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Glycosyltransferase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315700/exploiting-the-aglycon-promiscuity-of-glycosyltransferase-bs-yjic-from-bacillus-subtilis-and-its-application-in-synthesis-of-glycosides
#1
Longhai Dai, Jiao Li, Peiyuan Yao, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Jiangang Yang, Yuanxia Sun
Glycosylation is a prominent biological mechanism for structural and functional diversity of natural products. Uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases with aglycon promiscuity are generally recognised as effective biocatalysts for glycodiversification of natural products for practical applications. In this study, the aglycon promiscuity of glycosyltransferase Bs-YjiC from Bacillus subtilis 168 was explored. Bs-YjiC, with uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) as sugar donor, exhibited robust capabilities to glycosylate 19 structurally diverse types of drug-like scaffolds with regio- and stereospecificities and form O-, N- and S-linkage glycosides...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315000/polyphenol-metabolism-in-differently-colored-cultivars-of-red-currant-ribes-rubrum-l-through-fruit-ripening
#2
Zala Zorenc, Robert Veberic, Darinka Koron, Silvija Miosic, Olly Sanny Hutabarat, Heidi Halbwirth, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
Rare red currants colors caused by low anthocyanin content in the pink and a lack of anthocyanins in the white cultivar correlated with low ANS gene expression, enzyme activity, and increased sugar/acid ratios. Changes in the contents of polyphenols, sugars, and organic acids in berries of the three differently colored Ribes rubrum L. cultivars ('Jonkheer van Tets', 'Pink Champagne', and 'Zitavia') were determined by LC-MS and HPLC at 4 sampling times during the last month of fruit ripening. The activities of the main flavonoid enzymes, chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase (CHS/CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and the expression of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were additionally measured...
March 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314774/the-rare-sugar-n-acetylated-viosamine-is-a-major-component-of-mimivirus-fibers
#3
Francesco Piacente, Cristina De Castro, Sandra Jeudy, Matteo Gaglianone, Maria Elena Laugieri, Anna Notaro, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Chantal Abergel, Michela G Tonetti
The giant virus Mimivirus encodes an autonomous glycosylation system, which is thought to be responsible for the formation of complex and unusual glycans composing the fibers surrounding its icosahedral capsid, including the dideoxyhexose viosamine. Previous studies have identified a gene cluster in the virus genome, encoding enzymes involved in nucleotide-sugar production and glycan formation, but the functional characterization of these enzymes and the full identification of the glycans found in viral fibers remains incomplete...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302723/identification-and-characterization-of-a-missense-mutation-in-the-o-glcnac-transferase-gene-that-segregates-with-x-linked-intellectual-disability
#4
Krithika Vaidyanathan, Tejasvi Niranjan, Nithya Selvan, Chin Fen Teo, Melanie May, Sneha Patel, Brent Weatherly, Cindy Skinner, John Opitz, John Carey, David Viskochil, Jozef Gecz, Marie Shaw, Yunhui Peng, Emil Alexov, Tao Wang, Charles Schwartz, Lance Wells
O-GlcNAc is a regulatory post-translational modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins that has been implicated in multiple biological processes including transcription. In humans, single genes encode enzymes for its attachment [O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)] and removal [O-GlcNAcase (OGA)]. An X-chromosome exome screen identified a missense mutation, that encodes an amino acid in the tetratricopeptide repeat, in OGT (759G>T (p.L254F)) that segregates with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) in an affected family...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301937/tools-for-studying-glycans-recent-advances-in-chemoenzymatic-glycan-labeling
#5
Aime Lopez Aguilar, Jennie Grace Briard, Linette Yang, Ben Ovryn, Matthew Scott Macauley, Peng Wu
The study of cellular glycosylation presents many challenges due, in large part, to the nontemplated nature of glycan biosynthesis and glycans' structural complexity. Chemoenzymatic glycan labeling (CeGL) has emerged as a new technique to address the limitations of existing methods for glycan detection. CeGL combines glycosyltransferases and unnatural nucleotide sugar donors equipped with a bioorthogonal chemical tag to directly label specific glycan acceptor substrates in situ within biological samples. This article reviews the current CeGL strategies that are available to characterize cell-surface and intracellular glycans...
