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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034359/hiv-1-drug-susceptibility-to-potential-second-and-third-line-antiretroviral-regimens-among-cameroonian-patients-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-design
#1
Aubin J Nanfack, Desire Takou, Joseph Fokam, Romina Salpini, Maria M Santoro, Giulia Cappelli, Martin Baane, Suzie M Tetang, Josef Eberle, Lutz Gürtler, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Judith N Torimiro, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno, Alexis Ndjolo
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the growing number of long-term treated patients may favor multi-HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in resource-limited settings. Understanding the burden of HIVDR with ART-exposure may provide new insights for an effective long-term management of infected patients. METHODS: Sixty-six HIV-infected individuals (18 ART-naïve, 24 failing first-line, 24 failing second-line ART) living in Yaoundé-Cameroon were evaluated by sequencing protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT, n=62), envelope-V3 loop (V3, n=58) and integrase (IN, n=30) regions...
December 29, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008980/antiretroviral-treatment-with-efavirenz-disrupts-the-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-stroke-severity
#2
Luc Bertrand, Levi Dygert, Michal Toborek
The introduction of antiretroviral drugs (ARVd) changed the prognosis of HIV infection from a deadly disease to a chronic disease. However, even with undetectable viral loads, patients still develop a wide range of pathologies, including cerebrovascular complications and stroke. It is hypothesized that toxic side effects of ARVd may contribute to these effects. To address this notion, we evaluated the impact of several non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI; Efavirenz, Etravirine, Rilpivirine and Nevirapine) on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and their impact on severity of stroke...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008867/dolutegravir-plasma-concentrations-according-to-companion-antiretroviral-drug-unwanted-drug-interaction-or-desirable-boosting-effect
#3
Dario Cattaneo, Davide Minisci, Valeria Cozzi, Agostino Riva, Paola Meraviglia, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Galli, Cristina Gervasoni
BACKGROUND: Studies in healthy volunteers have shown that the recently approved HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir has limited drug-to-drug interaction profile. Here we carried out a pharmacokinetic survey in HIV-infected patients given dolutegravir as part of their antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Dolutegravir plasma trough concentrations were measured in 78 HIV infected patients given the drug in combination with a protease inhibitor, a non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or abacavir/lamivudine...
December 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999048/pre-existent-nrti-and-nnrti-resistance-impacts-on-maintenance-of-virological-suppression-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-who-switch-to-a-tenofovir-emtricitabine-rilpivirine-single-tablet-regimen
#4
D Armenia, D Di Carlo, A Calcagno, G Vendemiati, F Forbici, A Bertoli, G Berno, S Carta, F Continenza, V Fedele, R Bellagamba, S Cicalini, A Ammassari, R Libertone, M Zaccarelli, V Ghisetti, M Andreoni, F Ceccherini-Silberstein, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Antinori, C F Perno, M M Santoro
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the maintenance of virological suppression (VS) in antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-suppressed patients switching to a tenofovir/emtricitabine/rilpivirine (TDF/FTC/RPV) single-tablet regimen, by considering pre-existent resistance (pRes). METHODS: pRes was evaluated according to resistance on all previous plasma genotypic resistance tests. Probability and predictors of virological rebound (VR) were evaluated. RESULTS: Three hundred and nine patients were analysed; 5...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999010/pharmacokinetics-of-dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-in-combination-with-simeprevir-and-sofosbuvir-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfected-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#5
Marco Merli, Laura Galli, Letizia Marinaro, Alessandra Ariaudo, Emanuela Messina, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Antonella Castagna, Antonio D'Avolio, Adriano Lazzarin, Stefano Bonora, Hamid Hasson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the plasma trough concentrations (Ctrough) of dolutegravir and rilpivirine used in combination with simeprevir and sofosbuvir in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis. Virological efficacy and safety of both ART and anti-HCV therapy were assessed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis on ART with dolutegravir plus rilpivirine and treated with simeprevir plus sofosbuvir (±ribavirin) was conducted...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993846/nonnucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-reduce-hiv-1-virus-production-from-latently-infected-resting-cd4-t-cells-following-latency-reversal
#6
Jennifer M Zerbato, Gilda Tachedjian, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer
Therapeutic strategies that target the latent HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells of infected-individuals are always administered in the presence of combination antiretroviral therapy. Using a primary cell of HIV-1 latency, we evaluated whether different antiviral drug classes affected latency reversal (as assessed by extracellular virus production) by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies or by bryostatin 1. We found that the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors efavirenz and rilpivirine significantly decreased HIV-1 production by ≥ 1 log...
