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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935026/genetically-based-latitudinal-clines-in-artemisia-californica-drive-parallel-clines-in-arthropod-communities
#1
Jessica D Pratt, Andrew Datu, Thi Tran, Daniel C Sheng, Kailen A Mooney
Intraspecific variation in plant traits has been clearly shown to drive the structure of associated arthropod communities at the spatial scale of individual plant populations. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown whether plant trait variation among populations drives landscape-scale variation in arthropod communities, and how the strength of such plant genetic effects compares to, and interacts with, those of environmental variation. We documented the structure of arthropod communities on Artemisia californica for two consecutive years in a common garden of plants sourced from five populations along a 5° latitudinal gradient and grown under precipitation treatments approximating the four-fold difference between the north and south range margins for this species...
October 11, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930977/eupatilin-prevents-h2o2-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#2
Lei Du, Jia Chen, Yi-Qiao Xing
Eupatilin, a pharmacologically active flavone derived from the Artemisia plant species, is known to possess anti-oxidant activity. However, the effects of eupatilin on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and the potential mechanisms involved have not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eupatilin on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage in RPE cells. Our results showed that eupatilin significantly attenuated H2O2-induced cell injury and ROS production in ARPE-19 cells...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930305/artemisia-annua-mutant-impaired-in-artemisinin-synthesis-demonstrates-importance-of-nonenzymatic-conversion-in-terpenoid-metabolism
#3
Tomasz Czechowski, Tony R Larson, Theresa M Catania, David Harvey, Geoffrey D Brown, Ian A Graham
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone produced by Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes, is the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria currently available. We identified a mutation that disrupts the amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase (CYP71AV1) enzyme, responsible for a series of oxidation reactions in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Detailed metabolic studies of cyp71av1-1 revealed that the consequence of blocking the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway is the redirection of sesquiterpene metabolism to a sesquiterpene epoxide, which we designate arteannuin X...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929444/using-light-microscopy-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-control-of-a-combined-three-herb-formulation-in-different-preparations
#4
Tun-Pin Hsueh, Wan-Ling Lin, Tung-Hu Tsai
Artemisia capillaries Thunb, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, and Rheum officinale Baill have been combined to treat jaundice for thousands of years. Studies have revealed that these herbs induce anti-hepatic fibrosis and anti-hepatic apoptosis and alleviate hepatic oxidative stress. This study aims to determine the quality and quantity of an herbal formulation (Chinese name: Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang) using physical and chemical examinations. Physical examination of Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang in pharmaceutical herbal products, raw fiber powders, and decoction preparations was performed using Congo red and iodine-potassium staining...
December 6, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928651/effects-of-different-doses-of-cadmium-on-secondary-metabolites-and-gene-expression-in-artemisia-annua-l
#5
Liangyun Zhou, Guang Yang, Haifeng Sun, Jinfu Tang, Jian Yang, Yizhan Wang, Thomas Avery Garran, Lanping Guo
This study aims to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of artemisinin accumulation induced by Cd. The effects of different Cd concentrations (0, 20, 60, and 120 μmol/L) on the biosynthesis of Artemisia annua L. were examined. Intermediate and end products were quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The expression of key biosynthesis enzymes was also determined by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the application of treatment with 60 and 120 μmol/L Cd for 3 days significantly improved the biosynthesis of artemisinic acid, arteannuin B, and artemisinin...
December 8, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928139/bioactivities-and-chemical-constituents-of-essential-oil-extracted-from-artemisia-anethoides-against-two-stored-product-insects
#6
Jun-Yu Liang, Wen-Ting Wang, Yan-Fei Zheng, Di Zhang, Jun-Long Wang, Shan-Shan Guo, Wen-Juan Zhang, Shu-Shan Du, Ji Zhang
The chemical constituents of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia anethoides and the bioactivities of essential oil against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne were investigated. The main components of the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (36.54%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one (10.40%), terpinen-4-ol (8.58%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.20) and pinocarveol (5.08%). The essential oil of A. anethoides possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 28.80 μg/adult and LC50 = 13...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924132/efficient-in-vitro-propagation-of-artemisia-nilagirica-var-nilagirica-indian-wormwood-and-assessment-of-genetic-fidelity-of-micropropagated-plants
#7
Smita Shinde, Joseph Kadanthottu Sebastian, Jyothi Ramesh Jain, Manohar Shirugumbi Hanamanthagouda, Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy
A reliable protocol has been established for in vitro propagation of Artemisia nilagirica var. nilagirica (Indian wormwood), a valuable medicinal plant from India. A highly proliferating organogenic callus was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.5 µM IAA when nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various growth regulators. Further, highest regeneration frequency (83.3 %) of adventitious shoots was observed, when the callus was sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 2...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917660/phytochemical-investigations-on-artemisia-alba-turra-growing-in-the-north-east-of-italy
#8
Gregorio Peron, Valeria Baldan, Stefania Sut, Marta Faggian, Lorenzo Roccabruna, Daniele Zanini, Paolo Manzini, Filippo Maggi, Stefano Dall'Acqua
Artemisia alba Turra (Asteraceae) is an Euro-Mediterranean plant used in Veneto (North-East of Italy) as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. A. alba is a taxonomically problematic species, characterised by common polymorphism leading to a quite high variability in secondary metabolites content. Nonetheless, the phytochemical knowledge on its phytoconstituents, especially non-volatile components, is limited. In the present paper, the phytochemical composition of a tincture obtained from the aerial parts of A...
