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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906030/cases-of-antiretroviral-associated-gynaecomastia-reported-to-the-national-hiv-tuberculosis-health-care-worker-hotline-in-south-africa
#1
Christine Njuguna, Annoesjka Swart, Marc Blockman, Gary Maartens, Briony Chisholm, Annemie Stewart, Anri Uys, Karen Cohen
BACKGROUND: Gynaecomastia is associated with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), in particular efavirenz. There is limited data on clinical characteristics of patients with ART-associated gynaecomastia in resource-limited settings and little guidance on the optimal management of this adverse drug reaction (ADR). We describe the clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of gynaecomastia cases reported to the National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa...
November 16, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891161/cases-of-antiretroviral-associated-gynaecomastia-reported-to-the-national-hiv-tuberculosis-health-care-worker-hotline-in-south-africa
#2
Christine Njuguna, Annoesjka Swart, Marc Blockman, Gary Maartens, Briony Chisholm, Annemie Stewart, Anri Uys, Karen Cohen
BACKGROUND: Gynaecomastia is associated with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), in particular efavirenz. There is limited data on clinical characteristics of patients with ART-associated gynaecomastia in resource-limited settings and little guidance on the optimal management of this adverse drug reaction (ADR). We describe the clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of gynaecomastia cases reported to the National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809804/prevalence-of-testosterone-deficiency-in-hiv-infected-men-under-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Ana Rita Gomes, Pedro Souteiro, Carolina Germana Silva, Bernardo Sousa-Pinto, Francisco Almeida, António Sarmento, Davide Carvalho, Paula Freitas
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypogonadism in HIV-infected patients is still a matter of debate as there is no standardized consensual diagnostic method. In addition, the etiology and endocrine/metabolic implications of hypogonadism in this population remain controversial. This study aims to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in a single-site hospital and to evaluate its association with potential risk factors, lipodystrophy, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk...
November 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803500/issues-surrounding-testosterone-replacement-therapy
#4
Carson Schlich, Frank Romanelli
Testosterone is derived from Leydig cells and exerts its effects on androgen receptors to influence growth, mood, voice, and several other bodily functions. As men age, their testosterone levels decline. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has also been associated with lowered serum testosterone levels. Subtherapeutic levels of testosterone may lead to fatigue, loss of libido, and dysphoria. Exogenous replacement of testosterone can be accomplished by several modalities (oral, topical, injection), with each having distinct advantages and disadvantages...
October 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799351/inflammation-immune-activation-immunosenescence-and-hormonal-biomarkers-in-the-frailty-related-phenotype-of-men-with-or-at-risk-for-hiv
#5
Kristine M Erlandson, Derek Ng, Lisa P Jacobson, Joseph B Margolick, Adrian S Dobs, Frank J Palella, Jordan E Lake, Hanhvy Bui, Lawrence Kingsley, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND:  The extent to which inflammation, immune activation/immunosenescence, and hormonal abnormalities are driven by HIV or frailty is not clear. METHODS:  HIV-infected frail men (n=155) were matched to non-frail, HIV-infected (n=141) and HIV-uninfected (n=150) men by age, calendar year, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use (HIV only). Frailty was defined by ≥3 frailty-related phenotype criteria (weight loss, exhaustion, low activity, slowness) at ≥2 visits, or at 1 visit with ≥1 criteria at ≥2 visits...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731969/gender-and-sexual-health-care-of-transgender-patients
#6
Ronni Hayon
Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals experience significant health disparities. They are more likely to use drugs and alcohol, smoke, be diagnosed with HIV infection or other sexually transmitted infections, and experience depression or attempt suicide. Many also experience discrimination within the health care system. Office-level strategies to create a safe and affirming space for gender-expansive patients include posting of a nondiscrimination statement, use of intake forms that ask about current gender identity and birth-assigned sex, provision of gender-neutral restrooms, and staff training in use of appropriate language...
October 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552941/testosterone-and-sexual-risk-among-transmen-a-mixed-methods-exploratory-study
#7
Rand Dadasovich, Coco Auerswald, Alexandra M Minnis, H Fisher Raymond, Willi McFarland, Erin C Wilson
Little research has explored the link between the behavioural effects of testosterone use among transmen and HIV risk. We conducted a mixed methods study to explore testosterone use among transmen and the behavioural effects on HIV risk. A sample of 122 transmen from San Francisco participated in a cross-sectional quantitative survey and 14 transmen participated in 2 focus group discussions. Most participants (81.9%) were currently taking hormones. Participants attributed testosterone use to new sexual behaviours among 69% of transmen, changes in sexual attraction (49%), and increased frequency of sexual activity (72%)...
