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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441573/the-role-of-negative-affect-and-message-credibility-in-perceived-effectiveness-of-smokeless-tobacco-health-warning-labels-in-navi-mumbai-india-and-dhaka-bangladesh-a-moderated-mediation-analysis
#1
Seema Mutti-Packer, Jessica L Reid, James F Thrasher, Daniel Romer, Geoffrey T Fong, Prakash C Gupta, Mangesh S Pednekar, Nigar Nargis, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. METHODS: The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
April 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433757/surgical-volunteerism-or-voluntourism-are-we-doing-more-harm-than-good
#2
EDITORIAL
Faheem Ahmed, Madeline Grade, Carl Malm, Sophia Michelen, Na'eem Ahmed
The significant rise in the number of international health electives undertaken by medical students and doctors in the US, Canada and UK reflects acknowledgement of the inter-connected nature of these challenges to health systems and the drive to help solve them. However, the next generation of international volunteers often operate under a conflicting duality: whilst many of their role models have devoted their lives to global health following a similar volunteering experience, there are pervasive ethical problems associated with short-term global health work that must be identified and addressed to ensure positive outcomes for all parties involved...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429916/opportunities-and-barriers-to-public-health-nutrition-education-in-vietnamese-universities
#3
Quynh Th Pham, Anthony Worsley, Mark Lawrence, Bernie Marshall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A core challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in combating the negative effects of the nutrition transition is to implement appropriate prevention strategies to halt the increasing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), against a background of prevailing under nutrition. There have been several proposals for the enhancement of university nutrition education for future health and related professionals who are expected to communicate knowledge of health risks to the broad community...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428815/service-user-and-care-giver-involvement-in-mental-health-system-strengthening-in-nepal-a-qualitative-study-on-barriers-and-facilitating-factors
#4
Dristy Gurung, Nawaraj Upadhyaya, Jananee Magar, Nir Prakash Giri, Charlotte Hanlon, Mark J D Jordans
BACKGROUND: Service user and caregiver involvement has become an increasingly common strategy to enhance mental health outcomes, and has been incorporated in the mental healthpolicies of many developed nations. However, this practice is non-existent or fragmented in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Instances of service user and caregiver involvement have been rising slowly in a few LMICs, but are rarely described in the literature. Very little is known about the context of user and caregiver participation in mental health system strengthening processes in a low-income, disaster- and conflict-affected state such as Nepal...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428165/a-framework-for-the-study-of-complex-mhealth-interventions-in-diverse-cultural-settings
#5
Marion A Maar, Karen Yeates, Nancy Perkins, Lisa Boesch, Diane Hua-Stewart, Peter Liu, Jessica Sleeth, Sheldon W Tobe
BACKGROUND: To facilitate decision-making capacity between options of care under real-life service conditions, clinical trials must be pragmatic to evaluate mobile health (mHealth) interventions under the variable conditions of health care settings with a wide range of participants. The mHealth interventions require changes in the behavior of patients and providers, creating considerable complexity and ambiguity related to causal chains. Process evaluations of the implementation are necessary to shed light on the range of unanticipated effects an intervention may have, what the active ingredients in everyday practice are, how they exert their effect, and how these may vary among recipients or between sites...
