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laboratory tests

Paul A Shuper, Narges Joharchi, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Although it has been purported that HIV-positive individuals may experience a greater degree of intoxication than HIV-negative individuals following acute alcohol consumption, no research to date has empirically tested this supposition. The present investigation entailed a randomized controlled experiment to identify whether the administration of a weight-specified dose of alcohol would lead to differential blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) among HIV-positive versus HIV-negative men...
June 21, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Benjamin Gollasch, Oskar Wischnewski, Birgit Rudolph, Yoland-Marie Anistan, Friedrich C Luft, Maik Gollasch
We present a 42-year-old man with a BMI of 32, who was referred because of proteinuria and decreased renal function. We were impressed by his markedly muscular physique. A renal biopsy was performed, which showed focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Is this patient merely an obese person with FSGS or is something else going on here? We performed extensive clinical and laboratory examinations, genetic testing, and anthropometric data monitoring over time. We transferred our methodology for routine FSGS mutation screening (Sanger sequencing) to the Ion Torrent PGM platform with a new custom-targeted NGS gene panel (Ion Ampliseq FSGS panel) and tested the performance of the system in two cohorts of patients with FSGS...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Kyawzaw Lin, Emmanuel Ofori, Aung Naing Lin, Sithu Lin, Thinzar Lin, Ameer Rasheed, Viswanath Vasudevan, Madhavi Reddy
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease presenting from mild localized inflammation to severe infected necrotic pancreatic tissue. In the literature, there are a few cases of hypothermia-induced AP. However, the association between hypothermia and AP is still a myth. Generally, mortality from acute pancreatitis is nearly 3-6%. Here, we present a 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female who presented with acute pancreatitis induced by transient hypothermia. A 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female was hypothermic at 81°F on arrival which was improved to 91...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Chui Ching Wong, Siew Hoon Lim, Chai Teng Tan, Sook Yin Lui, Yee Leng Lee, Kwai Peng Chan
In view of recent revised recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) confirmatory testing, the performance of 3 HIV confirmatory assays was compared. Using the HIV Blot 2.2 (MP-WB), the INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score (INNO), and the Geenius HIV 1/2 Confirmatory Assay (Geenius), we tested 199 HIV-1 positive, 161 HIV negative, 65 HIV western blot indeterminate, 26 HIV seroconversion, 34 early HIV infection and 4 HIV-2 positive archived specimens. We show that all 3 assays had comparable test sensitivity in the detection of HIV-1 positive cases...
2018: PloS One
Aleksandra Sljivic, Milena Pavlovic Kleut, Zoran Bukumiric, Vera Celic
INTRODUCTION: Echocardiography represents the most commonly performed noninvasive cardiac imaging test for patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between exercise capacity parameters (peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and the minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production relationship (VE/VCO2)), two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) and three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) imaging of right ventricular (RV) function in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF)...
