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Karan Malhotra, Mayavan Subramaniyan, Khushboo Rawat, Md Kalamuddin, M Irfan Qureshi, Pawan Malhotra, Asif Mohmmed, Katrina Cornish, Henry Daniell, Shashi Kumar
Artemisinin is highly effective against drug-resistant malarial parasites, which affects nearly half of the global population and kills >500 000 people each year. The primary cost of artemisinin is the very expensive process used to extract and purify the drug from Artemisia annua. Elimination of this apparently unnecessary step will make this potent antimalarial drug affordable to the global population living in endemic regions. Here we reported the oral delivery of a non-protein drug artemisinin biosynthesized (∼0...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Plant
Smain Chemat, Abdallah Aissa, Abdenour Boumechhour, Omar Arous, Hamid Ait-Amar
This study proposes an ultrasound-horn system for the extraction of a natural active compound "artemisinin" from Artemisia annua L. leaves as an alternative to hot maceration technique. Ultrasound leaching improves artemisinin recovery at all temperatures where only ten minutes is required to recover 70% (4.42mgg(-1)) compared to 60min of conventional hot leaching for the same yield. For instance, ultrasound treatment at 30°C produced a higher yield than the one obtained by conventional maceration at 40°C...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani, Leila Zarei, Hadi Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh, Bahman Mansori Motlagh
OBJECTIVE: Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon), may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Vladica Čudić, Dragoslava Stojiljković, Aleksandar Jovović
Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants to cleanup contaminated environments, including metal-polluted soils. Because it produces a biomass rich in extracted toxic metals, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. The aim of our study was to assess the five-year potential of the following native wild plants to produce biomass and remove heavy metals from a polluted site: poplar (Populus ssp.), ailanthus (Ailanthus glandulosa L.), false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), ragweed (Artemisia artemisiifolia L...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Bryce A Richardson, Lindsay Chaney, Nancy L Shaw, Shannon M Still
Rising temperatures have begun to shift flowering time, but it is unclear whether phenotypic plasticity can accommodate projected temperature change for this century. Evaluating clines in phenological traits and the extent and variation in plasticity can provide key information on assessing risk of maladaptation and developing strategies to mitigate climate change. In this study, flower phenology was examined in 52 populations of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) growing in three common gardens. Flowering date (anthesis) varied 91 days from late July to late November among gardens...
October 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
Julian P T Higgins, Karla Soares-Weiser, José A López-López, Artemisia Kakourou, Katherine Chaplin, Hannah Christensen, Natasha K Martin, Jonathan A C Sterne, Arthur L Reingold
OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. DESIGN:  Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Guizhen Li, Wha Seung Ahn, Kyung Ho Row
Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride and ionic liquids based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers with the monomer γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-methacrylic and three templates (rutin, scoparone, and quercetin). The materials were adopted as solid-phase extraction packing agents, and were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers modified by deep eutectic solvents had high recoveries and a strong recognition of rutin, scoparone, and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae than those modified by ionic liquids...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Seon Min Woo, Taeg Kyu Kwon
Jaceosidin is a flavonoid isolated from Artemisia vestita that has been reported to possess anti-tumor and anti-proliferative activities in many cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of jaceosodin in renal carcinoma cells. Jaceosidin induced apoptosis in multiple human renal carcinoma cells (Caki, ACHN, A498, and 786-O), lung cancer cells (A549) and glioma cells (U251MG). In contrast, jaceosidin does not induce apoptosis in normal human umbilical vein cells (EA.hy926). Apoptotic cell death was associated with the activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase...
October 8, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Zhibin Wu, Fei Ling, Chenguang Song, Weichao Chen, Gaoxue Wang
Since the use of malachite green was banned, it is desirable to search for alternative drug to control Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection. Moreover, route of administration which is easy to implement and less stressful to fish is important to treat infection of fish with this parasite. It is also important to enhance protective effect against Aeromonas hydrophila infection after parasitism by I. multifiliis. The present study evaluated the protective effect of diet supplemented with Artemisia annua against I...