March 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299798/sterol-glycosyltransferases-required-for-adaptation-of-withania-somnifera-at-high-temperature
#6
Gaurav Singh, Manish Tiwari, Surendra Pratap Singh, Ruchi Singh, Surendra Singh, Pramod Arvind Shirke, Prabodh K Trivedi, Pratibha Misra
Heat is a major environmental stress factor that confines growth, productivity, and metabolism of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable conditions through changes in their physiological, biochemical and developmental processes. Withania somnifera, an important medicinal plant, grows in hot and dry conditions, however, molecular mechanisms related to such adaptive properties are not known. Here, we elucidated that members of the SGT gene family play important roles in the survival of W. somnifera under adverse conditions through maintaining the integrity of the membrane...
March 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298629/identification-and-analysis-of-genes-associated-with-the-synthesis-of-bioactive-constituents-in-dendrobium-officinale-using-rna-seq
#7
Chenjia Shen, Hong Guo, Hailing Chen, Yujun Shi, Yijun Meng, Jiangjie Lu, Shangguo Feng, Huizhong Wang
Dendrobium officinale L. is an important traditional herb with high commercial value in China. Several bioactive constituents, including polysaccharides and alkaloids, reportedly make major contributions toward the excellent medicinal effect of D. officinale. In this study, the contents of polysaccharides and alkaloids in various organs of D. officinale were measured and compared. We took advantage of transcriptomes from four organs to explore biological mechanisms in the organ-specific distribution of active ingredients in D...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294997/marine-prasinoviruses-and-their-tiny-plankton-hosts-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Karen D Weynberg, Michael J Allen, William H Wilson
Viruses play a crucial role in the marine environment, promoting nutrient recycling and biogeochemical cycling and driving evolutionary processes. Tiny marine phytoplankton called prasinophytes are ubiquitous and significant contributors to global primary production and biomass. A number of viruses (known as prasinoviruses) that infect these important primary producers have been isolated and characterised over the past decade. Here we review the current body of knowledge about prasinoviruses and their interactions with their algal hosts...
March 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291274/biosynthetic-4-6-dehydratase-gene-deletion-isolation-of-a-glucosylated-jadomycin-natural-product-provides-insight-into-the-substrate-specificity-of-glycosyltransferase-jads
#9
S M Forget, Jungwook Na, N E McCormick, D L Jakeman
Deletion of the biosynthetic 4,6-dehydratase gene, jadT, present in the angucycline jadomycin dideoxysugar biosynthetic pathway, led to the isolation of a novel C12 glucosylated jadomycin. JadS was identified as the catalyst responsible for glucosylation due to a loss of production of the glucosylated natural product in a ΔjadSΔjadT deletion strain. This study demonstrates that a 2,6-dideoxy-l-sugar glycosyltransferase is able to transfer d-glucose, exemplifying remarkable substrate tolerance.