2018: PloS One
Bradley J Main, Jay Nicholson, Olivia C Winokur, Cody Steiner, Kasen K Riemersma, Jackson Stuart, Ryan Takeshita, Michelle Krasnec, Christopher M Barker, Lark L Coffey
Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged since 2013 as a significant global human health threat following outbreaks in the Pacific Islands and rapid spread throughout South and Central America. Severe congenital and neurological sequelae have been linked to ZIKV infections. Assessing the ability of common mosquito species to transmit ZIKV and characterizing variation in mosquito transmission of different ZIKV strains is important for estimating regional outbreak potential and for prioritizing local mosquito control strategies for Aedes and Culex species...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gary McAuliffe, Marian Smith, Mike Brokenshire, Rose Forster, Murray Reid, Sally Roberts
AIMS: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) has developed resistance to a wide range of antimicrobials. Population level data is essential to determine empiric treatment regimes. We sought to identify antimicrobial resistance patterns for NG in the Auckland region from 2008-2016, and review the utility of current methods of antimicrobial resistance testing. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities and demographic data from NG isolates derived from patients attending the Auckland Regional Sexual Health Service and Auckland City Hospital were analysed to determine resistance rates and trends over time...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Helen Heffernan, Rosemary Woodhouse, Chris Hewison, Jillian Sherwood
AIM: We undertook a national survey to provide current information on antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolated in New Zealand. METHODS: Diagnostic laboratories are requested to refer all Shigella isolates to the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) for epidemiological typing as part of the national surveillance of shigellosis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 263 non-duplicate Shigella isolates referred to ESR in 2015 and 2016 was tested...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Ian M Paul, Kameron J Moding, Jennifer S Savage, Emily E Hohman, Leann L Birch
OBJECTIVE: Infants higher on negative reactivity and lower on regulation, aspects of temperament, have increased obesity risk. Responsive parenting (RP) has been shown to impact the expression of temperament, including the developing ability to regulate negative emotions. The aim of this analysis was to test the effects of the INSIGHT study's RP intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity on reported and observed infant negativity and regulation. METHODS: The sample included 240 mother-infant dyads randomized 2 weeks after birth to the RP intervention or a safety control intervention...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Larry J Kricka
Predictions about the future of laboratory medicine have had a mixed success, and in some instances they have been overambitious and incorrectly assessed the future impact of emerging technologies. Current predictions suggest a more highly automated and connected future for diagnostic testing. The central laboratory of the future may be dominated by more robotics and more connectivity in order to take advantage of the benefits of the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence (AI)-based systems (e.g. decision support software and imaging analytics)...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Ernest R Blatchley, John Cullen, Brian Petri, Keith Bircher, Nicholas Welschmeyer
The shipping industry is critical to international commerce; however, contemporary shipping practices involve uptake and discharge of ballast water, which introduces the potential for transfer of non-indigenous, invasive species among geographically distinct habitats. To counteract this hazard, regulations for ballast water management have been implemented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and by regulatory agencies such as the United States Coast Guard (USCG). IMO and USCG discharge standards are numerically identical, but involve different definitions of treatment endpoints, which are based on fundamentally-different biological assays for quantification of ballast water treatment effectiveness...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sheila M Mortimer-Jones, Peter G Wall, Susan Russell
Nursing students traditionally find bioscience difficult and anxiety provoking. This has important ramifications, as anxiety can hinder comprehension and lead to poor exam performance. The aim of the present study was to assess whether there was any difference between the anxiety levels of nursing students during their bioscience laboratory classes compared to their clinical laboratory classes. Students were recruited from a first year Bachelor of Nursing program. The self-report State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (short form) was administered at the start of all classes throughout the semester...
June 21, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Rebecca Lis, Aaron T Resnick
Infectious disease response, particularly high-consequence acute infectious disease and special pathogen response, requires the coordination of numerous public and private entities to ensure the safety and appropriate care for patients, healthcare and EMS staff, and the public. The Northwest Healthcare Response Network, an independent 501(c)(3) healthcare coalition, has partnered with the local health departments in the Puget Sound area of Washington State to develop a communication and decision-making structure to support coordinated information sharing, patient care, patient transportation, laboratory testing, contact monitoring, and healthcare and EMS staff safety in events involving suspected or diagnosed acute infectious disease patients...