August 24, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552076/nanoflow-nanospray-mass-spectrometry-metabolomics-reveals-disruption-of-the-urinary-metabolite-profiles-of-hiv-positive-patients-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Andrew J Chetwynd, Amanda Samarawickrama, Jaime H Vera, Stephen A Bremner, Alaa Abdul-Sada, Yvonne Gilleece, Stephen G Holt, Elizabeth M Hill
BACKGROUND: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has substantially improved the outlook for patients with HIV infection. However, lifelong exposure to cART is also associated with adverse metabolic changes and an enhanced risk of renal, hepatic and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated disruptions of the urinary metabolome of cART-exposed patients, thereby furthering our understanding of some of the side effects of pharmaceutical intervention. METHODS: HIV-positive patients were recruited from an HIV clinic and divided into cART-naïve and cART-exposed groups...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442068/effect-of-monotherapy-with-darunavir-ritonavir-on-viral-load-in-seminal-fluid-and-quality-parameters-of-semen-in-hiv-1-positive-patients
#9
Miguel A Lopez-Ruz, Purificación Navas, Miguel A López-Zúñiga, María Carmen Gonzalvo, Antonio Sampedro, Juan Pasquau, Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio, Rosario Javier, José A Castilla
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) often achieve increased survival and improved quality of life. In this respect, monotherapy with darunavir/ritonavir (mDRV/r) can be a useful treatment strategy. This prospective study analyses the effect of mDRV/r on sperm quality and viral load in a group of 28 patients who had previously been given conventional ART and who had recorded a viral load <20 copies/mL for at least six months. These patients were given mDRV/r at a dose of 800/100 mg for 48 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190860/the-study-of-gonadal-hormonal-abnormalities-and-sexual-dysfunction-in-hiv-positive-females-an-exploratory-study
#10
Bhanukumar Muthiah, Abithraj Kallikadavil, Rajendraprasad Shivaswamy, Vineetha Bharathan Menon
INTRODUCTION: Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. AIM: To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929669/clinical-utility-of-dronabinol-in-the-treatment-of-weight-loss-associated-with-hiv-and-aids
#11
REVIEW
Melissa E Badowski, Sarah E Perez
Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV wasting syndrome is between 14% and 38%. HIV wasting syndrome may stem from conditions affecting chewing, swallowing, or gastrointestinal motility, neurologic disease affecting food intake or the perception of hunger or ability to eat, psychiatric illness, food insecurity generated from psychosocial or economic concerns, or anorexia due to medications, malabsorption, infections, or tumors...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823399/predictive-value-of-prostate-specific-antigen-in-a-european-hiv-positive-cohort-does-one-size-fit-all
#12
Leah Shepherd, Álvaro H Borges, Lene Ravn, Richard Harvey, Mark Bower, Andrew Grulich, Michael Silverberg, Gitte Kronborg, Massimo Galli, Ole Kirk, Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft
BACKGROUND: It is common practice to use prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥4.0 ng/ml as a clinical indicator for men at risk of prostate cancer (PCa), however, this is unverified in HIV+ men. We aimed to describe kinetics and predictive value of PSA for PCa in HIV+ men. METHODS: A nested case control study of 21 men with PCa and 40 matched-controls within EuroSIDA was conducted. Prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were measured for the following markers: total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)...
2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26761271/longitudinal-changes-over-10-years-in-free-testosterone-among-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-men
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Laurence Slama, Lisa P Jacobson, Xiuhong Li, Frank J Palella, Joseph B Margolick, Lawrence A Kingsley, Dorothy J Wiley, Gilles Pialoux, Adrian S Dobs, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND: Aging in males is associated with lower testosterone levels and a decrease in diurnal variation of testosterone secretion. Cross-sectional studies have shown lower than expected testosterone levels among HIV-infected men, but whether age-related changes in serum testosterone differ by HIV serostatus are not known. METHODS: HIV-infected men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), age ≥ 45 years at highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation, who had ≥ 2 samples from the subsequent 10 years, were matched to HIV-uninfected men by age, race, MACS site, and calendar time of samples...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26638598/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-male-hypogonadism-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Noppadol Kietsiriroje
Hypogonadism is a common complication among HIV infected patients. The prevalence of hypogonadism is 30 to 50% in HIV infected men with wasting syndrome and 20 to 25% in those without wasting syndrome. HIV infection affects the entire hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis via both direct and indirect effects, which are defined in four categories, 1) direct effect of HIV particles, 2) opportunistic infections, 3) HIV-related malignancy and its treatment, and 4) medications that are used for HIV infection or its opportunistic infection...
