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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031157/a-european-multi-centre-external-quality-assessment-eqa-study-on-phenotypic-and-genotypic-methods-used-for-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-drug-resistance-testing
#1
Baharak Afshar, David F Bibby, Renata Piorkowska, Natasha Ohemeng-Kumi, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei, Sarah Gillemot, Florence Morfin, Emilie Frobert, Sonia Burrel, David Boutolleau, Brendan Crowley, Jean L Mbisa
BACKGROUND: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) drug resistance is a significant public health concern among immunocompromised individuals. Phenotypic assays are considered the gold standard method for detecting HSV drug resistance. However, plaque reduction assays (PRAs) are technically demanding, often with long turnaround times of up to four weeks. In contrast, genotypic tests can be performed within a few days. OBJECTIVES: The development and coordination of the first European External Quality Assessment (EQA) study to evaluate phenotypic and genotypic methods used for HSV drug resistance testing in specialised reference laboratories...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031156/hiv-misdiagnosis-a-root-cause-analysis-leading-to-improvements-in-hiv-diagnosis-and-patient-care
#2
Raynell Lang, Carmen Charlton, Brenda Beckthold, Kiana Kadivar, Stephanie Lavoie, Doug Caswell, Paul Levett, Greg Horsman, John Kim, M John Gill
BACKGROUND: Standard diagnostic testing for HIV infection has traditionally relied on a high sensitivity HIV antibody screening test using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by a high specificity antibody confirmatory test such as a Western Blot. Recently several of the screening assays have been enhanced with an ability to identify p24 antigen thereby narrowing the diagnostic window. OBJECTIVES: To explore the implications of enhanced HIV screening methods that may be leading to HIV misdiagnoses...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031075/discovery-of-new-indomethacin-based-analogs-with-potentially-selective-cyclooxygenase-2-inhibition-and-observed-diminishing-to-pge2-activities
#3
Shaymaa E Kassab, Mohammed A Khedr, Hamed I Ali, Mohamed M Abdalla
New ring-extended analogs of indomethacin were designed based on the structure of active binding site of both COX-1 and COX-2 isoenzymes and the interaction pattern required for selective inhibition of COX-2 to improve its selectivity against COX-2. The strategy adopted for designing the new inhibitors involved i) ring extension of indomethacin to reduce the possibility of analogs to be accommodated into the narrow hydrophobic tunnel of COX-1, ii) deletion of carboxylic acid to reduce the possibility of inhibitor to form salt bridge with Arg120 and eventually prevent COX-1 inhibition, and iii) introduction of methylsulfonyl group to increase the opportunity of the analogs to interact with the polar side pocket that's is crucial for inhibition process of COX-2...
September 28, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031014/indirect-method-for-validating-transference-of-reference-intervals
#4
Simon Lykkeboe, Claus Gyrup Nielsen, Peter Astrup Christensen
BACKGROUND: Transference of reference intervals (RIs) from multicentre studies are often verified by use of a small number of samples from reference individuals or by the use of one serum sample (Serum X for NORIP RI). Despite recommended and appropriate methods, both have inconveniencies and drawbacks. Several attempts have been made to develop an indirect method, which uses historical data from the laboratory. These methods are retrospective relying on older test results. A near prospective method would be preferable for the laboratories introducing new methods or changing analytical platforms...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029317/the-critical-role-of-supply-chains-in-preventing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-in-low-and-middle-income-settings
#5
Thomas Minior, Meaghan Douglas, Dianna Edgil, Meena Srivastava, John Crowley, Jacqueline Firth, Ilana Lapidos-Salaiz, Jason Williams, Lana Lee
The functioning of the supply chain may be a driving factor behind the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (HIVDR) in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Additionally, the effectiveness of supply chains will likely impact the scale-up of both viral-load monitoring and HIVDR testing. This article describes the complexities of global supply chains relevant for LMICs and presents early data on stock-outs and drug substitutions in several countries supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029309/limited-efficacy-of-caffeine-and-recovery-costs-during-and-following-5-days-of-chronic-sleep-restriction-caffeine-and-sleep-restriction
#6
Tracy Jill Doty, Christine J So, Elizabeth M Bergman, Sara K Trach, Ruthie H Ratcliffe, Angela M Yarnell, Vincent F Capaldi, James E Moon, Thomas J Balkin, Phillip J Quartana
