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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159425/novel-biosynthetic-pathway-for-sulfur-amino-acids-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#1
Akio Toh-E, Misako Ohkusu, Kiminori Shimizu, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
We elucidated a unique feature of sulfur metabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans. C. neoformans produces cysteine solely by the O-acetylserine pathway that consists of serine-O-acetyl transferase and cysteine synthase. We designated the gene encoding the former enzyme CYS2 (locus tag CNE02740) and the latter enzyme CYS1 (locus tag CNL05880). The cys1Δmutant strain was found to be avirulent in a murine infection model. Methionine practically does not support growth of the cys1Δ strain, and cysteine does not serve as a methionine source, indicating that the transsulfuration pathway does not contribute to sulfur amino acid synthesis in C...
November 20, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156979/determination-of-lignans-phenolic-acids-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-transformed-hairy-root-culture-of-linum-usitatissimum
#2
Ahmed M M Gabr, Hoda B Mabrok, Emam A Abdel-Rahim, Mohamed K El-Bahr, Iryna Smetanska
Hairy root culture is a promising alternative method for the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, transformed root of Linum usitatissimum was established using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 strain from root cultures for lignans, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity determination. Total lignin content (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol) was 55.5% higher in transformed root cultures than in the non-transformed root culture. Secoisolariciresinol was detected in higher concentration (2...
November 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155068/a-noncanonical-poly-a-rna-polymerase-gene-affects-morphology-in-phoma-medicaginis
#3
Kihyuck Choi, Stephen M Marek
Phoma medicaginis (syn. Ascochyta medicaginicola Qchen &L. Cai) causes spring black stem and leaf spot, an important disease of alfalfa and annual medics. P. medicaginis forms uninucleate conidia in melanized pycnidia and is genetically tractable using Agrobacterium mediated transformation (ATMT), resulting in random integration of T-DNA that occasionally generates pycnidial mutants. The T-DNA tagged mutant, P265 displayed smaller pycnidia and more aerial hyphae than the wild type. A single T-DNA disrupted a putative noncanonical poly(A) RNA polymerase gene, Pmncpap1, which in yeast interacts with ribonucleotide reductase (RNR)...
November 15, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151159/enhanced-catalytic-efficiency-and-enantioselectivity-of-epoxide-hydrolase-from-agrobacterium-radiobacter-ad1-by-iterative-saturation-mutagenesis-for-r-epichlorohydrin-synthesis
#4
Shu-Ping Zou, Yu-Guo Zheng, Qun Wu, Zhi-Cai Wang, Ya-Ping Xue, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Enantioselective hydrolysis of epoxides by epoxide hydrolase (EH) is one of the most attractive approaches for the synthesis of chiral epoxides. So far, attempts to develop an efficient epoxide hydrolase -mediated biotransformation have been limited by either the low activity or insufficient enantioselectivity of epoxide hydrolase. In this study, iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) of epoxide hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (ArEH) was performed for efficient production of (R)-epichlorohydrin...
November 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146852/draft-genome-sequence-of-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-biovar-1-strain-186-isolated-from-walnut
#5
Amisha T Poret-Peterson, Srijak Bhatnagar, Ali E McClean, Daniel A Kluepfel
Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 strain 186 was isolated from a walnut tree expressing crown gall symptoms. The draft genome sequence of this strain harbored genes for crown gall formation and will be useful for understanding its virulence on Paradox, the predominant hybrid rootstock used for the cultivation of English walnut in California.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144203/suppression-or-activation-of-immune-responses-by-predicted-secreted-proteins-of-the-soybean-rust-pathogen-phakopsora-pachyrhizi
#6
Mingsheng Qi, James P Grayczyk, Janina M Seitz, Youngsill Lee, Tobias I Link, Doil Choi, Kerry F Pedley, Ralf T Voegele, Thomas J Baum, Steven A Whitham
Rust fungi, such as the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, are major threats to crop production. They form specialized haustoria that are hyphal structures intimately associated with host-plant cell membranes. These haustoria have roles in acquiring nutrients and secreting effector proteins that manipulate host immune systems. Functional characterization of effector proteins of rust fungi is important for understanding mechanisms that underlie their virulence and pathogenicity. Hundreds of candidate effector proteins have been predicted for rust pathogens, but it is not clear how to prioritize these effector candidates for further characterization...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143825/corrigendum-transcriptome-analysis-of-maize-immature-embryos-reveals-the-roles-of-cysteine-in-improving-agrobacterium-infection-efficiency
#7
Yan Liu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Junjie Fu, Guoying Wang, Jianhua Wang, Yunjun Liu
[This corrects the article on p. 1778 in vol. 8, PMID: 29089955.].
