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Glycosyltransferase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775866/identification-of-udp-glucosyltransferases-from-the-aluminum-resistant-tree-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-forming-%C3%AE-glucogallin-the-precursor-of-hydrolyzable-tannins
#1
Ko Tahara, Mitsuru Nishiguchi, Andrej Frolov, Juliane Mittasch, Carsten Milkowski
In the highly aluminum-resistant tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis, hydrolyzable tannins are proposed to play a role in internal detoxification of aluminum, which is a major factor inhibiting plant growth on acid soils. To understand and modulate the molecular mechanisms of aluminum detoxification by hydrolyzable tannins, the biosynthetic genes need to be identified. In this study, we identified and characterized genes encoding UDP-glucose:gallate glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (β-glucogallin), the precursor of hydrolyzable tannins...
May 15, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771506/the-metabolic-chemical-reporter-6-azido-6-deoxy-glucose-further-reveals-the-substrate-promiscuity-of-o-glcnac-transferase-and-catalyzes-the-discovery-of-intracellular-protein-modification-by-o-glucose
#2
Narek Darabedian, Jinxu Gao, Kelly N Chuh, Christina M Woo, Matthew R Pratt
Metabolic chemical reporters of glycosylation in combination with bioorthogonal reactions have been known for two decades and have been used by many different research labs for the identification and visualization of glycoconjugates. More recently, however, they have begun to see utility for the investigation of cellular metabolism and the tolerance of biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases to dif-ferent sugars. Here, we take this concept one step further by using the metabolic chemical reporter 6-azido-6-deoxy-glucose (6AzGlc)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767975/cytotoxic-anthracycline-metabolites-from-a-recombinant-streptomyces
#3
Chun Gui, Jie Yuan, Xuhua Mo, Hongbo Huang, Shanwen Zhang, Yu-Cheng Gu, Jianhua Ju
The C7 (C9 or C10)- O-l-rhodosamine-bearing anthracycline antibiotic cytorhodins and their biosynthetic intermediates were recently isolated from Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1666. Cosmid p17C4 from the Streptomyces lydicus genomic library, which harbors both the biosynthetic genes for l-rhodinose (or 2-deoxy-l-fucose) and its glycosyltransferase (encoded by slgG), was introduced into SCSIO 1666 to yield the recombinant strain Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1666/17C4. Chemical investigations of this strain's secondary metabolic potential revealed the production of different anthracyclines featuring C7- O-l-rhodinose (or 2-deoxy-l-fucose) instead of the typically observed l-rhodosamine...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765039/stt3-dependent-pd-l1-accumulation-on-cancer-stem-cells-promotes-immune-evasion
#4
Jung-Mao Hsu, Weiya Xia, Yi-Hsin Hsu, Li-Chuan Chan, Wen-Hsuan Yu, Jong-Ho Cha, Chun-Te Chen, Hsin-Wei Liao, Chu-Wei Kuo, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Jennifer L Hsu, Chia-Wei Li, Seung-Oe Lim, Shih-Shin Chang, Yi-Chun Chen, Guo-Xin Ren, Mien-Chie Hung
Enriched PD-L1 expression in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) contributes to CSC immune evasion. However, the mechanisms underlying PD-L1 enrichment in CSCs remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enriches PD-L1 in CSCs by the EMT/β-catenin/STT3/PD-L1 signaling axis, in which EMT transcriptionally induces N-glycosyltransferase STT3 through β-catenin, and subsequent STT3-dependent PD-L1 N-glycosylation stabilizes and upregulates PD-L1. The axis is also utilized by the general cancer cell population, but it has much more profound effect on CSCs as EMT induces more STT3 in CSCs than in non-CSCs...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760197/glucosamine-inositolphosphorylceramide-transferase1-gint1-is-a-glcnac-containing-glycosylinositol-phosphorylceramide-glycosyltransferase
#5
Toshiki Ishikawa, Lin Fang, Emilie A Rennie, Julien Sechet, Jingwei Yan, Beibei Jing, William Moore, Edgar B Cahoon, Henrik V Scheller, Maki Kawai-Yamada, Jennifer C Mortimer
Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs), which have a ceramide core linked to a glycan headgroup of varying structure, are the major sphingolipids in the plant plasma membrane. Recently, we identified the major biosynthetic genes for GIPC glycosylation in Arabidopsis thaliana, and demonstrated that the glycan headgroup is essential for plant viability. However, the function of GIPCs and the significance of their structural variation are poorly understood. Here, we characterized the Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase GLUCOSAMINE INOSITOLPHOSPHORYLCERAMIDE TRANSFERASE1 (GINT1) and showed that it is responsible for the glycosylation of a subgroup of GIPCs found in seeds and pollen that contain N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN; collectively GlcN(Ac))...