May 2018: Health Security
Xiao-Li Li, Ting-Ting Wang, Kai Liu, Bao-An Ning, Xin-Hua Ma, Nan Liu, Guo-Rong Ou, Zhi-Xian Gao, Zhong-Wen Liu
OBJECTIVES: To set up ELISA for detection of atrazine with high precision. METHODS: The reaction condition of indirect-ELISA was optimized, including atrazine-ovalbumin(AT-OVA) concentration and primary antibody concentration, organic solvent, goat anti-rat immunoglobin G-horseradish peroxidase(IgG-HRP) concentration. The actual samples were detected by the ELISA method established in our laboratory. Then the ELISA method was compared with the HPLC. RESULTS: The specification curve of indirect-ELISA was set up after optimization...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Navin Kaushal, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Francis Langlois, Louis Bherer
PURPOSE: Exercise has been shown to have various proximal and distal benefits among older adults such as improving physical fitness, cognitive functioning, and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Despite this evidence, limited research has investigated pathway change of these outcomes. The primary purpose of this study was to test if older adults who improved in physical fitness measures from engaging in multicomponent exercise training for 12 weeks predicted change in proximal (cognitive functioning) and distal (HR-QOL) outcomes, respectively...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Philipp Gutsche, Manuel Nieto-Vesperinas
We derive expressions for the scattering, extinction and conversion of the chirality of monochromatic light scattered by bodies which are characterized by a T-matrix. In analogy to the conditions obtained from the conservation of energy, these quantities enable the classification of arbitrary scattering objects due to their full, i.e. either chiral or achiral, electromagnetic response. To this end, we put forward and determine the concepts of duality and breaking of duality symmetry, anti-duality, helicity variation, helicity annhiliation and the breaking of helicity annihilation...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charles E Rupprecht, Zhiquan Xiang, Alexandre Servat, Richard Franka, Jordona Kirby, Hildegund C J Ertl
Laboratory-based surveillance is fundamental to effective rabies prevention and control. The direct fluorescent antibody (AB) test (FAT) is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. Recently, additional tests besides the FAT have been developed, such as the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT). In this study, our objective was to further refine technical aspects of the DRIT using a combination of two monoclonal ABs (MABs), 502 and 802, conduct additional testing among rabies reference laboratories using a diversity of animal species and rabies virus (RV) variants and compare the potential utility of the DRIT for end users via proficiency testing (PT) against the FAT...
June 20, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Daneeya Ekapopphan, Athicha Srisutthakarn, Walasinee Moonarmart, Ruangrat Buddhirongawatr, Norasuthi Bangphoomi
This study aims to determine the microbiological profile and risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in canine severe corneal ulcers. Thirty-two corneal and conjunctival swabs were collected from dogs with diagnosed severe corneal ulcers that presented to Prasu-Arthorn veterinary teaching hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand from June 2015 to June 2016. Microorganisms were identified by means of genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Of 32 ulcers sampled, 26 (81.3%) yielded culturable microorganisms with 24 bacterial isolates and 7 fungal isolates...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Waleed Elsegeiny, Mingquan Zheng, Taylor Eddens, Richard L Gallo, Guixiang Dai, Giraldina Trevejo-Nunez, Patricia Castillo, Kara Kracinovsky, Hillary Cleveland, William Horne, Jonathan Franks, Derek Pociask, Mark Pilarski, John F Alcorn, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls
Despite the discovery of key pattern recognition receptors and CD4+ T cell subsets in laboratory mice, there is ongoing discussion of the value of murine models to reflect human disease. Pneumocystis is an AIDS-defining illness, in which risk of infection is inversely correlated with peripheral CD4+ T cell counts. Due to medical advances in the control of HIV, the current epidemiology of Pneumocystis infection is predominantly due to primary human immunodeficiencies and immunosuppressive therapies. To this end, we found that every human genetic immunodeficiency associated with Pneumocystis infection that has been tested in mice recapitulated susceptibility...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Thomas A Russo, Ruth Olson, Chi-Tai Fang, Nicole Stoesser, Mark Miller, Alan Hutson, Jason H Barker, Ricardo M La Hoz, James R Johnson
<u>Background</u> A hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) pathotype is undergoing global dissemination. In contrast to the usual healthcare-associated epidemiology of classical K. pneumoniae (cKp) infections, hvKp causes tissue invasive infections in otherwise healthy individuals from the community, often involving multiple sites. An accurate test to identify hvKp strains is needed for improved patient care and epidemiologic studies.<u>Methods and Results</u> To fill this knowledge gap, clinical criteria or random blood isolates from North American and United Kingdom strain collections were used to assemble hvKp-rich strain (N = 85) and cKp-rich (N = 90) cohorts respectively...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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