Objectives: To investigate the effects of caffeine on psychomotor vigilance and sleepiness during sleep restriction and following subsequent recovery sleep. Methods: Participants were N=48 healthy good sleepers. All participants underwent 5 nights of sleep satiation [time-in-bed (TIB): 10 hrs], followed by 5 nights of sleep restriction (TIB: 5 hrs), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB: 8 hrs) in a sleep laboratory. Caffeine (200 mg) or placebo was administered in the form of chewing gum at 0800 and 1200 hrs each day during the sleep restriction phase...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029298/the-effect-of-larval-diet-on-adult-survival-swarming-activity-and-copulation-success-in-male-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae
#7
Bethan J Lang, Stefano Idugboe, Kirelle McManus, Florence Drury, Alima Qureshi, Lauren J Cator
Control of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations is vital for reducing the transmission of several pervasive human diseases. The success of new vector control technologies will be influenced by the fitness of laboratory-reared transgenic males. However, there has been relatively little published data on how rearing practices influence male fitness in Aedes mosquitoes. In the laboratory, the effect of larval food availability on adult male fitness was tested, using a range of different fitness measures...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029262/chikungunya-fever-outbreak-identified-in-north-bali-indonesia
#8
Kartika Sari, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Ayu Rai Andayani, Putu Dwi Adi, Rama Dhenni, Aditya Perkasa, Chairin Nisa Ma'roef, Ni Putu Diah Witari, Dewi Megawati, Ann M Powers, Ungke Anton Jaya
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been reported sporadically within the last 5 years in several areas of Indonesia including Bali. Most of the reports, however, have lacked laboratory confirmation. Method: A recent fever outbreak in a village in the North Bali area was investigated using extensive viral diagnostic testing including both molecular and serological approaches. Results and conclusions: Ten out of 15 acute febrile illness samples were confirmed to have CHIKV infection by real-time PCR or CHIKV-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 5, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029256/multicentre-validation-of-4-well-azole-agar-plates-as-a-screening-method-for-detection-of-clinically-relevant-azole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus
#9
Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Paul E Verweij, Johan W Mouton, Katrien Lagrou, Joseph Meletiadis
Objectives: Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is emerging worldwide. Reference susceptibility testing methods are technically demanding and no validated commercial susceptibility tests for moulds currently exist. In this multicentre study a 4-well azole-containing screening agar method was evaluated using clinically relevant isolates. Methods: Forty WT and 39 cyp51A mutant A. fumigatus [G54 (n = 10), M220 (n = 10), TR34/L98H (n = 9) and TR46/Y121F/T289A (n = 10)] were tested individually and as simulated mixed samples (sampling 4 WT and 1 mutant colonies)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029252/time-on-task-effect-during-sleep-deprivation-in-healthy-young-adults-is-modulated-by-dopamine-transporter-genotype
#10
Brieann C Satterfield, Jonathan P Wisor, Michelle A Schmidt, Hans P A Van Dongen
Study Objectives: The time-on-task (TOT) effect and total sleep deprivation (TSD) have similar effects on neurobehavioral functioning, including increased performance instability during tasks requiring sustained attention. The TOT effect is exacerbated by TSD, suggesting potentially overlapping mechanisms. We probed these mechanisms by investigating genotype-phenotype relationships on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance for three a-priori selected genes previously linked to the TOT effect and/or TSD: DAT1, COMT, and TNFα...
October 4, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029130/alternative-sample-types-for-hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-testing
#11
Dolly Singh, Adit Dhummakupt, Lilly Siems, Deborah Persaud
Monitoring human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance is critical for assessing ART effectiveness and treatment outcomes for HIV-1-infected individuals, including children, worldwide. Traditionally, testing for HIV-1 drug resistance has primarily been performed on plasma samples, and with commercially available, clinically validated assays that are costly and difficult to access. While plasma is the preferred sample for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping, plasma analysis requires sophisticated laboratory equipment, personnel, space, and stringent storage conditions for maintenance of sample integrity and transport...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029123/outcome-of-elevated-ca125-values-from-primary-care-following-implementation-of-ovarian-cancer-guidelines
#12
S Michael Crawford, Colin Evans
Background: Ovarian cancer presents later in the UK compared to economically similar countries. National guidance suggests measuring CA125 in primary care as a means of bringing patients to specialist attention. Aim: To investigate the outcome of CA125 values measured in accordance with this policy. Setting and design: Examination of the laboratory records of female patients from the usual catchment population of one general hospital in whom CA125 was measured from primary care in a calendar year...
