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Glycosyltransferase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348721/rare-ginsenoside-ia-synthesized-from-f1-by-cloning-and-overexpression-of-the-udp-glycosyltransferase-gene-from-bacillus%C3%A2-subtilis-synthesis-characterization-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-melanogenesis%C3%A2-inhibition-activity-in-bl6b16-cells
#1
Dan-Dan Wang, Yan Jin, Chao Wang, Yeon-Ju Kim, Zuly Elizabeth Jimenez Perez, Nam In Baek, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Josua Markus, Deok-Chun Yang
Background: Ginsenoside F1 has been described to possess skin-whitening effects on humans. We aimed to synthesize a new ginsenoside derivative from F1 and investigate its cytotoxicity and melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16BL6 cells using recombinant glycosyltransferase enzyme. Glycosylation has the advantage of synthesizing rare chemical compounds from common compounds with great ease. Methods: UDP-glycosyltransferase (BSGT1) gene from Bacillus subtilis was selected for cloning...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346724/structural-and-biophysical-characterization-of-human-extl3-domain-organisation-glycosylation-and-solution-structure
#2
Wael Awad, Sven Kjellstrom, Gabriel Svensson Birkedal, Katrin Mani, Derek Thomas Logan
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are proteins substituted with one or more heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides, found in abundance at cell surfaces. HS chains influence the activity of many biologically important molecules involved in cellular communication and signaling. The exostosin (EXT) proteins are glycosyltransferases in the Golgi apparatus that assemble HS chains on HSPGs. The EXTL3 enzyme mainly works as an initiator in HS biosynthesis. In this work, human lumenal N-glycosylated EXTL3 (EXTL3ΔN) was cloned, expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and purified...
January 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338263/promiscuous-glycosyltransferase-from-bacillus-subtilis-168-for-the-enzymatic-synthesis-of-novel-protopanaxatriol-type-ginsenosides
#3
Longhai Dai, Jiao Li, Jiangang Yang, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Yi Cai, Caixia Dong, Zhubo Dai, Xueli Zhang, Yuanxia Sun
Ginsenosides are the principally bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng and possess diverse notable pharmacological activities. UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glycosylation of C6-OH and/or C20-OH of protopanaxatriol (PPT) is the prominent biological modification that contributes to the immense structural and functional diversity of PPT-type ginsenosides. In this study, glycosylation of PPT and PPT-type ginsenosides was achieved using a promiscuous glycosyltransferase (Bs-YjiC) from Bacillus subtilis 168...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325159/a-novel-rice-xylosyltransferase-catalyzes-the-addition-of-2-o-xylosyl-side-chains-onto-the-xylan-backbone
#4
Ruiqin Zhong, Dongtao Cui, Dennis R Phillips, Zheng-Hua Ye
Xylan is a major hemicellulose in both primary walls and secondary walls of grass species. It consists of a linear backbone of β-1,4-linked xylosyl residues that are often substituted with monosaccharides and disaccharides. Xylosyl substitutions directly on the xylan backbone have not been reported in grass species and genes responsible for xylan substitutions in grass species have not been well elucidated. Here, we report functional characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) GT61 glycosyltransferase, XYXT1 (xylan xylosyltransferase1), for its role in xylan substitutions...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315387/a-validated-grna-library-for-crispr-cas9-targeting-of-the-human-glycosyltransferase-genome
#5
Yoshiki Narimatsu, Hiren J Joshi, Yang Zhang, Catarina Gomes, Yen-Hsi Chen, Flaminia Lorenzetti, Sanae Furukawa, Katrine Schjoldager, Lars Hansen, Henrik Clausen, Eric P Bennett, Hans H Wandall
Over 200 glycosyltransferases are involved in the orchestration of the biosynthesis of the human glycome , which is comprised of all glycan structures found on different glycoconjugates in cells. The glycome is vast, and despite advancements in analytic strategies it continues to be difficult to decipher biological roles of glycans with respect to specific glycan structures, type of glycoconjugate, particular glycoproteins, and distinct glycosites on proteins. In contrast to this, the number of glycosyltransferase genes involved in the biosynthesis of the human glycome is manageable, and the biosynthetic roles of most of these enzymes are defined or can be predicted with reasonable confidence...