October 10, 2016: Parasitology Research
Danuta Stępalska, Dorota Myszkowska, Leśkiewicz Katarzyna, Piotrowicz Katarzyna, Borycka Katarzyna, Chłopek Kazimiera, Grewling Łukasz, Kasprzyk Idalia, Majkowska-Wojciechowska Barbara, Malkiewicz Małgorzata, Nowak Małgorzata, Piotrowska-Weryszko Krystyna, Puc Małgorzata, Weryszko-Chmielewska Elżbieta
The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Cristina Rostkowska, Caroline M Mota, Taísa C Oliveira, Fernanda M Santiago, Lilian A Oliveira, Gaspar H Korndörfer, Regina M Q Lana, Monica L Rossi, Neusa L Nogueira, Xavier Simonnet, Tiago W P Mineo, Deise A O Silva, José R Mineo
Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
H Liu, G G Wu, J B Wang, X Wu, L Bai, W Jiang, B B Lv, A H Pan, J W Jia, P Li, K Zhao, L X Jiang, X M Tang
The anti-malarial drug, artemisinin, is quite expensive as a result of its slow content in Artemisia annua. Recent investigations have suggested that genetic engineering of A. annua is a promising approach to improve the yield of artemisinin. In this study, the transgenic A. annua strain GYR, which has high artemisinin content, was evaluated in an environmental release trial. First, GYR plants were compared with the wild-type variety NON-GYR, with regard to phenotypic characters (plant height, crown width, stem diameter, germination rate, leaf dry weight, 1000-seed weight, leave shape)...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Wei-Feng Zhong, Xiao-Hong Wang, Bin Pan, Feng Li, Lu Kuang, Ze-Xuan Su
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have significant roles in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of tumor cells. Eupatilin, one of the major compounds present in Artemisia species, has been demonstrated to have antitumor properties. However, the effect of eupatilin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the biological effects and mechanisms of eupatilin in RCC cell apoptosis...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Ming Song, Jingjian Li, Chao Xiong, Hexia Liu, Junsong Liang
Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Edward A Ratovitski
Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a natural sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia douglassiana Besser (Argentine) and Gynoxys verrucosa (Ecuador) was shown to induce a cell death in cancer cells through senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Here, we found that the DhL exposure upregulated the total and phosphorylated (p-Y99) levels of TP73 in human glioblastoma U87-MG cells. We further found that TP73 silencing led to a partial rescue of U87-MG cells from the cell death induced by DhL. Upon the DhL exposure numerous gene targets were upregulated and downregulated through a TP73-dependent transcriptional mechanism...
September 23, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Marcela Skuhravá, Bruno Massa, Giuliano Cerasa
A population of the gall midge Pumilomyia protrahenda De Stefani, 1919 causing galls on Artemisia arborescens (Asteraceae) was discovered near Palermo (Sicily) in 2008. This species had not been found since 1918. Detailed study of morphological characters of adults, larvae and pupae revealed that Pumilomyia protrahenda belongs to the genus Rhopalomyia Rübsaamen, 1892, tribe Rhopalomyiini. The monotypic genus Pumilomyia De Stefani, 1919 is therefore synonymized under Rhopalomyia Rübsaamen, 1892. Rhopalomyia protrahenda comb...
2016: ZooKeys
Tingxiang Yan, Minghui Chen, Qian Shen, Ling Li, Xueqing Fu, Qifang Pan, Yueli Tang, Pu Shi, Zongyou Lv, Weimin Jiang, Ya-Nan Ma, Xiaolong Hao, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
Glandular trichomes are generally considered biofactories that produce valuable chemicals. Increasing glandular trichome density is a very suitable way to improve the productivity of these valuable metabolites, but little is known about the regulation of glandular trichome formation. Phytohormone jasmonate (JA) promotes glandular trichome initiation in various plants, but its mechanism is also unknown. By searching transcription factors regulated by JA in Artemisia annua, we identified a novel homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 1 (AaHD1), which positively controls both glandular and nonglandular trichome initiations...
September 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Rosine D K Chougouo, Yves M M Nguekeu, Jean P Dzoyem, Maurice D Awouafack, Jonas Kouamouo, Pierre Tane, Lyndy J McGaw, Jacobus N Eloff
BACKGROUND: Natural products, including those derived from higher plants have, over the years, contributed greatly to the development of modern therapeutic drugs. Due to the medicinal importance in traditional practice and the diversified biology and chemistry of the constituents from Artemisia spp., the genus has been receiving growing attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the ethanol extract, four fractions (F1-F4) and five compounds namely artemisinin (1), scopoletin (2), chrysosplenetin (3), eupatin (4) and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (5) isolated from A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Chanyong Yun, Youngchul Jung, Wonjoo Chun, Beodeul Yang, Junghyun Ryu, Chiyeon Lim, Jung-Hoon Kim, Hyungwoo Kim, Su-In Cho
The leaves of Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. and A. princeps Pamp. are well known medicinal herbs used to treat patients in China, Japan, and Korea with skin problems such as eczema and itching, as well as abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia leaf extract (ALE) using CD mice and Raw 264.7 cells. The effects of ALE on histopathological changes and cytokine production in ear tissues were assessed in mice with CD induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB)...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Zohra Ghlissi, Nadhim Sayari, Rim Kallel, Ali Bougatef, Zouheir Sahnoun
This study investigated some biological properties of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well its global chemical compositions. Twenty four rats were excised on the posterior neck skin area and divided into 4 groups, treated respectively with: sterile saline, glycerol, CICAFLORA and ACAE. The wound closure rate, histopathology evolution and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in skin tissue were evaluated. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema...
September 16, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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