September 28, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029106/iatrogenic-cushing-syndrome-in-a-child-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-erroneous-compounding-of-hydrocortisone
#13
Julia E Barillas, Daniel Eichner, Ryan Van Wagoner, Phyllis W Speiser
Context: Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) require lifelong treatment with glucocorticoids. In growing children the drug of choice is hydrocortisone. Commercially available hydrocortisone tablets do not conform to very low doses prescribed to infants and toddlers, and compounded hydrocortisone is often dispensed to meet therapeutic needs. However, safety, efficacy and uniformity of compounded products are not tested. We report a case of Cushing syndrome in a child with CAH who was inadvertently receiving excessive hydrocortisone in compounded form...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028980/influenza-among-young-children-in-bangladesh-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Elizabeth Rotrosen, K Zaman, Jodi Feser, Justin R Ortiz, Doli Goswami, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Mustafizur Rahman, Kristen D C Lewis, Md Ziaur Rahman, Burc Barin, W Abdullah Brooks, Kathleen M Neuzil
Background: Influenza causes substantial morbidity in children worldwide, although influenza vaccine is seldom used in low-resource settings. More information on the clinical presentation of influenza and the efficacy of vaccine is needed to inform policy. Methods: In 2013 we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children aged 24-59 months in Bangladesh (N = 1761). If participants met prespecified specimen collection criteria, we collected nasopharyngeal washes for testing by singleplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection (LCI)...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028971/infrequent-testing-of-women-for-rectal-chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-in-the-united-states
#15
Guoyu Tao, Karen W Hoover, Melinda B Nye, Philip J Peters, Thomas L Gift, Barbara A Body
Background: Anal sex is a common sexual behavior among women that increases their risk of acquiring rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Methods: We estimated the frequency and positivity of rectal CT and GC tests for women aged 15-60 years performed by a large U.S. commercial laboratory between November 2012 and September 2015. We also estimated the frequency and positivity of pharyngeal and genital specimens also performed on the same date...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028843/efficiency-of-different-air-filter-types-for-pig-facilities-at-laboratory-scale
#16
Cindy Wenke, Janina Pospiech, Tobias Reutter, Uwe Truyen, Stephanie Speck
Air filtration has been shown to be efficient in reducing pathogen burden in circulating air. We determined at laboratory scale the retention efficiency of different air filter types either composed of a prefilter (EU class G4) and a secondary fiberglass filter (EU class F9) or consisting of a filter mat (EU class M6 and F8-9). Four filter prototypes were tested for their capability to remove aerosol containing equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), bovine enterovirus 1 (BEV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), and Staphylococcus (S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028368/a-window-into-clinical-next-generation-sequencing-based-oncology-testing-practices
#17
Rakesh Nagarajan, Angela N Bartley, Julia A Bridge, Lawrence J Jennings, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Annette Kim, Alexander J Lazar, Neal I Lindeman, Joel Moncur, Alex J Rai, Mark J Routbort, Patricia Vasalos, Jason D Merker
CONTEXT: - Detection of acquired variants in cancer is a paradigm of precision medicine, yet little has been reported about clinical laboratory practices across a broad range of laboratories. OBJECTIVE: - To use College of American Pathologists proficiency testing survey results to report on the results from surveys on next-generation sequencing-based oncology testing practices. DESIGN: - College of American Pathologists proficiency testing survey results from more than 250 laboratories currently performing molecular oncology testing were used to determine laboratory trends in next-generation sequencing-based oncology testing...
October 13, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028247/atopy-as-a-modifier-of-the-relationships-between-endotoxin-exposure-and-symptoms-among-laboratory-animal-workers
#18
Ashley N Newton, Meghan Davis, Kirsten Koehler, Wayne Shreffler, Sharon Ahluwalia, Nervana Metwali, Peter S Thorne, Beverly J Paigen, Elizabeth C Matsui
Background: Exposure to endotoxin is known to trigger airway inflammation and symptoms, and atopy may modify the relationship between endotoxin exposure and symptom development. Objective: To test the a priori hypothesis that atopic status modifies the relationship between endotoxin exposure and respiratory symptom development. Methods: A prospective study of laboratory workers at The Jackson Laboratories was conducted. Allergy skin testing was performed and population demographic and clinical information was obtained at baseline...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027774/rational-approach-to-transfusion-in-liver-transplantation
#19
Fuat H Saner, Lasitha Abeysundara, Matthias Hartmann, Susan V Mallett
For over 50 years patients with liver cirrhosis were considered to be at markedly increased risk of bleeding. This dogma was seemingly supported by abnormalities in standard laboratory tests (SLTs), such as the prothrombin time, that were interpreted as indicating a bleeding diathesis. However, publications from the last decade have revealed SLTs to be poor predictors of bleeding and it is now understood that stable patients with cirrhosis have a rebalanced haemostatic system and preserved thrombin generation...
October 12, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027765/factor-xiii-deficiency-diagnosis-challenges-and-tools
#20
REVIEW
M Karimi, F Peyvandi, M Naderi, A Shapiro
Factor XIII deficiency (FXIIID) is a rare hereditary bleeding disorder arising from heterogeneous mutations, which can lead to life-threatening hemorrhage. The diagnosis of FXIIID is challenging due to normal standard coagulation assays requiring specific FXIII assays for diagnosis, which is especially difficult in developing countries. This report presents an overview of FXIIID diagnosis and laboratory methods and suggests an algorithm to improve diagnostic efficiency and prevent missed or delayed FXIIID diagnosis...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
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