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Zhihua Song, Kang Cheng, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua (EA) on the intestinal inflammatory response of heat-stressed broilers. A total of 144 male Arbor Acres broilers aged 21 days were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 replicates per group and 8 broilers in each replicate. The 3 treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which broiler chickens were raised at 22 ± 1°C and fed basal diets, the heat stress (HS) and HS-EA groups, in which broiler chickens were raised at 34 ± 1°C for 8h (0900-1700h) and 22 ± 1°C for 16h, and fed basal diets supplemented with 0 or 1g/kg EA, respectively...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Xunbing Huang, Douglas W Whitman, Jingchuan Ma, Mark Richard McNeill, Zehua Zhang
We reared Oedaleus asiaticus grasshoppers under four different single-plant diets to examine the relationships among diet, performance, stress, and transcription patterns. Grasshoppers fed only Artemisia frigida (Asteraceae) were stressed, as indicated by their lower growth, size, development, and survival, in comparison to grasshoppers fed on any of three grasses, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Leymus chinensis, or Stipa krylovii (all Poaceae). We then used transcriptome analysis to examine how gene expression levels in O...
2017: PloS One
Marina Komuro, Naoki Shimizu, Ryo Onuma, Yurika Otoki, Junya Ito, Shunji Kato, Ohki Higuchi, Keiichi Sudo, Seiichiro Suzuki, Teruo Miyazawa, Takahiro Eitsuka, Kiyotaka Nakagawa
Lutein, a type of xanthophyll, possesses antioxidative properties that contribute to the prevention of various diseases. Preliminary screening has shown that Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) contains high amounts of lutein. In this study, we evaluated the lutein concentration in a processed mugwort product (mugwort paste). By using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with visible light detection or mass spectrometry, the lutein concentration in mugwort paste was determined as 38 mg/100 g dry weight, which indicates that mugwort is a potentially valuable natural food source of lutein...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Eid I Brima
Local medicinal plants from Madina, Saudi Arabia, are used to cure various diseases. However, some can cause adverse health effects. Five different medicinal plants were collected in the city of Madina: mahareeb (Cymbopogon), sheeh (Artemisia), harjal (Cynanchum argel delile), nabipoot (Equisetum), and kafmariam (Vitex agnus-castus). In total, four toxic elements including Al, Pb, As, and Cd were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The range of recoveries fell between 86.1 and 90...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Reza Rezaei, Khosrow Hazrati Tappeh, Shahram Seyyedi, Peyman Mikaili
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that appears with a range of symptoms including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. The present study sought to determine the antileishmanial effect of the extract of Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon) compared to control treatment with pentavalent antimony (meglumine). METHODS: This experimental study was performed in 2014-2015. A. dracunculus were collected from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran and dried; then the ethanolic extract of the plant was prepared...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Guang Song, Xinrong Li, Rong Hui
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) can improve the stability and health of native plant communities in arid ecosystems. However, it is unknown whether BSCs can also inhibit invasions of exotic vascular plants on stabilized reclaimed sand dunes. To answer this question, we conducted a greenhouse experiment to test the effects of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs on 1) seed germination and biomass of an exotic grass (Stipa glareosa P. Smirn.), and 2) individual biomass of the exotic S. glareosa growing with two native plants, Eragrostis poaeoides Beauv...
2017: PloS One
Yunqian Wang, Min Wang, Baoping Chen, Jun Shi
Scoparone, a major constituent of Artemisia capillaries, has a variety of biological properties including anticoagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities. However, the renoprotective effect of scoparone under diabetic conditions remains elusive. Thus, the present study was undertaken to examine the role of scoparone in high glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and elucidate the possible mechanism of action of scoparone...
September 29, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Gui-Min Xue, Chao Han, Chen Chen, Ling-Nan Li, Xiao-Bing Wang, Ming-Hua Yang, Yu-Cheng Gu, Jian-Guang Luo, Ling-Yi Kong
Artemisians A-D (1-4), the first examples of [4 + 2] Diels-Alder type adducts presumably biosynthesized from a rare 1, 10-4, 5-diseco-guaianolide and a guaianolide diene, along with their possible precursor 5, were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia argyi. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and calculated electronic circular dichroism. Compound 2, with an IC50 value of 3.21 μM, exhibited significant antiproliferative activity via apoptosis induction and G2/M arrest in MDA-MB-468 cells...
October 6, 2017: Organic Letters
He-Xin Tan, Ling Xiao, Zheng Zhou, Lei Zhang, Wan-Sheng Chen
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the best available treatment, particularly for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisinin, whose main source is Artemisia annua, has large demand and shortsupply every year.Artemisininis synthesized,stored, and secreted by the glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua(AaGSTs).In general, the population and morphology of AaGSTs are often positively correlated with artemisinin content.This review article introduces the molecular mechanism of biosynthesis and regulation of artemisininin A...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Tran Thi Hong Hanh, Le Thi Thuy Hang, Phan Thi Thanh Huong, Nguyen Quang Trung, Tran Van Cuong, Nguyen Van Thanh, Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Nguyen Hoai Nam, Chau Van Minh
Two new guaiane sesquiterpene lactones, vulgarolides A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from Artemisia vulgaris aerial parts using various chromatographic separations. The structure elucidation was performed by combination of spectroscopic experiments including 1D and 2D NMR, HR ESI MS, and CD. Their in vitro cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines were also evaluated using SRB method.