January 5, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306437/covalent-probes-for-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-from-glycosidases-to-glycosyltransferases
#6
Yong Xu, Najib Uddin, Gerd K Wagner
Covalent probes for glycosidases and glycosyltransferases are of great interest as tool compounds for chemical biology. For glycosidases, a sizable number of such probes have been developed from covalent glycosidase inhibitors. We review selected recent examples and highlight different design strategies, including probes based on photoaffinity labels and mechanism-based inhibitors, as well as their applications in biology and for activity-based protein profiling. In contrast to glycosidases, only a limited number of covalent probes have been reported to date for glycosyltransferases...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305908/exostosin-like-2-regulates-fgf2-signaling-by-controlling-the-endocytosis-of-fgf2
#7
Satomi Nadanaka, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously expressed on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices, and are engaged in heparin-binding growth factor-related signal transduction. Thus, changes in the amounts, structures, and chain lengths of heparan sulfate have profound effects on aspects of cell growth controlled by heparin-binding growth factors such as FGF2. Exostosin glycosyltransferases (EXT1, EXT2, EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3) control heparan sulfate biosynthesis, and the expression levels of their genes regulate the amounts, chain lengths, and sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate...
January 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296927/abo-blood-group-a-transferases-catalyze-the-biosynthesis-of-fors-blood-group-fors1-antigen-upon-deletion-of-exon-3-or-4
#8
Miyako Yamamoto, Emili Cid, Fumiichiro Yamamoto
Evolutionarily related ABO and GBGT1 genes encode, respectively, A and B glycosyltransferases (AT and BT) and Forssman glycolipid synthase (FS), which catalyze the biosynthesis of A and B, and Forssman (FORS1) oligosaccharide antigens responsible for the ABO and FORS blood group systems. Humans are a Forssman antigen-negative species; however, rare individuals with Apae phenotype express FORS1 on their red blood cells. We previously demonstrated that the replacement of the LeuGlyGly tripeptide sequence at codons 266 to 268 of human AT with GBGT1-encoded FS-specific GlyGlyAla enabled the enzyme to produce FORS1 antigen, although the FS activity was weak...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289661/notch-signaling-is-impaired-during-inflammation-in-a-lunatic-fringe-dependent-manner
#9
Claudio Derada Troletti, Melissa A Lopes Pinheiro, Marc Charabati, Elizabeth Gowing, Bert van Het Hof, Susanne M A van der Pol, Dirk Geerts, Alexandre Prat, Ruud D Fontijn, Wendy W Unger, Helga E de Vries
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) assures brain homeostasis through the specialized function of brain endothelial cells (BECs). Dysfunction of the BBB due to inflammatory processes is associated with several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Understanding the mechanisms that underlie these processes may ultimately lead to new therapeutic strategies to restore BBB function, thereby fighting disease progression. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a critical role of the Notch signaling pathway in the function of the BBB under resting and inflammatory conditions...