May 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760061/methylglucosylation-of-aromatic-amino-and-phenolic-moieties-of-drug-like-biosynthons-by-combinatorial-biosynthesis
#6
Linan Xie, Liwen Zhang, Chen Wang, Xiaojing Wang, Ya-Ming Xu, Hefen Yu, Ping Wu, Shenglan Li, Lida Han, A A Leslie Gunatilaka, Xiaoyi Wei, Min Lin, István Molnár, Yuquan Xu
Glycosylation is a prominent strategy to optimize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drug-like small-molecule scaffolds by modulating their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and bioactivity. Glycosyltransferases applicable for "sugarcoating" various small-molecule acceptors have been isolated and characterized from plants and bacteria, but remained cryptic from filamentous fungi until recently, despite the frequent use of some fungi for whole-cell biocatalytic glycosylations...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755498/rice-premature-leaf-senescence-2-encoding-a-glycosyltransferase-gt-is-involved-in-leaf-senescence
#7
Min Wang, Tao Zhang, Hao Peng, Sheng Luo, Juejie Tan, Kaifeng Jiang, Yueqin Heng, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Jiakui Zheng, Zhijun Cheng
Premature leaf senescence (PLS), which has a significant impact on yield, is caused by various underlying mechanisms. Glycosyltransferases, which function in glycosyl transfer from activated nucleotides to aglycones, are involved in diverse biological processes, but their roles in rice leaf senescence remain elusive. Here, we isolated and characterized a leaf senescence-related gene from the Premature Leaf Senescent mutant ( pls2 ). The mutant phenotype began with leaf yellowing at tillering and resulted in PLS during the reproductive stage...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748819/recent-advances-in-steroidal-saponins-biosynthesis-and-in-vitro-production
#8
REVIEW
Swati Upadhyay, Gajendra Singh Jeena, Shikha, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
Steroidal saponins exhibited numerous pharmacological activities due to the modification of their backbone by different cytochrome P450s (P450) and UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Plant-derived steroidal saponins are not sufficient for utilizing them for commercial purpose so in vitro production of saponin by tissue culture, root culture, embryo culture, etc, is necessary for its large-scale production. Saponin glycosides are the important class of plant secondary metabolites, which consists of either steroidal or terpenoidal backbone...