March 14, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285020/uplc-qtof-ms-ms-based-phenolic-profile-and-their-biosynthetic-enzyme-activity-used-to-discriminate-between-cashew-apple-anacardium-occidentale-l-maturation-stages
#10
Aline G Cunha, Edy S Brito, Carlos F H Moura, Paulo R V Ribeiro, Maria Raquel A Miranda
Cashew immature and ripe peduncles (Anacardium occidentale L.) from orange- and red-colored clones CCP 76 and BRS 189, respectively, were prepared as juice or fibrous fraction and submitted to UPLC-MS analyses, while the soluble fraction was also submitted to enzymatic evaluation. Cinnamoyl glucoside was present in ripe juice samples from both cashew clones, while monogalloyl diglucoside and digalloyl glucoside were present in immature juice samples from both cashew clones. Four compounds were found at immature fiber of both clones, anacardic acids (1, 2, 3) and GA19...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284522/in-depth-analysis-of-rumen-microbial-and-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-profile-in-indian-crossbred-cattle
#11
V Lyju Jose, Ravi P More, Thulasi Appoothy, A Sha Arun
Rumen houses a plethora of symbiotic microorganisms empowering the host to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. In this study, NGS based metagenomic approach coupled with bioinformatic analysis was employed to gain an insight into the deconstruction of lignocellulose by carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in Indian crossbred Holstein-Friesian cattle. Cattle rumen metagenomic DNA was sequenced using Illumina-MiSeq and 1.9 gigabases of data generated with an average read length of 871 bp. Analysis of the assembled sequences by Pfam-based Carbohydrate-active enzyme Analysis Toolkit identified 17,164 putative protein-encoding CAZymes belonging to different families of glycoside hydrolases (7574), glycosyltransferases (5185), carbohydrate-binding modules (2418), carbohydrate esterases (1516), auxiliary activities (434) and polysaccharide lyases (37)...
February 28, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283389/biochemical-characterization-of-rhamnosyltransferase-involved-in-biosynthesis-of-pectic-rhamnogalacturonan-i-in-plant-cell-wall
#12
Yohei Uehara, Shunsuke Tamura, Yusuke Maki, Kenta Yagyu, Tadashi Mizoguchi, Hitoshi Tamiaki, Tomoya Imai, Tadashi Ishii, Takao Ohashi, Kazuhito Fujiyama, Takeshi Ishimizu
The pectin in plant cell walls consists of three domains: homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan (RG)-I, and RG-II. It is predicted that around 50 different glycosyltransferases are required for their biosynthesis. Among these, the activities of only a few glycosyltransferases have been detected because pectic oligosaccharides are not readily available for use as substrates. In this study, fluorogenic pyridylaminated RG-I-backbone oligosaccharides (PA-RGs) with 3-14 degrees of polymerization (DP) were prepared...
March 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265002/deletion-of-pofut1-in-mouse-skeletal-myofibers-induces-muscle-aging-related-phenotypes-in-cis-and-in-trans
#13
Deborah A Zygmunt, Neha Singhal, Mi-Lyang Kim, Megan L Cramer, Kelly E Crowe, Rui Xu, Ying Jia, Jessica Adair, Isabel Martinez-Pena Y Valenzuela, Mohammed Akaaboune, Peter White, Paulus M Janssen, Paul T Martin
Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength during normal aging, involves coordinate changes in skeletal myofibers and the cells that contact them, including satellite cells and motor neurons. Here we show that Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1), a gene that encodes a glycosyltransferase required for NotchR-mediated cell-cell signaling, has reduced expression in aging skeletal muscle. Moreover, premature postnatal deletion of Pofut1 in skeletal myofibers can induce aging-related phenotypes in cis within skeletal myofibers and in trans within satellite cells and within motor neurons via the neuromuscular junction...
March 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258142/activation-mechanism-and-cellular-localization-of-membrane-anchored-alginate-polymerase-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
The exopolysaccharide, alginate, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a survival advantage by contributing to formation of characteristic biofilms during infection. Membrane anchored proteins Alg8 (catalytic subunit) and Alg44 (co-polymerase) constitute the alginate polymerase which is being activated by the second messenger molecule c-di-GMP, but the mechanism of activation remains elusive. To shed light on the c-di-GMP mediated activation of alginate polymerization in vivo, an in silico structural model of Alg8 fused to the c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain informed by the structure of cellulose synthase, BcsA, was developed...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257892/role-of-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-2-in-trigeminal-neuronal-sensitization-induced-by-peripheral-inflammation
#15
Yiheng Lv, Lili Ren, Yunjie Fu, Keqiang Huang, Jing Bi
Glycosyltransferases are enzymes that catalyze the formation of a variety of glycoconjugates. Glycoconjugates play important roles in the nervous system. β-1,3-Galactosyltransferase 2 (B3galt2) belongs to the family of β-1,3-galactosyltransferase, which is one of the major types of glycosyltransferases. Dental pulp inflammation may cause neurophysiological alterations in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), and serve as a good model for investigating the peripheral inflammation and trigeminal neuronal sensitization...
