sequence analysis to determine modes of virus transmission. Food (cream cheese, tuna salad, grilled fish, orange mousse, and vegetables soup) and clinical samples were analyzed by ELISA, conventional RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and sequencing...
December 8, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932913/lifewatchgreece-portal-development-architecture-implementation-and-challenges-for-a-biodiversity-research-e-infrastructure
#16
Alexandros Gougousis, Nicolas Bailly
BACKGROUND: Biodiversity data is characterized by its cross-disciplinary character, the extremely broad range of data types and structures, and the plethora of different data sources providing resources for the same piece of information in a heterogeneous way. Since the web inception two decades ago, there are multiple initiatives to connect, aggregate, share, and publish biodiversity data, and to establish data and work flows in order to analyze them. The European program LifeWatch aims at establishing a distributed network of nodes implementing virtual research environment in Europe to facilitate the work of biodiversity researchers and managers...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932851/computational-fluid-dynamic-modeling-of-a-medium-sized-surface-mine-blasthole-drill-shroud
#17
Y Zheng, W R Reed, L Zhou, J P Rider
The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently developed a series of models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study airflows and respirable dust distribution associated with a medium-sized surface blasthole drill shroud with a dry dust collector system. Previously run experiments conducted in NIOSH's full-scale drill shroud laboratory were used to validate the models. The setup values in the CFD models were calculated from experimental data obtained from the drill shroud laboratory and measurements of test material particle size...
November 2016: Mining Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932614/validation-of-the-cepheid-genexpert-for-detecting-ebola-virus-in-semen
#18
Amy James Loftis, Saturday Quellie, Kelly Chason, Emmanuel Sumo, Mason Toukolon, Yonnie Otieno, Heinzfried Ellerbrok, Marcia M Hobbs, David Hoover, Karine Dube, David A Wohl, William A Fischer
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA persistence in semen, reported sexual transmission, and sporadic clusters at the end of the 2013-2016 epidemic have prompted recommendations that male survivors refrain from unprotected sex unless their semen is confirmed to be EBOV-free. However, there is no fully validated assay for EBOV detection in fluids other than blood. METHODS: The Cepheid Xpert Ebola assay for EBOV RNA detection was validated for whole semen and blood using samples obtained from uninfected donors and spiked with inactivated EBOV...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932441/trophoblast-cells-inhibit-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-enhance-apoptosis-through-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-mediated-pathways
#19
Guillermina Calo, Florencia Sabbione, Daiana Vota, Daniel Paparini, Rosanna Ramhorst, Analía Trevani, Claudia Pérez Leirós
STUDY QUESTION: Do human trophoblast cells modulate neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and neutrophil apoptosis through mechanisms involving vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Trophoblast cells inhibited NET formation and ROS synthesis and enhanced neutrophil apoptosis through VIP-mediated pathways in a model of maternal-placental interaction. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immune homeostasis maintenance at the maternal-placental interface is mostly coordinated by trophoblast cells...
December 7, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932332/the-anterolateral-capsule-of-the-knee-behaves-like-a-sheet-of-fibrous-tissue
#20
Daniel Guenther, Amir A Rahnemai-Azar, Kevin M Bell, Sebastián Irarrázaval, Freddie H Fu, Volker Musahl, Richard E Debski
BACKGROUND: The function of the anterolateral capsule of the knee has not been clearly defined. However, the contribution of this region of the capsule to knee stability in comparison with other anterolateral structures can be determined by the relative force that each structure carries during loading of the knee. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to determine the forces in the anterolateral structures of the intact and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee in response to an anterior tibial load and internal tibial torque...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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