May 10, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747825/gangliosides-in-membrane-organization
#9
Sandro Sonnino, Elena Chiricozzi, Sara Grassi, Laura Mauri, Simona Prioni, Alessandro Prinetti
Since the structure of GM1 was elucidated 55years ago, researchers have been attracted by the sialylated glycans of gangliosides. Gangliosides head groups, protruding toward the extracellular space, significantly contribute to the cell glycocalyx; and in certain cells, such as neurons, are major determinants of the features of the cell surface. Expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the de novo biosynthesis of gangliosides is tightly regulated along cell differentiation and activation, and is regarded as the main metabolic mechanism responsible for the acquisition of cell-specific ganglioside patterns...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747824/congenital-disorders-of-ganglioside-biosynthesis
#10
T August Li, Ronald L Schnaar
Gangliosides are expressed on all vertebrate cells and tissues, but are particularly abundant in the mammalian brain, where they constitute major cell-surface determinants on all nerve cells. The same four ganglioside structures, GM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, constitute the great majority of brain gangliosides in all mammals. Biosynthesis of these major brain gangliosides starts with addition of glucose to the ceramide lipid carrier followed by stepwise addition of up to six additional monosaccharides. This primarily involves the sequential action of seven glycosyltransferases, many of which appear to act specifically on glycolipid (rather than glycoprotein) acceptors...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747816/gangliosides-in-nerve-cell-specification
#11
Yutaka Itokazu, Jing Wang, Robert K Yu
The central nervous system is generated from progenitor cells that are recognized as neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are defined as undifferentiated neural cells that are characterized by the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Throughout neural development, NSCs undergo proliferation, migration, and cellular differentiation, and dynamic changes are observed in the composition of carbohydrate-rich molecules, including gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids with essential and multifaceted functions in brain development and NSC maintenance, which reflects the complexity of brain development...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747814/gangliosides-in-cancer-cell-signaling
#12
Sophie Groux-Degroote, Macarena Rodríguez-Walker, Justine H Dewald, Jose L Daniotti, Philippe Delannoy
At the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, gangliosides are found with other glycosphingolipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol in glycolipid-enriched microdomains, in which they interact with signaling molecules including receptor tyrosine kinases and signal transducers. The role of gangliosides in the regulation of signal transduction has been reported for many cases and in different cell types. The biosynthesis of gangliosides involves specific enzymes, mainly glycosyltransferases that control together with glycohydrolases, the steady state of gangliosides at the cell surface...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747811/ganglioside-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#13
Roger Sandhoff, Heike Schulze, Konrad Sandhoff
Gangliosides (GGs) are cell type-specific sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (GSLs), which are enriched in mammalian brain. Defects in GSL metabolism cause fatal human diseases. GSLs are composed of a hydrophilic oligosaccharide linked in 1-O-position to a hydrophobic ceramide anchor, which itself is composed of a long-chain amino alcohol, the sphingoid base, and an amide-bound acyl chain. Biosynthesis of mammalian GGs and other GSLs starts with the formation of their hydrophobic ceramide anchor in the endoplasmic reticulum, followed by sequential glycosylation reactions along the secretory pathway, mainly at the luminal surface of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744896/genes-for-seed-longevity-in-barley-identified-by-genomic-analysis-on-near-isogenic-lines
#14
Dorothee Wozny, Katharina Kramer, Iris Finkemeier, Ivan F Acosta, Maarten Koornneef
Genes controlling differences in seed longevity between two barley (Hordeum vulgare) accessions were identified by combining quantitative genetics 'omics' technologies in Near Isogenic Lines (NILs). The NILs were derived from crosses between the spring barley landraces L94 from Ethiopia and Cebada Capa from Argentina. A combined transcriptome and proteome analysis on mature, non-aged seeds of the two parental lines and the L94 NILs by RNA-sequencing and total seed proteomic profiling identified the UDP-glycosyltransferase MLOC_11661...
