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Glycosyltransferase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433497/clostridium-difficile-toxin-glucosyltransferase-domains-in-complex-with-a-non-hydrolyzable-udp-glucose-analogue
#1
Joseph W Alvin, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis worldwide. The organism produces two homologous toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which enter and disrupt host cell function by glucosylating and thereby inactivating key signalling molecules within the host. As a toxin-mediated disease, there has been a significant interest in identifying small molecule inhibitors of the toxins' glucosyltransferase activities. This study was initiated as part of an effort to identify the mode of inhibition for a small molecule inhibitor of glucosyltransferase activity called apigenin...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429856/glycosyltransferase-cascades-for-natural-product-glycosylation-use-of-plant-instead-of-bacterial-sucrose-synthases-improves-the-udp-glucose-recycling-from-sucrose-and-udp
#2
Alexander Gutmann, Alexander Lepak, Margo Diricks, Tom Desmet, Bernd Nidetzky
Natural product glycosylations by Leloir glycosyltransferases (GTs) require expensive nucleotide-activated sugars as substrates. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) converts sucrose and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) into UDP-glucose. Coupling of SuSy and GT reactions in one-pot cascade transformations creates a UDP cycle, which regenerates the UDP-glucose continuously and so makes it an expedient donor for glucoside production. Here we compare SuSys with divergent kinetic characteristics for UDP-glucose recycling in the synthesis of the natural C-glucoside nothofagin...
April 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429731/the-evolutionary-life-cycle-of-the-polysaccharide-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-based-on-the-sphingomonadaceae
#3
Mengmeng Wu, Haidong Huang, Guoqiang Li, Yi Ren, Zhong Shi, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaohui Dai, Ge Gao, Mengnan Ren, Ting Ma
Although clustering of genes from the same metabolic pathway is a widespread phenomenon, the evolution of the polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster remains poorly understood. To determine the evolution of this pathway, we identified a scattered production pathway of the polysaccharide sanxan by Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02, and compared the distribution of genes between sphingan-producing and other Sphingomonadaceae strains. This allowed us to determine how the scattered sanxan pathway developed, and how the polysaccharide gene cluster evolved...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429060/engineered-jadomycin-analogues-with-altered-sugar-moieties-revealing-jads-as-a-substrate-flexible-o-glycosyltransferase
#4
Liyuan Li, Guohui Pan, Xifen Zhu, Keqiang Fan, Wubin Gao, Guomin Ai, Jinwei Ren, Mingxin Shi, Carlos Olano, José A Salas, Keqian Yang
Glycosyltransferases (GTs)-mediated glycodiversification studies have drawn significant attention recently, with the goal of generating bioactive compounds with improved pharmacological properties by diversifying the appended sugars. The key to achieving glycodiversification is to identify natural and/or engineered flexible GTs capable of acting upon a broad range of substrates. Here, we report the use of a combinatorial biosynthetic approach to probe the substrate flexibility of JadS, the GT in jadomycin biosynthesis, towards different non-native NDP-sugar substrates, enabling us to identify six jadomycin B analogues with different sugar moieties...
April 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428837/large-is-required-for-normal-astrocyte-migration-and-retinal-vasculature-development
#5
Min Zhou, Herui Wang, Hui Ren, Rui Jiang, Chi Zhang, Xiaohui Wu, Gezhi Xu
BACKGROUND: Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that accounts for about 5% of childhood blindness. The molecular mechanism of PFV remains unclear. As a glycosyltransferase of α-dystroglycan, LARGE mutations have been found in congenital muscular dystrophy patients with brain abnormalities. Spontaneous Large mutant mice displayed similar symptoms of human muscle-eye-brain disorders. However, the detailed roles of Large in ocular vasculature development still need to be uncovered...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422446/fusion-of-a-family-20-carbohydrate-binding-module-cbm20-with-cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase-of-geobacillus-sp-chb1-improves-catalytic-efficiency
#6
Xianbo Jia, Yonghua Guo, Xinjian Lin, Minsheng You, Chenqiang Lin, Longjun Chen, Jichen Chen
Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is an important industrial enzyme for production of cyclodextrins (CDs) from starch by intramolecular transglycosylation. CGTase consists of five domains labeled A to E. For optimizing catalytic activity of CGTase, CGTase of Geobacillus sp. was fused with the family 20 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of the Bacillus circulans strain 251 CGTase. The CBMbc251 that has a low binding free energy with maltohexaose, was selected by in silico design. Then the fusion enzyme, CGTΔE-CBMbc251, was constructed by fusing the CBMbc251 to the C-terminal region of CGTΔE...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417361/methods-for-determining-glycosyltransferase-kinetics
#7
Maria Ngo, Michael D L Suits
Glycosyltransferases are a class of biosynthetic enzymes that transfer individual activated monosaccharide units to specific acceptors. Colorimetric assays using the detection of released products such as para-nitrophenol and coupled assays for inorganic phosphate detection allow for convenient and quantifiable kinetic characterization. These techniques may be applied to determine the enzymatic activity of glycosyltransferases by indirectly measuring the transfer of nucleotide-activated donor carbohydrate units to various cognate acceptor molecules...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416607/human-milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-growth-of-group-b-streptococcus
#8
Ann E Lin, Chloe A Autran, Alexandra Szyszka, Tamara Escajadillo, Mia Huang, Kamil Godula, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Amanda L Lewis, Kelly S Doran, Victor Nizet, Lars Bode
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide development of the infant's immune system and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce risk of infection. In the course of our studies of HMO-microbial interactions, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel HMO property to directly inhibit the growth of GBS, independent of host immunity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413949/the-intrinsic-relationship-between-structure-and-function-of-the-sialyltransferase-st8sia-family-members
#9
Ri-Bo Huang, D Cheng, Bo Lu, S M Liao, Frederic A Troy Ii, Guo-Ping Zhou
As a subset of glycosyltransferases, the family of sialyltransferases catalyze transfer of sialic acid (Sia) residues to terminal non-reducing positions on oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, utilizing CMP-Neu5Ac as the activated sugar nucleotide donor. In the four known sialyltransferase families (ST3Gal, ST6Gal, ST6GalNAc and ST8Sia), the ST8Sia family catalyzes synthesis of si,8-linked sialic/polysialic acid (polySia) chains according to their acceptor specificity. We have determined 3D structural models of the ST8Sia family members, designated ST8Sia I(1), II(2), IV(4), V(5), and VI(6) using the Phyre2 server...