December 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287114/postnatal-lethality-and-chondrodysplasia-in-mice-lacking-both-chondroitin-sulfate-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1-and-2
#10
Miki Shimbo, Riku Suzuki, Sayaka Fuseya, Takashi Sato, Katsue Kiyohara, Kozue Hagiwara, Risa Okada, Hiromasa Wakui, Yuki Tsunakawa, Hideto Watanabe, Koji Kimata, Hisashi Narimatsu, Takashi Kudo, Satoru Takahashi
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. In cartilage, CS plays important roles as the main component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), existing as side chains of the major cartilage proteoglycan, aggrecan. Six glycosyltransferases are known to coordinately synthesize the backbone structure of CS; however, their in vivo synthetic mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that two glycosyltransferases, Csgalnact1 (t1) and Csgalnact2 (t2), are critical for initiation of CS synthesis in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279128/high-efficiency-production-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-using-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-the-donor-raw-material-by-cyclodextrin-opening-reactions-using-recombinant-cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase
#11
Chao Qiu, Jinpeng Wang, Haoran Fan, Yuxiang Bai, Yaoqi Tian, Xueming Xu, Zhengyu Jin
In comparison with natural α- and β-cyclodextrin (CD), γ-CD has attracted much attention due to their large hydrophobic cavities, high water solubility, and bioavailability. However, the production of γ-CD is still rather expensive and time-consuming. To overcome the high cost and long induction time, pUC119 was selected as the gene expression vector, and the recombinant enzyme production time was reduced to 8h from 72h. Furthermore, for the first time, we have successfully produced γ-CD using β-CD by cyclodextrin opening reactions through the recombinant CGTase in the presence of maltose...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277722/the-pathogenic-roles-of-heparan-sulfate-deficiency-in-hereditary-multiple-exostoses
#12
REVIEW
Maurizio Pacifici
Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of cell surface and matrix proteoglycans (HS-PGs) that include syndecans and perlecan. Because of their unique structural features, the HS chains are able to specifically interact with signaling proteins -including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)- via their HS-binding domain, regulating protein availability, distribution and action on target cells. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME) is a rare pediatric disorder linked to germline heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in EXT1 or EXT2 that encode Golgi-resident glycosyltransferases responsible for HS synthesis, resulting in a systemic HS deficiency...
December 22, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277661/crystal-structure-of-d-glycero-%C3%AE-d-manno-heptose-1-phosphate-guanylyltransferase-from-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis
#13
Hyojin Kim, Jimin Park, Suwon Kim, Dong Hae Shin
The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of yersiniosis. d-glycero-α-d-manno-heptose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (HddC) is the fourth enzyme of the GDP-d-glycero-α-d-manno-heptose biosynthesis pathway which is important for the virulence of the microorganism. Therefore, HddC is a potential target of antibiotics against yersiniosis. In this study, HddC from the synthesized HddC gene of Y. pseudotuberculosis has been expressed, purified, crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray data from a selenomethionine-substituted HddC crystal were also collected and its structure was determined at 2...
December 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275858/engineered-sialylation-of-pathogenic-antibodies-in%C3%A2-vivo-attenuates-autoimmune-disease
#14
Jose D Pagan, Maya Kitaoka, Robert M Anthony
Self-reactive IgGs contribute to the pathology of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Paradoxically, IgGs are used to treat inflammatory diseases in the form of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Distinct glycoforms on the IgG crystallizable fragment (Fc) dictate these divergent functions. IgG anti-inflammatory activity is attributed to sialylation of the Fc glycan. We therefore sought to convert endogenous IgG to anti-inflammatory mediators in vivo by engineering solubilized glycosyltransferases that attach galactose or sialic acid...
