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Glycosyltransferase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920212/inhibition-of-antigen-specific-and-non-specific-stimulation-of-bovine-t-and-b-cells-by-lymphostatin-from-attaching-and-effacing-escherichia-coli
#1
Robin L Cassady-Cain, Elizabeth A Blackburn, Charlotte R Bell, Elizaveta Elshina, Jayne C Hope, Mark P Stevens
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally-encoded 365 kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonisation of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111 and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill-defined...
December 5, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916834/role-of-cytokine-induced-glycosylation-changes-in-regulating-cell-interactions-and-cell-signaling-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Justine H Dewald, Florent Colomb, Marie Bobowski-Gerard, Sophie Groux-Degroote, Philippe Delannoy
Glycosylation is one of the most important modifications of proteins and lipids, and cell surface glycoconjugates are thought to play important roles in a variety of biological functions including cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, bacterial adhesion, cell immunogenicity and cell signaling. Alterations of glycosylation are observed in number of diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. In that context, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to modulate cell surface glycosylation by regulating the expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of carbohydrate chains...
November 29, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914321/functional-regulation-of-ginsenoside-biosynthesis-by-rna-interferences-of-a-udp-glycosyltransferase-gene-in-panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius
#3
Chao Lu, Shoujing Zhao, Guanning Wei, Huijuan Zhao, Qingling Qu
Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been used as medicinal and functional herbal remedies worldwide. Different properties of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were confirmed not only in clinical findings, but also at cellular and molecular levels. The major pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. The P. ginseng roots contain a higher ratio of ginsenoside Rg1:Rb1 than that in P. quinquefolius...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913570/revisiting-the-human-polypeptide-galnac-t1-and-t13-paralogs
#4
María Florencia Festari, Felipe Trajtenberg, Nora Berois, Sergio Pantano, Leslie Revoredo, Yun Kong, Patricia Solari-Saquieres, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Teresa Freire, Sylvie Bay, Carlos Robello, Jean Bénard, Thomas A Gerken, Henrik Clausen, Eduardo Osinaga
Polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of 20 human glycosyltransferases (comprising 9 subfamilies), which initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The O-glycoproteome is thought to be differentially regulated via the different substrate specificities and expression patterns of each GalNAc-T isoforms. Here, we present a comprehensive in vitro analysis of the peptide substrate specificity of GalNAc-T13, showing that it essentially overlaps with the ubiquitous expressed GalNAc-T1 isoform found in the same subfamily as T13...
November 22, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908959/rapid-screening-of-sugar-nucleotide-donor-specificities-of-putative-glycosyltransferases
#5
M Osman Sheikh, Stephanie M Halmo, Sneha Patel, Dustin Middleton, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Christopher M Schafer, Christopher M West, Robert S Haltiwanger, Fikri Y Avci, Kelley W Moremen, Lance Wells
Determining the correct enzymatic activity of putative glycosyltransferases (GTs) can be challenging as these enzymes can utilize multiple donor and acceptor substrates. Upon initial determination of the donor-sugar nucleotide(s), a GT utilizes various acceptor molecules that can then be tested. Here, we describe a quick method to screen sugar-nucleotide donor specificities of GTs utilizing a sensitive, nonradioactive, commercially available bioluminescent uridine diphosphate detection kit. This in vitro method allowed us to validate the sugar-nucleotide donor-substrate specificities of recombinantly expressed human, bovine, bacterial and protozoan GTs...