December 5, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901471/esculetin-exerts-anti-proliferative-effects-against-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-by-suppressing-specificity-protein-1-in-vitro
#9
Ra H Lee, Young-Joo Jeon, Jin H Cho, Jeong-Yun Jang, Il-Keun Kong, Seok-Ho Kim, MinSeok S Kim, Hak-Jae Chung, Keon B Oh, Seon-Min Park, Jae-Cheon Shin, Jae-Min Seo, Sungho Ko, Jung-Hyun Shim, Jung-Il Chae
Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, is a phenolic compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, and Euphorbia lathyris. Although it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative activities in several human cancers, its anti-proliferative activity against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. In this study, we used two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H358 and NCI-H1299) to investigate the anti-proliferative activity and apoptotic effect of esculetin...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890587/multiple-mechanisms-of-heavy-metal-tolerance-are-differentially-expressed-in-ecotypes-of-artemisia-fragrans
#10
Esmira Alirzayeva, Gunter Neumann, Walter Horst, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Andre Specht, Valida Alizade
Artemisia fragrans is a plant species with ability of growing on heavy metal-polluted soils. Ecotypes of this species naturally growing in polluted areas can accumulate and tolerate different amounts of heavy metals (HM), depending on soil contamination level at their origin. Heavy metal tolerance of various ecotypes collected from contaminated (AP, SP) and non-contaminated (BG) sites was compared by cultivation on a highly HM-contaminated river sediment and a non-contaminated agricultural control soil. Tissue-specific HM distribution was analyzed by laser ablation-inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and photosynthetic activity by non-invasive monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884407/-activity-of-artemisia-annua-infusions-on-epimastigotes-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#11
Mariolga Berrizbeitia de Morgado, Yusmaris Cariaco Sifontes, José Imery Buiza, Pierre Lutgen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879146/chemical-composition-and-antifungal-activity-of-essential-oils-from-medicinal-plants-of-kazakhstan
#12
Diego A Sampietro, Analía de Los A Gomez, Cristina M Jimenez, Emilio F Lizarraga, Zharkyn A Ibatayev, Yerlan M Suleimen, Cesar A Catalán
The composition of essential oils from leaves of Kazakhstan medicinal plants was analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were 1,8-cineole (34.2%), myrcene (19.1%) and α-pinene (9.4%) in Ajania fruticulosa; 1,8-cineole (21.0%), β-thujone (11.0%), camphor (8.5%), borneol (7.3%) and α-thujone (6.5%), in Achillea nobilis; camphor (47.3%), 1,8-cineole (23.9%), camphene (9.8%) and β-thujone (6.0%) in Artemisia terrae-albae; 1,8-cineole(55.8%) and β-pinene (6.2%) in Hyssopus ambiguus; α-thuyene(46...
November 23, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876985/in-vitro-anti-leishmanial-activity-of-satureja-hortensis-and-artemisia-dracunculus-extracts-on-leishmania-major-promastigotes
#13
Farzaneh Mirzaei, Ali Fattahi Bafghi, Mohammad Ali Mohaghegh, Hossein Zarei Jaliani, Roghiyeh Faridnia, Hamed Kalani
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the important skin diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. With an incidence of 0.7-1.3 million cases annually, this disease is often reported from six countries, including Iran. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-leishmanial effect of the three plant hydroalcoholic extracts including fleawort (Plantago psyllium L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) on Leishmania major promastigotes. The hydroalcoholic extract from each plant was extracted and its anti-leishmanial effect was evaluated in different concentrations (100-1000 µg/ml) and at various hours (24, 48 and 72 h)...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869223/insight-into-the-metabolic-mechanism-of-scoparone-on-biomarkers-for-inhibiting-yanghuang-syndrome
#14
Heng Fang, Aihua Zhang, Jingbo Yu, Liang Wang, Chang Liu, Xiaohang Zhou, Hui Sun, Qi Song, Xijun Wang
Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) is the representative ingredient of Yinchenhao (Artemisia capillaris Thunb.) which is a famous Chinese medicinal herb and shows favorable efficacy for all kinds of liver disease, specifically for the treatment of Yanghuang syndrome (YHS). The precise molecular mechanism concerning the action of scoparone on YHS is yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of scoparone and evaluate its efficacy on metabolite levels. The differential expression of metabolites responsible for the pharmacological effects of scoparone was characterized and the protection effect of scoparone against this disease...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867026/artemisinin-and-its-derivatives-in-treating-protozoan-infections-beyond-malaria
#15
REVIEW
Cecilia Shi Ni Loo, Nelson Siu Kei Lam, Deying Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
Many parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. Currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. However, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, ART and its derivatives also possess activities against other parasitic protozoa...