February 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256109/protein-nmr-studies-of-substrate-binding-to-human-blood-group-a-and-b-glycosyltransferases
#16
Thomas Peters, Lena Lisbeth Grimm, Sophie Weissbach, Friedemann Flügge, Nora Begemann, Monica Palcic
Donor and acceptor substrate binding to human blood group A and B glycosyltransferases (GTA, GTB) has been studied by a variety of protein NMR experiments. Prior crystallographic studies have shown these enzymes to adopt an open conformation in the absence of substrates. Binding of either the donor substrate UDP-Gal, or of UDP induces a semi-closed conformation. In the presence of both, donor- and acceptor substrates, the enzymes shift towards a closed conformation with ordering of an internal loop and the C-terminal residues, which then completely cover the donor-binding pocket...
March 3, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249567/a-reference-gene-set-for-sex-pheromone-biosynthesis-and-degradation-genes-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-based-on-genome-and-transcriptome-digital-gene-expression-analyses
#17
Peng He, Yun-Fei Zhang, Duan-Yang Hong, Jun Wang, Xing-Liang Wang, Ling-Hua Zuo, Xian-Fu Tang, Wei-Ming Xu, Ming He
BACKGROUND: Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide...
March 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246170/defining-the-enzymatic-pathway-for-polymorphic-o-glycosylation-of-the-pneumococcal-serine-rich-repeat-protein-psrp
#18
Yong-Liang Jiang, Hua Jin, Hong-Bo Yang, Rong-Li Zhao, Shiliang Wang, Yuxing Chen, Cong-Zhao Zhou
Protein O-glycosylation is an important post-translational modification in all organisms, but deciphering the specific functions of these glycans is difficult due to their structural complexity. Understanding the glycosylation of mucin-like proteins presents a particular challenge as they are modified numerous times, with both the enzymes involved and the glycosylation patterns being poorly understood. Here we systematically explored the O-glycosylation pathway of a mucin-like serine-rich repeat protein PsrP from the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245407/-establishment-and-application-of-a-method-for-determination-of-glycosyltransferase-activity
#19
Yan-Lian Liang, Yu-Qing Su, Yin-Ze Zhang, Fan Wu, Da-Cheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for determination of glycosyltransferase and to explore the enzyme A, B glycosyltransferase activity in human serum so as to lay the foundation for the determination of enzyme level and enzyme activity. METHODS: The glycosyltransferase activity kit was used to draw phosphate standard curves in our laboratory. The A and B glycosyltransferase activity were determined by the standard curves. RESULTS: The standard curves (y=2671...
February 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240441/the-impact-of-heteromultivalency-in-lectin-recognition-and-glycosidase-inhibition-an-integrated-mechanistic-study
#20
M Isabel García-Moreno, Fernando Ortega-Caballero, Rocío Rísquez-Cuadro, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, Jose M Garcia Fernandez
The vision of multivalency as a strategy limited to achieve affinity enhancements between a protein receptor and its putative sugar ligand (glycotope) has proven too simplistic. On the one hand, binding of a glycotope in a dense glycocalix-like construct to a lectin partner has been shown to be sensitive to the presence of a third sugar entity (heterocluster effect). On the other hand, several carbohydrate processing enzymes (glycosidases and glycosyltransferases) have been found to be also responsive to multivalent presentations of binding partners (multivalent enzyme inhibition), a phenomenon first discovered for iminosugar-type inhibitory species (inhitopes) and recently demonstrated for multivalent carbohydrate constructs...
February 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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