November 22, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903647/the-production-and-utilization-of-gdp-glucose-in-the-biosynthesis-of-trehalose-6-phosphate-by-streptomyces-venezuelae
#6
Matías D Asencion Diez, Farzana Miah, Clare E M Stevenson, David M Lawson, Alberto A Iglesias, Stephen Bornemann
Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilise ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudo-glycosyltransferase enzyme...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900693/screening-glycosyltransferases-for-polyphenol-modifications
#7
Nele Ilmberger, Ulrich Rabausch
Glycosyltransferases offer the opportunity to glycosylate a variety of substrates including health beneficial molecules like flavonoids in a regiospecific manner. Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial, antioxidative, and health beneficial effects. Glycosylation often has impact on these properties and furthermore enhances the water solubility, the stability, and the bioavailability of the molecules. To detect flavonoid glycosylating enzymes we established a metagenome screen for the discovery of modifying clones...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899922/glycosyltransferase-mediated-exchange-of-rare-microbial-sugars-with-natural-products
#8
Ramesh P Pandey, Jae K Sohng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899450/escherichia-coli-penicillin-binding-protein-1b-structural-insights-into-inhibition
#9
Dustin T King, Gregory A Wasney, Michael Nosella, Anita Fong, Natalie C J Strynadka
In Escherichia coli, the peptidoglycan cell wall is synthesized by bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins such as PBP1b that have both transpeptidase and transglycosylase activities. The PBP1b transpeptidase domain is a major target of β-lactams and therefore it is important to attain a detailed understanding of its inhibition. The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase domain of PBP1b is also considered an excellent antibiotic target, yet is not exploited by any clinically approved antibacterials. Herein, we adapt a pyrophosphate sensor assay to monitor PBP1b catalyzed glycosyltransfer and present an improved crystallographic model for inhibition of the PBP1b glycosyltransferase domain by the potent substrate analogue moenomycin...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895739/gene-expression-profiling-of-the-8q22-24-position-in-human-breast-cancer-tspyl5-mtdh-atad2-and-ccne2-genes-are-implicated-in-oncogenesis-while-wisp1-and-ext1-genes-may-predict-a-risk-of-metastasis
#10
Afsoon Taghavi, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Mohammad Hashemi-Bahremani, Nahid Nafissi, Ahad Khalilnezhad, Seyed Mohammad Poorhosseini, Feyzollah Hashemi-Gorji, Vahid Reza Yassaee
Gene expression profiling has been suggested to predict breast cancer outcome. The prognostic value of the 8q22-24 position in breast cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study evaluated expression patterns of the genes located at this position in metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer. A total of 85 patients with recurrent/metastatic (n=15) and non-metastatic (n=70) early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive and lymph node-negative breast tumors were included. In addition, 15 normal breast tissue samples were used as controls...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895225/loss-of-inositol-phosphorylceramide-sphingolipid-mannosylation-induces-plant-immune-responses-and-reduces-cellulose-content-in-arabidopsis
#11
Lin Fang, Toshiki Ishikawa, Emilie A Rennie, Gosia M Murawska, Jeemeng Lao, Jingwei Yan, Alex Yl Tsai, Edward E K Baidoo, Jun Xu, Jay D Keasling, Taku Demura, Maki Kawai-Yamada, Henrik Vibe Scheller, Jenny C Mortimer
Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ~25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase (GT) family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1 (EPC1), is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1)...
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889342/a-glycosyltransferase-gene-responsible-for-pullulan-biosynthesis-in-aureobasidium-melanogenum-p16
#12
Xi Chen, Qin-Qing Wang, Nan-Nan Liu, Guang-Lei Liu, Zhe Chi, Zhen-Ming Chi
In this study, one of the glucosyltransferase genes for pullulan production was cloned from Aureobasidum melanogenum P16 and charaterized. It was found that the UGT1 gene had 4774bp with four introns (47, 52, 54 and 46bp). The N-terminal part of the protein displayed a conserved sequence controlling both sugar donor and accepter for substrate specificity whereas its C-terminal part carried a DXD motif that coordinated donor sugar binding. After complete removal of the gene UGT1, the mutant 1152-3 still produced 27...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888647/microarray-analysis-of-the-genes-associated-with-osteitis-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#13
Ceren Günel, Benjamin S Bleier, Gökay Bozkurt, Nuket Eliyatkin
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Although numerous studies have examined epithelial remodeling in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), bone remodeling (osteitis) has only recently gained attention as a potential significant contributor to the pathophysiology of recalcitrant CRS. The purpose of this study was to compare gene expression profiles between osteitic bone and the adjacent diseased mucosa in patients with CRS to determine which genes affect mucosal and bony remodeling. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental analysis...
November 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888602/a-glycovariant-of-human-cd44-is-characteristically-expressed-on-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Gisela Pachón-Peña, Conor Donnelly, Catalina Ruiz-Cañada, Adam Katz, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell, Robert Sackstein
The clinical effectiveness of systemically-administered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) depends on their capacity to engage vascular endothelium. hMSCs derived from bone marrow (BM-hMSCs) natively lack endothelial binding capacity but express a CD44 glycovariant containing N-linked sialyllactosamines that can be α(1,3)-fucosylated using fucosyltransferase- VI (FTVI) to enforce sLe(X) decorations, thereby creating hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand (HCELL). HCELL expression programs potent shear-resistant adhesion of circulating cells to endothelial beds expressing E-selectin...