December 19, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941989/real-world-assessment-of-renal-and-bone-safety-among-patients-with-hiv-infection-exposed-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-containing-single-tablet-regimens
#7
Ella T Nkhoma, Lisa Rosenblatt, Joel Myers, Angelina Villasis-Keever, John Coumbis
OBJECTIVES: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-containing antiretroviral regimens have been associated with an increased incidence of renal and bone adverse outcomes. Here, we estimated the real-world incidence of renal and bone adverse outcomes among patients with HIV infection receiving different TDF-containing single-tablet regimens (STRs). METHODS: This cohort study used US health insurance data spanning the years 2008-2014. We identified HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years (all HIV patients) and those with ≥6 months of continuous enrollment prior to initiating efavirenz/emtricitabine/TDF (EFV/FTC/TDF), rilpivirine/FTC/TDF (RPV/FTC/TDF) or elvitegravir/cobicistat/FTC/TDF (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869478/etravirine-and-rilpivirine-drug-resistance-among-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-children-failing-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-based-regimens-in-south-india
#8
Shanmugam Saravanan, Bagavathi Kausalya, Selvamurthi Gomathi, Sathasivam Sivamalar, Balakrishnan Pachamuthu, Poongulali Selvamuthu, Amrose Pradeep, Solomon Sunil, Sarvode N Mothi, Davey M Smith, Rami Kantor
We have analyzed reverse transcriptase (RT) region of HIV-1 pol gene from 97 HIV-infected children who were identified as failing first-line therapy that included first-generation non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (Nevirapine and Efavirenz) for at least 6 months. We found that 54% and 65% of the children had genotypically predicted resistance to second-generation non-nucleoside RT inhibitors drugs Etravirine (ETR) and Rilpivirine, respectively. These cross-resistance mutations may compromise future NNRTI-based regimens, especially in resource-limited settings...
December 23, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799824/profile-of-cabotegravir-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-hiv-1-infection-evidence-to-date
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Whitfield, Adele Torkington, Clare van Halsema
Modern antiretroviral therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment of HIV infection. There is a demand for prevention and treatment regimens that could overcome challenges of improving adherence, toxicity, and dosing convenience. Cabotegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and an analog of dolutegravir. Unlike dolutegravir, cabotegravir has a long half-life and can be formulated into a long-acting nanosuspension for parenteral administration. Initial pharmokinetic studies in humans have demonstrated adequate drug levels with intramuscular (IM) administration at 4 weekly and 8 weekly intervals, with few interactions with commonly used concomitant medications...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799217/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacogenetics-analysis-of-rilpivirine-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#10
Manel Aouri, Catalina Barcelo, Monia Guidi, Margalida Rotger, Matthias Cavassini, Cédric Hizrel, Thierry Buclin, Laurent A Decosterd, Chantal Csajka
Rilpivirine (RPV), the latest nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor active against HIV-1, is prescribed in a standard dosage of 25 mg once a day in combination with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The aim of this observational study was to characterize the RPV pharmacokinetic profile, to quantify interpatient variability, and to identify potential factors that could influence drug exposure. RPV concentration data were collected from HIV-infected patients as part of routine therapeutic drug monitoring performed in our center (Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology)...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797606/rilpivirine-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-single-tablet-combination-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-in-selected-patients
#11
Onyema Ogbuagu
Co-formulated rilpivirine, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (RPV/F/TAF) is the 6(th) single-tablet combination antiretroviral medication approved within the past decade for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It was approved based on positive bioequivalence studies with already approved drugs with its component compounds, RPV and the single tablet regimen- elvitegravir, cobicistat, F/TAF. Areas covered: This article reviews the chemical, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, key drug interactions, and the efficacy, safety, tolerability and optimal clinical uses of the medication and/or its components in different patient populations...
October 31, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741309/switch-to-dolutegravir-plus-rilpivirine-dual-therapy-in-cart-experienced-subjects-an-observational-cohort
#12
Amedeo F Capetti, Gaetana Sterrantino, Maria Vittoria Cossu, GianCarlo Orofino, Giorgio Barbarini, Giuseppe V De Socio, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Antonio Di Biagio, Benedetto M Celesia, Barbara Argenteri, Giuliano Rizzardini
INTRODUCTION: Little information is available on the efficacy and safety of the dual combination of ripivirine plus dolutegravir. This work aims at beginning to fill this gap. METHODS: All HIV-1 infected subjects treated with ripivirine plus dolutegravir between October 2014 and September 2015 in eight Italian centres were included in an observational cohort. Data were collected at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two subjects were followed for a median of 24 months, mean 33 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727331/abacavir-lamivudine-plus-rilpivirine-is-an-effective-and-safe-strategy-for-hiv-1-suppressed-patients-48-week-results-of-the-simriki-retrospective-study
#13
Jesús Troya, Pablo Ryan, Esteban Ribera, Daniel Podzamczer, Victor Hontañón, Jose Alberto Terrón, Vicente Boix, Santiago Moreno, Pilar Barrufet, Manuel Castaño, Ana Carrero, María José Galindo, Ignacio Suárez-Lozano, Hernando Knobel, Miguel Raffo, Javier Solís, María Yllescas, Herminia Esteban, Juan González-García, Juan Berenguer, Arkaitz Imaz
OBJECTIVES: Based on data from clinical practice, we evaluated the effectiveness and safety of switching to abacavir/lamivudine plus rilpivirine (ABC/3TC+RPV) treatment in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, non-controlled, retrospective study of HIV-1-infected patients who switched treatment to ABC/3TC+RPV. Patients had an HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL for at least 24 weeks prior to changing treatments. The primary objective was HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 48...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722739/molecular-insight-on-the-binding-of-nnrti-to-k103n-mutated-hiv-1-rt-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-dynamic-pharmacophore-analysis
#14
Bilal Nizami, Dominique Sydow, Gerhard Wolber, Bahareh Honarparvar
Regardless of advances in anti-HIV therapy, HIV infection remains an immense challenge due to the rapid onset of mutation instigating drug resistance. Rilpivirine is a second generation di-aryl pyrimidine (DAPY) derivative, known to effectively inhibit wild-type (WT) as well as various mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). In this study, a cumulative 240 ns of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of WT HIV-1 RT and its corresponding K103N mutated form, complexed with rilpivirine, were performed in solution...