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138309/loss-of-popz-at-activity-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-by-deletion-or-depletion-leads-to-multiple-growth-poles-minicells-and-growth-defects
#8
Romain Grangeon, John Zupan, Yeonji Jeon, Patricia C Zambryski
Agrobacterium tumefaciens grows by addition of peptidoglycan (PG) at one pole of the bacterium. During the cell cycle, the cell needs to maintain two different developmental programs, one at the growth pole and another at the inert old pole. Proteins involved in this process are not yet well characterized. To further characterize the role of pole-organizing protein A. tumefaciens PopZ (PopZ At ), we created deletions of the five PopZ At domains and assayed their localization. In addition, we created a popZAt deletion strain (ΔpopZAt ) that exhibited growth and cell division defects with ectopic growth poles and minicells, but the strain is unstable...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133376/distinct-functions-of-starch-synthase-4-domains-in-starch-granule-formation
#9
Kuan-Jen Lu, Barbara Pfister, Camilla Jenny, Simona Eicke, Samuel C Zeeman
The formation of normal starch granules in Arabidopsis leaf chloroplasts requires STARCH SYNTHASE 4 (SS4). In plants lacking SS4, chloroplasts typically produce only one round granule rather than multiple lenticular granules. The mechanisms by which SS4 determines granule number and morphology are not understood. The N-terminal region of SS4 is unique among SS isoforms and contains several long coiled-coil motifs, typically implicated in protein-protein interactions. The C-terminal region contains the catalytic glucosyltransferase domains, which are widely conserved in plant SS and bacterial glycogen synthase (GS) isoforms...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130160/use-of-whole-cell-bioassays-for-screening-quorum-signaling-quorum-interference-and-biofilm-dispersion
#10
Starla G Thornhill, Robert J C McLean
In most bacteria, a global level of regulation, termed quorum sensing (QS), exists involving intercellular communication via the production and response to cell density-dependent signal molecules. QS has been associated with a number of important features in bacteria including virulence regulation and biofilm formation. Consequently, there is considerable interest in understanding, detecting, and inhibiting QS. N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) are used as extracellular QS signals by a variety of Gram-negative bacteria...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126952/antibacterial-activities-of-the-phytochemicals-characterized-extracts-of-callistemon-viminalis-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-and-conyza-dioscoridis-against-the-growth-of-some-phytopathogenic-bacteria
#11
Mervat El-Hefny, Nader A Ashmawy, Mohamed Z M Salem, Abdelfattah Z M Salem
Three bacterial isolates were isolated from infected potato tubers showing soft and brown rots like symptoms as well as one isolate from infected peach tree showing crown gall symptom. The morphological, biochemical and molecular assays proved that bacterial isolates belonging to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, Dickeya spp. and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The acetone (AcE) and n-butanol (ButE) extracts of Callistemon viminalis flowers and essential oil from aerial parts of Conyza dioscoridis as well as ButE of Eucalyptus camaldulensis bark are evaluated at different concentrations against the growth of the isolated bacteria...
November 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115539/two%C3%A2-component-histidine-kinase-drk1-is-required-for-pathogenesis-in-sporothrix%C3%A2-schenckii
#12
Zhenying Zhang, Binbin Hou, Yong Zhuo Wu, Ying Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Shixin Han
Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus with a global distribution. It grows in a multicellular hyphal form at 25˚C and a unicellular yeast form at 37˚C. The morphological switch from mold to yeast form is obligatory for establishing pathogenicity in S. schenckii. Two‑component signaling systems are utilized by eukaryotes to sense and respond to external environmental changes. DRK1is a hybrid histidine kinase, which functions as a global regulator of dimorphism and virulence in Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112135/rapid-construction-of-complex-plant-rna-virus-infectious-cdna-clones-for-agroinfection-using-a-yeast-e-coli-agrobacterium-shuttle-vector
#13
Kai Sun, Danyang Zhao, Yong Liu, Changjun Huang, Wei Zhang, Zhenghe Li
The availability of infectious full-length clone is indispensable for reverse genetics studies of virus biology, pathology and construction of viral vectors. However, for RNA viruses with large genome sizes or those exhibiting inherent cloning difficulties, procedure to generate biologically active circular DNA (cDNA) clones can be time-consuming or technically challenging. Here we have constructed a yeast-Escherichia coli-Agrobacterium shuttle vector that enables highly efficient homologous recombination in yeast for assembly of Agrobacterium compatible plant virus clones...