November 26, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888523/the-cotton-%C3%AE-galactosyltransferase-1-galt1-that-galactosylates-arabinogalactan-proteins-participates-in-controlling-fiber-development
#15
Li-Xia Qin, Yun Chen, Wei Zeng, Yang Li, Lu Gao, Deng-Di Li, Antony Bacic, Wen-Liang Xu, Xue-Bao Li
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins which play pivotal roles in diverse developmental processes in plants. Type II AG glycans, mostly O-linked to the hydroxyproline residues of the protein backbone, account for up to 95% w/w of the AGP, but their functions are still largely unclear. Cotton fibers are extremely elongated single-cell trichomes on the seed epidermis. However, little is known of the molecular basis governing the regulation of fiber cell development. Here, we characterized the role of a CAZy glycosyltransferase (GT) family 31 member GhGalT1 in cotton fiber development...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881071/genome-wide-analyses-of-chitin-synthases-identify-horizontal-gene-transfers-towards-bacteria-and-allow-a-robust-and-unifying-classification-into-fungi
#16
Isabelle R Gonçalves, Sophie Brouillet, Marie-Christine Soulié, Simonetta Gribaldo, Catherine Sirven, Noémie Charron, Martine Boccara, Mathias Choquer
BACKGROUND: Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth after cellulose, is found in probably all fungi, many animals (mainly invertebrates), several protists and a few algae, playing an essential role in the development of many of them. This polysaccharide is produced by type 2 glycosyltransferases, called chitin synthases (CHS). There are several contradictory classifications of CHS isoenzymes and, as regards their evolutionary history, their origin and diversity is still a matter of debate...
November 24, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875303/engineering-and-dissecting-the-glycosylation-pathway-of-a-streptococcal-serine-rich-repeat-adhesin
#17
Fan Zhu, Hua Zhang, Tiandi Yang, Stuart M Haslam, Anne Dell, Hui Wu
Serine-rich repeat glycoproteins (SRRPs) are conserved in Gram-positive bacteria. They are crucial for modulating biofilm formation and bacterial-host interactions. Glycosylation of SRRPs plays a pivotal role in the process, thus understanding the glycosyltransferases involved is key to identifying new therapeutic drug targets. The glycosylation of Fap1, an SRRP of Streptococcus parasanguinis, is mediated by a gene cluster consisting of six genes, gtf1, gtf2, gly, gtf3, dGT1 and galT2. Mature Fap1 glycan possesses the sequence of Rha1-3Glc1-(Glc1-3GlcNAc1-) 2, 6 Glc1-6GlcNAc...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872474/multi-level-glyco-engineering-techniques-to-generate-igg-with-defined-fc-glycans
#18
Gillian Dekkers, Rosina Plomp, Carolien A M Koeleman, Remco Visser, Hans H von Horsten, Volker Sandig, Theo Rispens, Manfred Wuhrer, Gestur Vidarsson
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) mediates its immune functions through complement and cellular IgG-Fc receptors (FcγR). IgG contains an evolutionary conserved N-linked glycan at position Asn297 in the Fc-domain. This glycan consists of variable levels of fucose, galactose, sialic acid, and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (bisection). Of these variations, the lack of fucose strongly enhances binding to the human FcγRIII, a finding which is currently used to improve the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. The influence of the other glycan traits is largely unknown, mostly due to lack of glyco-engineering tools...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871764/-the-rs4285184-polymorphism-of-the-mgat1-gene-as-a-risk-factor-for-obesity-in-the-mexican-population
#19
José C Tapia-Rivera, Luz M Baltazar-Rodríguez, Martha I Cárdenas-Rojas, Alan Álvarez, Rafael Bustos-Saldaña, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Laura L Valdez-Velázquez, José Guzmán-Esquivel, Mario Ramírez-Flores
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a factor that contributes to the morbidity of certain diseases and to worldwide mortality. MGAT1 is a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides and its polymorphisms are possibly involved in the etiology of obesity. We investigated the association of the rs4285184 polymorphism of the MGAT1 gene with obesity in adults in the State of Colima, Mexico. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted that included 244 subjects...
November 18, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869292/model-based-investigation-of-intracellular-processes-determining-antibody-fc-glycosylation-under-mild-hypothermia
#20
Si Nga Sou, Philip M Jedrzejewski, Ken Lee, Christopher Sellick, Karen M Polizzi, Cleo Kontoravdi
Despite the positive effects of mild hypothermic conditions on monoclonal antibody (mAb) productivity (qmAb ) during mammalian cell culture, the impact of reduced culture temperature on mAb Fc-glycosylation and the mechanism behind changes in the glycan composition is not fully established. The lack of knowledge about the regulation of dynamic intracellular processes under mild hypothermia restricts bioprocess optimisation. To address this issue, a mathematical model that quantitatively describes CHO cell behaviour and metabolism, mAb synthesis and its N-linked glycosylation profiles before and after the induction of mild hypothermia is constructed using two sets of parameters...
November 21, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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