May 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743543/mir-23a-transcriptional-activated-by-runx2-increases-metastatic-potential-of-mouse-hepatoma-cell-via-directly-targeting-mgat3
#15
Huang Huang, Yubo Liu, Peishan Yu, Jianhua Qu, Yanjie Guo, Wenli Li, Shujing Wang, Jianing Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and aberrant glycosylation both play important roles in tumor metastasis. In this study, the role of miR-23a in N-glycosylation and the metastasis of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells was investigated. The miRNA expression array profiles that were confirmed by qPCR and Western blot analyses revealed higher miR-23a expression levels in Hca-P cells (with lymphatic metastasis potential) than in Hepa1-6 cells (with no lymphatic metastasis potential), while the expression of mannoside acetylglucosaminyltransferase 3 (Mgat3) was negatively associated with metastasis potential...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740511/candidate-genes-associated-with-red-colour-formation-revealed-by-comparative-genomic-variant-analysis-of-red-and-green-skinned-fruits-of-japanese-apricot-prunus-mume
#16
Xiaopeng Ni, Song Xue, Shahid Iqbal, Wanxu Wang, Zhaojun Ni, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Zhihong Gao
The red-skinned fruit of Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc) appeals to customers due to its eye-catching pigmentation, while the mechanism related to its colour formation is still unclear. In this study, genome re-sequencing of six Japanese apricot cultivars was carried out with approximately 92.2 Gb of clean bases using next-generation sequencing. A total of 32,004 unigenes were assembled with an average of 83.1% coverage rate relative to reference genome. A wide range of genetic variation was detected, including 7,387,057 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 456,222 insertions or deletions and 129,061 structural variations in all genomes...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736039/design-of-glycosylation-sites-by-rapid-synthesis-and-analysis-of-glycosyltransferases
#17
Weston Kightlinger, Liang Lin, Madisen Rosztoczy, Wenhao Li, Matthew P DeLisa, Milan Mrksich, Michael C Jewett
Glycosylation is an abundant post-translational modification that is important in disease and biotechnology. Current methods to understand and engineer glycosylation cannot sufficiently explore the vast experimental landscapes required to accurately predict and design glycosylation sites modified by glycosyltransferases. Here we describe a systematic platform for glycosylation sequence characterization and optimization by rapid expression and screening (GlycoSCORES), which combines cell-free protein synthesis and mass spectrometry of self-assembled monolayers...
May 7, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733932/leu600-mutations-decrease-product-inhibition-of-the-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase-from-bacillus-circulans-stb01
#18
Shuangdi Chen, Zhaofeng Li, Zhengbiao Gu, Yan Hong, Li Cheng, Tod P Holler, Caiming Li
The limits that cyclodextrin products impose on their industrial production from starch by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTases) are a severe problem. In this paper, mutants at residue Leu600 of the β-CGTase from Bacillus circulans STB01 were constructed in an effort to decrease the product inhibition exhibited by β-cyclodextrin. A kinetic analysis of the inhibition of the wild-type and mutant β-CGTases by β-cyclodextrin revealed that the mutations do not alter the inhibition mode, which is mixed-type...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732660/facile-chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-o-mannosyl-glycans
#19
Lei Li, Shuaishuai Wang, Qing Zhang, Congcong Chen, Yuxi Guo, Madhusudhan Reddy Gadi, Jin Yu, Ulrika Westerlind, Yunpeng Liu, Xuefeng Cao, Peng Wang
O-Mannosylation is a vital protein modification involved in brain and muscle development, whereas the biological relevance of O-mannosyl glycans remains largely unknown, due to the lack of structurally defined glycoforms. An efficient scaffold synthesis/ enzymatic extension (SSEE) strategy was thus developed to prepare such structures, by combining gram-scale convergent chemical synthesis of 3 scaffolds and strictly controlled sequential enzymatic extension catalyzed by glycosyltransferases. Totally, 45 O-mannosyl glycans were obtained, covering majority of identified mammalian structures...
May 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729225/diagnostic-utility-of-glycosyltransferase-mrna-expression-in-gastric-cancer
#20
Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir, Sabhiya Majid, Tehseen Hassan, Muneeb U Rehman, Sonallah Kuchy
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Posttranslational modification of proteins, including glycosylation, is known to differ between normal and tumor cells. Altered glycosyltransferase levels have been observed in tumor tissues and their role in tumor metastasis and invasion has been implicated. In this study the role of altered glycosyltransferase messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in serum of gastric cancer patients as early markers of gastric cancer was evaluated. METHODS: In this case control study the expression profile of ppGalNAc-T6, GlcNAcT-V, ST3Gal I, ST3 Gal IV, and ST6GalNAc-I in normal healthy control and gastric cancer patients was compared...
April 27, 2018: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
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