November 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108629/spontaneous-pepsin-c-catalyzed-activation-of-human-pepsinogen-c-in-transgenic-rice-cell-suspension-culture-production-and-characterization-of-human-pepsin-c
#14
Md Reyazul Islam, Nan-Sun Kim, Jae-Wan Jung, Hyo-Boon Kim, So-Chon Han, Moon-Sik Yang
A human pepsinogen C (hPGC) gene was synthesized with rice-optimized codon usage and cloned into a rice expression vector containing the promoter, signal peptide, and terminator derived from the rice α-amylase 3D (Ramy3D) gene. In addition, a 6-His tag was added to the 3' end of the synthetic hPGC gene for easy purification. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice calli (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The integration of the hPGC gene into the chromosome of the transgenic rice callus and hPGC expression in transgenic rice cell suspensions was verified via genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification and Northern blot analysis...
January 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108115/monstr-seq-a-restriction-site-associated-dna-sequencing-technique-to-characterize-agrobacterium-mediated-transfer-dna-insertions-in-phomopsis-longicolla
#15
Marcio Zaccaron, Sandeep Sharma, Burton H Bluhm
Phomopsis longicolla (Hobbs) causes Phomopsis seed decay and stem lesions in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, a novel, high-throughput adaptation of RAD-seq termed MoNSTR-seq (Mutation analysis via Next-generation DNA Sequencing of T-DNA Regions) was developed to determine the genomic location of T-DNA insertions in P. longicolla mutants. Insertional mutants were created via ATMT, and one mutant, strain PL343, was further investigated due to impaired stem lesion formation. MoNSTR-seq, in which DNA libraries are created with two distinct restriction enzymes and customized adapters to simultaneously enrich both T-DNA insertion borders, was developed to characterize the genomic lesion in strain PL343...
November 6, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105274/ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-of-a-model-facultative-pathogen-agrobacterium-and-crown-gall-disease-of-plants
#16
Ian S Barton, Clay Fuqua, Thomas G Platt
Many important pathogens maintain significant populations in highly disparate disease and non-disease environments. The consequences of this environmental heterogeneity in shaping the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these facultative pathogens are incompletely understood. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causative agent for crown gall disease of plants has proven a productive model for many aspects of interactions between pathogens and their hosts and with other microbes. In this review, we highlight how this past work provides valuable context for the use of this system to examine how heterogeneity and transitions between disease and non-disease environments influence the ecology and evolution of facultative pathogens...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096175/regulation-of-chlorogenic-acid-biosynthesis-by-hydroxycinnamoyl-coa-quinate-hydroxycinnamoyl-transferase-in-lonicera-japonica
#17
Jingru Zhang, Minlin Wu, Weidong Li, Genben Bai
For many centuries, Lonicera japonica has been used as an effective herb for the treatment of inflammation and swelling because of the presence of bioactive components such as chlorogenic acid (CGA). To clarify the relationship between L. japonica hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) gene expression and CGA content, an HQT eukaryotic expression system was constructed using Gateway cloning. L. japonica callus transformed with HQT was obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation...
October 21, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096146/identification-of-d-carbamoylase-for-biocatalytic-cascade-synthesis-of-d-tryptophan-featuring-high-enantioselectivity
#18
Yafei Liu, Guochao Xu, Ruizhi Han, Jinjun Dong, Ye Ni
In this study, an enantioselective d-carbamoylase (AcHyuC) was identified from Arthrobacter crystallopoietes with optimum pH of 8.5, much more compatible with hydantoinase process than other reported d-N-carbamoylases. AcHyuC has a substrate preference for aromatic carbamoyl-compounds. The dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) cascade was developed by combining this AcHyuC with hydantoin racemase from Arthrobacter aurescens (AaHyuA) and d-hydantoinase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AtHyuH) for enantioselective resolution of l-indolylmethylhydantoin into d-Trp...
September 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093724/efficient-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-of-phytoene-desaturase-in-cassava
#19
John Odipio, Titus Alicai, Ivan Ingelbrecht, Dmitri A Nusinow, Rebecca Bart, Nigel J Taylor
CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful genome-editing tool for introducing genetic changes into crop species. In order to develop capacity for CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the tropical staple cassava (Manihot esculenta), the Phytoene desaturase (MePDS) gene was targeted in two cultivars using constructs carrying gRNAs targeting two sequences within MePDS exon 13. After Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 reagents into cassava cells, both constructs induced visible albino phenotypes within cotyledon-stage somatic embryos regenerating on selection medium and the plants regenerated therefrom...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093639/rapid-assessment-of-microbiota-changes-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-bacteria-derived-membrane-vesicles-in-urine
#20
Yunjin Lee, Jin-Young Park, Eun-Hwa Lee, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, SoHyun Lee, Pyung-Lim Han, Eui-Jung Kim
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have altered gut microbiota, which appears to regulate ASD symptoms via gut microbiota-brain interactions. Rapid assessment of gut microbiota profiles in ASD individuals in varying physiological contexts is important to understanding the role of the microbiota in regulating ASD symptoms. Microbiomes secrete extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) to communicate with host cells and secreted EVs are widely distributed throughout the body including the blood and urine...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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