April 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408913/altered-expression-of-genes-implicated-in-xylan-biosynthesis-affects-penetration-resistance-against-powdery-mildew
#10
Jamil Chowdhury, Stefanie Lück, Jeyaraman Rajaraman, Dimitar Douchkov, Neil J Shirley, Julian G Schwerdt, Patrick Schweizer, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton, Alan Little
Heteroxylan has recently been identified as an important component of papillae, which are formed during powdery mildew infection of barley leaves. Deposition of heteroxylan near the sites of attempted fungal penetration in the epidermal cell wall is believed to enhance the physical resistance to the fungal penetration peg and hence to improve pre-invasion resistance. Several glycosyltransferase (GT) families are implicated in the assembly of heteroxylan in the plant cell wall, and are likely to work together in a multi-enzyme complex...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408476/ogt-a-short-overview-of-an-enzyme-standing-out-from-usual-glycosyltransferases
#11
REVIEW
Moyira Aquino-Gil, Annick Pierce, Yobana Perez-Cervera, Edgar Zenteno, Tony Lefebvre
O-GlcNAcylation is a highly dynamic post-translational modification whose level depends on nutrient status. Only two enzymes regulate O-GlcNAcylation cycling, the glycosyltransferase OGT (O-GlcNAc transferase) and the glycoside hydrolase OGA (O-GlcNAcase), that add and remove the GlcNAc moiety to and from acceptor proteins, respectively. During the last 30 years, OGT has emerged as a master regulator of cell life with O-GlcNAcylation being found in viruses, bacteria, insects, protists and metazoans. The study of OGT in different biological systems opens new perspectives for understanding this enzyme in many kingdoms of life...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406517/biochemical-studies-of-inositol-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-involved-in-mycothiol-biosynthesis-in-corynebacterium-diphtheria
#12
Yuchuan Guo, Lizhen Wang, Jiatong Guo, Guofeng Gu, Zhongwu Guo
Mycothiol (MSH) is the predominant low molecular weight thiol produced by actinomycetes, and it plays a pivotal role in the bacterial detoxication process. 1L-myo-Inositol-1-phosphate (1L-Ins-1-P) α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GlcNAc-T), known as MshA, is the only glycosyltransferase involved in MSH biosynthesis. In this work, the MshA from Corynebacterium diphtheria, named as CdMshA, was expressed, purified, and studied in detail. Its enzymatic activity to transfer GlcNAc to 1L-Ins-1-P was confirmed by the isolation and rigorous characterization of its reaction product 3-phospho-1-d-myo-inositol-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside...
April 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402841/identification-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-novel-%C3%AE-1-3-mannosyltransferase-wfcd-from-escherichia-coli-o141
#13
Chao Chen, Xi Hou, Natalia Utkina, Leonid Danilov, Dawei Zhou, Vladimir Torgov, Vladimir Veselovsky, Bin Liu, Lu Feng
Glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyze the formation of regio- and stereospecific glycosidic linkages between specific sugar donors and recipients. In this study, the function of the wfcD gene from the Escherichia coli O141 O-antigen gene cluster encoding an α-1,3-mannosyltransferase that catalyzed the formation of the linkage Man(α1-3)-GlcNAc was biochemically characterized. WfcD was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), and the enzymatic product was identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), collision-induced dissociation electrospray ionization ion trap multiple tandem MS (CID-ESI-IT-MS(n)) and glycosidase digestion using the donor substrate GDP-Man and the synthetic acceptor substrate decyl diphosphate 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose (GlcNAc-PP-De)...