October 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26558726/mechanisms-of-bone-disease-in-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-impact-of-bone-turnover-tenofovir-exposure-sex-steroids-and-severity-of-liver-disease
#15
Roger Bedimo, James Cutrell, Song Zhang, Henning Drechsler, Ang Gao, Geri Brown, Irfan Farukhi, Rosinda Castanon, Pablo Tebas, Naim M Maalouf
OBJECTIVE: Both HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are associated with higher osteoporotic fracture risk. Increased bone turnover, liver fibrosis, tenofovir (TDF) use or hormonal imbalances are possible underlying mechanisms. DESIGN: This prospective, cross-sectional study assessed 298 male volunteers with either virologically suppressed HIV or untreated HCV mono-infections, HIV/HCV co-infection and noninfected controls. METHODOLOGY: Study participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and measurement of bone turnover markers [BTM: C-telopeptide (CTX) and osteocalcin (OC)], insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the sex steroids testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI)...
February 20, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510848/serum-total-estradiol-but-not-testosterone-is-associated-with-reduced-bone-mineral-density-bmd-in-hiv-infected-men-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#16
D Santi, B Madeo, F Carli, S Zona, G Brigante, F Vescini, G Guaraldi, V Rochira
SUMMARY: By investigating the relationship between serum testosterone, estradiol, and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large cohort of HIV-infected men, estradiol was associated with BMD, relative estrogen deficiency being involved in bone loss in men with hypogonadism, in addition to all HIV-related factors. Increased aromatization in adipose tissue does not counteract HIV-related bone loss. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testosterone, estradiol, and BMD in a large cohort of HIV-infected men...
March 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26094899/inhibitory-potential-of-twenty-five-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-on-cyp-activities-in-human-liver-microsomes
#17
Yoshihiko Shimokawa, Noriaki Yoda, Satoshi Kondo, Yoshiya Yamamura, Yoshiharu Takiguchi, Ken Umehara
The direct inhibitory potential of twenty five anti-tuberculosis drugs on eight CYP-specific reactions in human liver microsomes was investigated to predict in vivo drug-drug interactions (DDIs) from in vitro data. Rifampicin, rifabutin, and thioacetazone inhibited one CYP reaction. Isoniazid and clofazimine had inhibitory effects on four CYP reactions, and rifapentine, ethionamide, and prothionamide widely inhibited CYP reactions. Based on the inhibition constant (Ki) and the therapeutic total inhibitor concentrations [I]max of eight drugs in human plasma, [I]max/Ki values were calculated to evaluate clinical DDIs...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26085581/impaired-sperm-motility-in-hiv-infected-men-an-unexpected-adverse-effect-of-efavirenz
#18
C Frapsauce, S Grabar, M Leruez-Ville, O Launay, P Sogni, V Gayet, J P Viard, M De Almeida, P Jouannet, E Dulioust
STUDY QUESTION: Are antiretroviral therapies associated with semen alterations in HIV-infected men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Antiretroviral regimens that included the non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz were associated with a significant impairment of sperm motility, whereas regimens without efavirenz were not associated with significant semen changes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Semen alterations including decreased ejaculate volume and sperm motility have been reported in HIV-infected men...
August 2015: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26031506/body-composition-in-the-study-of-women-entering-and-in-endocrine-transition-sweet-a-perspective-of-african-women-who-have-a-high-prevalence-of-obesity-and-hiv-infection
#19
Nicole G Jaff, Shane A Norris, Tracy Snyman, Marketa Toman, Nigel J Crowther
OBJECTIVES: Little data are available for sub-Saharan African women on changes in body composition in menopause transition (MT). The study aimed to determine whether there are differences in body adiposity, lean muscle mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) across MT groups in urban African women, who have a high prevalence of obesity and HIV infection, and if this is related to an altered hormonal milieu. DESIGN: Participants were 702 black urban women. Menopause stage was defined using STRAW+10 criteria...
September 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26026155/pharmacological-treatments-for-fatigue-associated-with-palliative-care
#20
REVIEW
Martin Mücke, Henning Cuhls, Vera Peuckmann-Post, Ollie Minton, Patrick Stone, Lukas Radbruch
BACKGROUND: This review updates the original review, 'Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care' and also incorporates the review 'Drug therapy for the management of cancer-related fatigue'.In healthy individuals, fatigue is a protective response to physical or mental stress, often relieved by rest. By contrast, in palliative care patients' fatigue can be severely debilitating and is often not counteracted with rest, thereby impacting daily activity and quality of life...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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