November 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857535/effect-of-gaeddongssuk-artemisia-annua-l-powder-on-quality-and-shelf-stability-of-emulsion-sausages-during-refrigerated-storage
#16
Hyoung-Joo Ham, Geun-Ho Kang, Yun-Sang Choi, Tae-Jun Jeong, Ko-Eun Hwang, Cheon-Jei Kim
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of Gaeddongssuk powder (GP) on quality characteristics and shelf stability of emulsion sausages during storage. Proximate composition properties showed no significant differences in all treatment (p>0.05). Control showed the highest cooking loss while the treatment with GP showed decreased cooking loss depending on increasing GP content (p<0.05). Apparent viscosity of batter was increased as the amount of GP increased, whereas hardness of emulsion sausages was decreased with increasing GP level...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852127/artemisia-capillaris-alleviates-bone-loss-by-stimulating-osteoblast-mineralization-and-suppressing-osteoclast-differentiation-and-bone-resorption
#17
Chung-Jo Lee, Ki-Shuk Shim, Jin Yeul Ma
Artemisia capillaris has been used to treat jaundice and relieve high liver-heat in traditional medicine. In this study, we found that the administration of a water extract from A. capillaris (WEAC) to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced bone loss model significantly prevents osteoporotic bone loss, increasing bone volume/trabecular volume by 22% and trabecular number by 24%, and decreasing trabecular separation by 29%. WEAC stimulated in vitro osteoblast mineralization from primary osteoblasts in association with increasing expression of osterix, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, and activator protein-1, as well as phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852124/metabolic-profiling-of-liver-tissue-in-diabetic-mice-treated-with-artemisia-capillaris-and-alisma-rhizome-using-lc-ms-and-ce-ms
#18
Yumi Kim, In-Seung Lee, Kang-Hoon Kim, Jiyoung Park, Ji-Hyun Lee, Eunjung Bang, Hyeung-Jin Jang, Yun-Cheol Na
Artemisia Capillaris (AC) and Alisma Rhizome (AR) are natural products for the treatment of liver disorders in oriental medicine clinics. Here, we report metabolomic changes in the evaluation of the treatment effects of AC and AR on fatty livers in diabetic mice, along with a proposition of the underlying metabolic pathway. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic metabolites extracted from mouse livers were analyzed using HPLC-QTOF and CE-QTOF, respectively, to generate metabolic profiles. Statistical analysis of the metabolites by PLS-DA and OPLA-DA fairly discriminated between the diabetic, and the AC- and AR-treated mice groups...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813878/antimalarial-drugs-as-immune-modulators-new-mechanisms-for-old-drugs
#19
Jie An, Mark Minie, Tomikazu Sasaki, Joshua J Woodward, Keith B Elkon
The best known of the naturally occurring antimalarial compounds are quinine, extracted from cinchona bark, and artemisinin (qinghao), extracted from Artemisia annua in China. These and other derivatives are now chemically synthesized and remain the mainstay of therapy to treat malaria. The beneficial effects of several of the antimalarial drugs (AMDs) on clinical features of autoimmune disorders were discovered by chance during WorldWar II. In this review, we discuss the chemistry of AMDs and their mechanisms of action, emphasizing how they may impact multiple pathways of innate immunity...
October 21, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810398/highly-oxidized-sesquiterpenes-from-artemisia-austro-yunnanensis
#20
Jun Chi, Bao-Cai Li, Wei-Feng Dai, Lan Liu, Mi Zhang
Eight new sesquiterpenes, including four guaianolides (1-4), one guaian sesquiterpene (5), one norguaianolide (6), one 1, 10-secoguaianolides (7), and one eudesmane sesquiterpene (8), along with fourteen known sesquiterpenes (9-22) were isolated from the whole plants of Artemisia austro-yunnanensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic date and HRESIMS analysis. All isolated sesquiterpenes (1-22) were evaluated their activities by the assay of LPS-induced NO production on RAW264.7, of which compounds 2-4, 9, 10 and 17 produced significant inhibition of NO production with IC50 values ranging from 2...
November 1, 2016: Fitoterapia
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