December 11, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259592/characterization-of-the-sorbitol-utilization-cluster-of-the-probiotic-pediococcus-parvulus-2-6-genetic-functional-and-complementation-studies-in-heterologous-hosts
#15
Adrian Pérez-Ramos, Maria L Werning, Alicia Prieto, Pasquale Russo, Giuseppe Spano, Mari L Mohedano, Paloma López
Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 secretes a 2-substituted (1,3)-β-D-glucan with prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties. It is synthesized by the GTF glycosyltransferase using UDP-glucose as substrate. Analysis of the P. parvulus 2.6 draft genome revealed the existence of a sorbitol utilization cluster of six genes (gutFRMCBA), whose products should be involved in sorbitol utilization and could generate substrates for UDP-glucose synthesis. Southern blot hybridization analysis showed that the cluster is located in a plasmid...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251719/expression-system-for-structural-and-functional-studies-of-human-glycosylation-enzymes
#16
Kelley W Moremen, Annapoorani Ramiah, Melissa Stuart, Jason Steel, Lu Meng, Farhad Forouhar, Heather A Moniz, Gagandeep Gahlay, Zhongwei Gao, Digantkumar Chapla, Shuo Wang, Jeong-Yeh Yang, Pradeep Kumar Prabhakar, Roy Johnson, Mitche Dela Rosa, Christoph Geisler, Alison V Nairn, Jayaraman Seetharaman, Sheng-Cheng Wu, Liang Tong, Harry J Gilbert, Joshua LaBaer, Donald L Jarvis
Vertebrate glycoproteins and glycolipids are synthesized in complex biosynthetic pathways localized predominantly within membrane compartments of the secretory pathway. The enzymes that catalyze these reactions are exquisitely specific, yet few have been extensively characterized because of challenges associated with their recombinant expression as functional products. We used a modular approach to create an expression vector library encoding all known human glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases, and sulfotransferases, as well as other glycan-modifying enzymes...
December 18, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247671/efficient-expression-of-cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase-from-geobacillus-stearothermophilus-in-escherichia-coli-by-promoter-engineering-and-downstream-box-evolution
#17
Chen Deng, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) catalyzes hydrolysis, cyclization, coupling, and disproportionation reactions and is widely used in the starch processing industry. In this work, the expression of CGTase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) was significantly improved by promoter engineering and downstream box evolution. Firstly, the effects of the promoter type (PT7, Ptrp, PlacUV5, and the hybrid promoters PtacI and PtacII) and spacer sequence on the expression of CGTase were examined...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244071/the-glycosyltransferase-eogt-regulates-adropin-expression-in-decidualizing-human-endometrium
#18
Joanne Muter, Mohammad T Alam, Pavle Vrljicak, Flavio S V Barros, Peter T Ruane, Lauren J Ewington, John D Aplin, Melissa Westwood, Jan J Brosens
In pregnancy, resistance of endometrial decidual cells to stress signals is critical for the integrity of the feto-maternal interface and, by extension, survival of the conceptus. O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification that links glucose sensing to cellular stress resistance. Unexpectedly, decidualization of primary endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) was associated with a 60% reduction in O-GlcNAc modified proteins, reflecting downregulation of the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc to substrates (O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT) but not the enzyme that removes the modification (O-GlcNAcase, OGA)...
December 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240782/conservation-and-divergence-of-starch-synthase-iii-genes-of-monocots-and-dicots
#19
Bhavya Priyadarshini Mishra, Rajeev Kumar, Amita Mohan, Kulvinder S Gill
Starch Synthase (SS) plays an important role in extending the α-1,4 glucan chains during starch biosynthesis by catalyzing the transfer of the glucosyl moiety from ADP-glucose to the non-reducing end of a pre-existing glucan chain. SS has five distinct isoforms of which SSIII is involved in the formation of longer glucan chain length. Here we report identification and detailed characterization of 'true' orthologs of the well-characterized maize SSIII (ZmSSIII), among six monocots and two dicot species. ZmSSIII orthologs have nucleotide sequence similarity ranging from 56-81%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229337/receptor-protein-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-mosquito-larvicidal-toxin-displays-amylomaltase-activity
#20
Mahima Sharma, Gagan D Gupta, Vinay Kumar
The activated binary toxin (BinAB) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus binds to surface receptor protein (Cqm1) on the midgut cell membrane and kills Culex quinquefasciatus larvae on internalization. Cqm1 is attached to cells via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. It has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 13 of the CAZy database. Here, we report characterization of the ordered domain (residues 23-560) of Cqm1. Gene expressing Cqm1 of BinAB susceptible mosquito was chemically synthesized and the protein was purified using E...
December 8, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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