April 6, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401975/imidazolium-labeled-glycosides-as-probes-to-harness-glycosyltransferase-activity-in-human-breast-milk
#14
I Sittel, M C Galan
Imidazolium-labeled (ITag-) glycosides are used to harness the glycosyltransferase activity directly from human breast milk. The covalently attached ionic labels provide a bifunctional chemical handle that is used to monitor reaction progress by MS, as well as aid in product purification from complex mixtures. The technology is exemplified in the synthesis of biologically relevant oligosaccharide analogs, LacNAc-ITag, ITag-Lewis(x) and ITag-Lewis(a), in a matter of days from human breast milk without having to isolate specific enzymes...
April 12, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400753/the-helicobacter-pylori-j99-jhp0106-gene-under-the-control-of-the-csra-rpon-regulatory-system-modulates-flagella-formation-and-motility
#15
Cheng-Yen Kao, Jenn-Wei Chen, Shuying Wang, Bor-Shyang Sheu, Jiunn-Jong Wu
CsrA has been shown to positively control the expression of flagella-related genes, including flaA and flaB, through regulating expression of an alternative sigma factor RpoN in Helicobacter pylori J99. Here, we aimed to characterize the CsrA regulatory system by comparative transcriptomic analysis carried out with RNA-seq on strain J99 and a csrA mutant. Fifty-three genes in the csrA mutant were found to be differentially expressed compared with the wild-type. Among CsrA-regulated genes, jhp0106, with unclear function, was found located downstream of flaB in the J99 genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398082/transcriptomic-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-l-heynh-roots-to-ibuprofen
#16
Premysl Landa, Sylva Prerostova, Lenka Langhansova, Petr Marsik, Tomas Vanek
Surface waters in urban areas are contaminated by ibuprofen (IBP), a popular and extensively used anti-inflammatory drug. In this study, we investigated the transcriptomic response in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. roots with the aim of revealing genes that are potentially involved in IBP detoxification and to elucidate the effect of IBP on plants. IBP up-regulated 63 and down-regulated 38 transcripts (p-value < 0.1, fold change ≥ 2) after two-day exposure to a 5 µM (1.03 mg L(-1)) concentration of IBP under hydroponic conditions...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396694/synthesis-of-umbelliferone-derivatives-in-escherichia-coli-and-their-biological-activities
#17
Luan Luong Chu, Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Haet Nim Lim, Hye Jin Jung, Nguyen Huy Thuan, Tae-Su Kim, Jae Kyung Sohng
BACKGROUND: Umbelliferone, also known as 7-hydroxycoumarin, is a phenolic metabolite found in many familiar plants. Its derivatives have been shown to have various pharmacological and chemo-preventive effects on human health. A uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase YjiC from Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13, a cytochrome P450BM3 (CYP450 BM3) variant namely mutant 13 (M13) from Bacillus megaterium, and an O-methyltransferase from Streptomyces avermitilis (SaOMT2) were used for modifications of umbelliferone...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395734/o-glcnac-on-notch1-egf-repeats-regulates-ligand-induced-notch-signaling-and-vascular-development-in-mammals
#18
Shogo Sawaguchi, Shweta Varshney, Mitsutaka Ogawa, Yuta Sakaidani, Hirokazu Yagi, Kyosuke Takeshita, Toyoaki Murohara, Koichi Kato, Subha Sundaram, Pamela Stanley, Tetsuya Okajima
The glycosyltransferase EOGT transfers O-GlcNAc to a consensus site in epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of a limited number of secreted and membrane proteins, including Notch receptors. In EOGT-deficient cells, the binding of DLL1 and DLL4, but not JAG1, canonical Notch ligands was reduced, and ligand-induced Notch signaling was impaired. Mutagenesis of O-GlcNAc sites on NOTCH1 also resulted in decreased binding of DLL4. EOGT functions were investigated in retinal angiogenesis that depends on Notch signaling...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393916/production-and-glyco-engineering-of-immunomodulatory-helminth-glycoproteins-in-plants
#19
Ruud H P Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Kim van Noort, Katja Obieglo, Nicole N Driessen, Bart Everts, Sonja I Gringhuis, Gabriele Schramm, Aska Goverse, Geert Smant, Jaap Bakker, Hermelijn H Smits, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Arjen Schots, Cornelis H Hokke
Helminth parasites control host-immune responses by secreting immunomodulatory glycoproteins. Clinical trials and mouse model studies have demonstrated the potential of helminth-derived glycoproteins for the treatment of immune-related diseases, like allergies and autoimmune diseases. Studies are however hampered by the limited availability of native parasite-derived proteins. Moreover, recombinant protein production systems have thus far been unable to reconstitute helminth-like glycosylation essential for the functionality of some helminth glycoproteins...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382047/genome-wide-identification-expression-patterns-and-functional-analysis-of-udp-glycosyltransferase-family-in-peach-prunus-persica-l-batsch
#20
Boping Wu, Liuxiao Gao, Jie Gao, Yaying Xu, Hongru Liu, Xiangmei Cao, Bo Zhang, Kunsong Chen
Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is a commercial grown fruit trees, important because of its essential nutrients and flavor promoting secondary metabolites. The glycosylation processes mediated by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) play an important role in regulating secondary metabolites availability. Identification and characterization of peach UGTs is therefore a research priority. A total of 168 peach UGT genes that distributed unevenly across chromosomes were identified based on their conserved PSPG motifs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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