September 9, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704010/human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-sequence-changes-and-drug-resistance-mutation-among-virologic-failures-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-monotherapy-aids-clinical-trials-group-protocol-a5230
#15
Saran Vardhanabhuti, David Katzenstein, John Bartlett, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Carole L Wallis
Background.  The mechanism of virologic failure (VF) of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy is not well understood. We assessed sequence changes in human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse-transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) regions. Methods.  Human immunodeficiency virus-1 pol sequences from 34 participants who failed second-line LPV/r monotherapy were obtained at study entry (SE) and VF. Sequence changes were evaluated using phylogenetic analysis and hamming distance. Results.  Human immunodeficiency virus-1 sequence change was higher over drug resistance mutation (DRM) sites (median genetic distance, 2...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704000/a-randomized-switch-from-nevirapine-based-antiretroviral-therapy-to-single-tablet-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-virologically-suppressed-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infected-rwandans
#16
Sean E Collins, Philip M Grant, Francois Uwinkindi, Annie Talbot, Eric Seruyange, Deborah Slamowitz, Adeline Mugeni, Eric Remera, Simon Pierre Niyonsenga, Josbert Nyirimigabo, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe, Pierre Dongier, Ribakare Muhayimpundu, Jean-Baptiste Mazarati, Andrew Zolopa, Sabin Nsanzimana
Background.  Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remain on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) despite safety and efficacy concerns. Switching to a rilpivirine-based regimen is an alternative, but there is little experience with rilpivirine in sub-Saharan Africa where induction of rilpivirine metabolism by nevirapine, HIV subtype, and dietary differences could potentially impact efficacy. Methods.  We conducted an open-label noninferiority study of virologically suppressed (HIV-1 ribonucleic acid [RNA] < 50 copies/mL) HIV-1-infected Rwandan adults taking nevirapine plus 2 nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703992/deciphering-the-effects-of-injectable-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-combination-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevention
#17
Robert L Glaubius, Urvi M Parikh, Greg Hood, Kerri J Penrose, Eran Bendavid, John W Mellors, Ume L Abbas
Background.  A long-acting injectable formulation of rilpivirine (RPV), under investigation as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may facilitate PrEP adherence. In contrast, cross-resistance between RPV and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors comprising first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) could promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance and reduce PrEP's effectiveness. Methods.  We use novel mathematical modeling of different RPV PrEP scale-up strategies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate their effects on HIV prevention and drug resistance, compared with a reference scenario without PrEP...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697032/prevalence-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-mutations-in-nepal
#18
Nirajan Bhusal, Ruengpung Sutthent, Navin Horthongkham, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: There have been very few reports of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) from Nepal which is geographically located between two high-prevalence HIV-1 infection countries, China and India. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of acquired and transmitted DRMs and HIV-1 subtypes in Nepal. METHODS: Thirty-five HIV-1 seropositive samples from central region of Nepal were collected in 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups, antiretroviral (ARV) drug naïve group (n=15) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) group (n=20), 90% (18/20) of them received zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (AZT/3TC/NVP) regimen...
2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668908/hiv-positive-patient-with-hsv-2-encephalitis-case-report
#19
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Maria Aurora Carleo, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Fabio Tortora
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659733/hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-patterns-in-patients-failing-nnrti-based-treatment-results-from-a-national-survey-in-south-africa
#20
K Steegen, M Bronze, M A Papathanasopoulos, G van Zyl, D Goedhals, E Variava, W MacLeod, I Sanne, W S Stevens, S Carmona
BACKGROUND: Routine HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance testing for patients failing NNRTI-based regimens is not recommended in resource-limited settings. Therefore, surveys are required to monitor resistance profiles in patients failing ART. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst patients failing NNRTI-based regimens in the public sector throughout South Africa. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive HIV-1 viral load results >1000 RNA copies/mL...
January 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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