September 25, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Pu Shi, Xueqing Fu, Qian Shen, Meng Liu, Qifang Pan, Yueli Tang, Weimin Jiang, Zongyou Lv, Tingxiang Yan, Yanan Ma, Minghui Chen, Xiaolong Hao, Pin Liu, Ling Li, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
The glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs) on Artemisia annua leaves have the capacity to secrete and store artemisinin, a compound which is the most effective treatment for uncomplicated malaria. An effective strategy to improve artemisinin content is therefore to increase the density of GSTs in A. annua. However, the formation mechanism of GSTs remains poorly understood. To explore the mechanisms of GST initiation in A. annua, we screened myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factor genes from a GST transcriptome database and identified a MIXTA transcription factor, AaMIXTA1, which is expressed predominantly in the basal cells of GST in A...
September 20, 2017: New Phytologist
Abhay K Pandey, Pooja Singh
Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012-2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia...
September 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Beatriz Tamargo, Lianet Monzote, Abel Piñón, Laura Machín, Marley García, Ramón Scull, William N Setzer
Background: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites from Leishmania genus. Currently, there are no effective vaccines available and the available therapies are far from ideal. In particular, the development of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the infection caused by Leishmania amazonensis could be considered desirable. Different plant-derived products have demonstrated antileishmanial activity, including the essential oil (EO) from Artemisia absinthium L. (EO-Aa), Asteraceae. Methods: In the present study, the EO-Aa formulated in nanocochleates (EO-Aa-NC) was investigated in vitro against intracellular amastigotes of L...
June 9, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Lin Wang, Wei-Zhi Liu, Ling-Yan Pei, Yu-Shi Ke, Jian Cui, Shu-Chun Li
Garidisan, commonly used in Mongolia to treat ulcerative colitis (UC), contains wild poppy and Artemisia frigida Willd. Clinical evidence shows that Garidisan can effectively treat UC and that recurrence is low. Thus, we evaluated the effects of Garidisan on ulcer healing quality and the regulation of immune balance in rats with experimental UC. UC was induced by immunization with TNBS and Garidisan significantly reduced DAI, CMDI, and HS. H&E staining, SEM, and VG staining showed that Garidisan repaired damaged intestinal mucosa and significantly reduced expression of ICAM-1 and CD105 in regenerated tissues of UC rats...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
J Scott Lee, Jian-Jung Pan, Gurusankar Ramamoorthy, C Dale Poulter
The amino acid sequences of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase) and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) from Artemisia tridentata ssp. Spiciformis, minus their chloroplast targeting regions, are 71% identical and 90% similar. FPPase efficiently and selectively synthesizes the "regular" sesquiterpenoid farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) by coupling isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and then to geranyl diphosphate (GPP). In contrast, CPPase is an inefficient promiscuous enzyme, which synthesizes the "irregular" monoterpenes chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), lavandulyl diphosphate (LPP), and trace quantities of maconelliyl diphosphate (MPP) from two molecules of DMAPP, and couples IPP to DMAPP to give GPP...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Zhaohui Liu, Junjie Zhang, Shitong Li, Jihong Jiang
Artesunate (AS), a semi-synthetic derivative of Artemisia, has been shown to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions. However, the protective functions of AS on renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIR)-stimulated lung inflammation remain unclear. In this research, acute lung injury (ALI) was stimulated by renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIR). AS (15 mg/kg) was intraperitoneal administrated to rat 1 h before RIR stimulation. Serum and pulmonary NO, MDA, IL-6, MIP-2, and PGE2 levels, arterial blood gas and biochemistry, lung wet/dry weight ratio and MPO activity, total cell number and protein concentration in BALF, tissue histology, and NF-κB expression were determined...
September 18, 2017: Inflammation
Meshari Alabdullatif, Imen Boujezza, Mohamed Mekni, Mariam Taha, Dilini Kumaran, Qi-Long Yi, Ahmed Landoulsi, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
BACKGROUND: Effective donor skin disinfection is essential in preventing bacterial contamination of blood components with skin flora bacteria like Staphylococcus epidermidis. Cell aggregates of S. epidermidis (biofilms) are found on the skin and are resistant to the commonly used donor skin disinfectants chlorhexidine-gluconate and isopropyl alcohol. It has been demonstrated that essential oils synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate. The objective of this study was to test plant-extracted essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol for their ability to eliminate S...
September 14, 2017: Transfusion
Nicola Portinaro, Marco Turati, Matteo Cometto, Marco Bigoni, Jon R Davids, Artemisia Panou
BACKGROUND: Progressive hip displacement is one of the most common and debilitating deformities seen in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of temporary medial hemiepiphysiodesis of the proximal femur (TMH-PF) using a transphyseal screw to control hip migration during growth in children with CP. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of children with CP and hip dysplasia, age 4 to 11 years and GMFCS levels III-V...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Caili Sun, Zongzheng Chai, Guobin Liu, Sha Xue
Analyzing the dynamic patterns of species diversity and spatial heterogeneity of vegetation in grasslands during secondary succession could help with the maintenance and management of these ecosystems. Here, we evaluated the influence of secondary succession on grassland plant diversity and spatial heterogeneity of abandoned croplands on the Loess Plateau (China) during four phases of recovery: 1-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 years. The species composition and dominance of the grassland vegetation changed markedly during secondary succession and formed a clear successional series, with the species assemblage dominated by Artemisia capillaris→ Heteropappus altaicus→ A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Katherine M Renwick, Caroline Curtis, Andrew R Kleinhesselink, Daniel Schlaepfer, Bethany A Bradley, Cameron L Aldridge, Benjamin Poulter, Peter B Adler
A number of modeling approaches have been developed to predict the impacts of climate change on species distributions, performance, and abundance. The stronger the agreement from models that represent different processes and are based on distinct and independent sources of information, the greater the confidence we can have in their predictions. Evaluating the level of confidence is particularly important when predictions are used to guide conservation or restoration decisions. We used a multi-model approach to predict climate change impacts on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the dominant plant species on roughly 43 million hectares in the western United States and a key resource for many endemic wildlife species...
September 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
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