April 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427944/creating-a-global-acute-care-surgery-fellowship-to-meet-international-need
#6
Amina I Merchant, Camila B Walters, Julie Valenzuela, Kelly A McQueen, Addison K May
INTRODUCTION: Existing Acute Care Surgery (ACS) fellowships are positioned to develop well-trained surgeons with specific skills to facilitate improvements in care delivery in Global ACS. Many resident and fellowship programs offer clinical electives that expose trainees to operative experiences, exposing trainees to the needs in resource-challenged settings. However, most lack a focus on long-term development and research designed to enhance the country's local skills, capability, and capacity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427854/geospatial-analysis-of-unmet-pediatric-surgical-need-in-uganda
#7
Emily R Smith, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Tu M Tran, Anthony T Fuller, Elissa K Butler, Luciano de Andrade, Fredrick Makumbi, Samuel Luboga, Christine Muhumuza, Didacus B Namanya, Jeffrey G Chipman, Moses Galukande, Michael M Haglund
BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), an estimated 85% of children do not have access to surgical care. The objective of the current study was to determine the geographic distribution of surgical conditions among children throughout Uganda. METHODS: Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 2176 children in 2315 households throughout Uganda. At the district level, we determined the spatial autocorrelation of surgical need with geographic access to surgical centers variable...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427373/a-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-self-help-psycho-education-programme-to-reduce-diagnosis-delay-in-women-with-breast-cancer-symptoms-in-indonesia
#8
Hari Setyowibowo, Marit Sijbrandij, Aulia Iskandarsyah, Joke A M Hunfeld, Sawitri S Sadarjoen, Dharmayanti F Badudu, Drajat R Suardi, Jan Passchier
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer occurring in women across the world. Its mortality rate in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is higher than in high-income countries (HICs), and in Indonesia BC is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Delay in breast cancer diagnosis negatively impacts cancer prognosis. Only about 30% of patients who come to the hospital to check on their breast abnormalities, continue thorough examination to biopsy to get a diagnosis based on the results of anatomical pathology...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427337/treatment-seeking-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-estimated-using-a-bayesian-model
#9
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Carla Pezzulo, Andrew J Tatem, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Seeking treatment in formal healthcare for uncomplicated infections is vital to combating disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour varies within and between communities and is modified by socio-economic, demographic, and physical factors. As a result, it remains a challenge to quantify healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour using a metric that is comparable across communities. Here, we present an application for transforming individual categorical responses (actions related to fever) to a continuous probabilistic estimate of fever treatment for one country in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426519/toward-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-special-considerations-of-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding
#10
Amy L Slogrove, Polly Clayden, Elaine J Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are prepared for introduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we consider the current evidence related to dosing, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding of next-generation first-line and second-line ART regimens proposed for imminent introduction in the global marketplace. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy pharmacokinetic considerations include potentially insufficient efavirenz exposure if dosed at 400 mg/day, the need for twice daily darunavir dosing and the paucity of data related to tenofovir alafenamide and dolutegravir dosing, safety and efficacy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426446/providing-anesthesia-in-resource-limited-settings
#11
Lena E Dohlman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the reality of anesthetic resource constraints in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Understanding these limitations is important to volunteers from high-income countries who desire to teach or safely provide anesthesia services in these countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently published information on the state of anesthetic resources in LMICs is helping to guide humanitarian outreach efforts from high-income countries. The importance of using context-appropriate anesthesia standards and equipment is now emphasized...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425023/challenges-and-opportunities-in-global-mental-health-a-research-to-practice-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Milton L Wainberg, Pamela Scorza, James M Shultz, Liat Helpman, Jennifer J Mootz, Karen A Johnson, Yuval Neria, Jean-Marie E Bradford, Maria A Oquendo, Melissa R Arbuckle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Globally, the majority of those who need mental health care worldwide lack access to high-quality mental health services. Stigma, human resource shortages, fragmented service delivery models, and lack of research capacity for implementation and policy change contribute to the current mental health treatment gap. In this review, we describe how health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are addressing the mental health gap and further identify challenges and priority areas for future research...
May 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424766/the-need-for-hematology-nurse-education-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-community-case-study-in-tanzania
#13
Julie M Buser
Hematology-related diseases, such as anemia, malaria, sickle cell disease (SCD), and blood cancers, have differing rates of survival between high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Nurses in LMICs have an unmet need for specialty training and education to address hematology and hemato-oncology disorders. A gap in the literature exists about hematology nurse education and clinical service demands in LMICs. This community case study documents a collaborative hematology and basic hemato-oncology education program to sustainably strengthen nurse capacity at a national referral hospital and university in Tanzania...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423236/improvement-in-treatment-abandonment-in-pediatric-patients-with-cancer-in-guatemala
#14
Elysia Alvarez, Midori Seppa, Silvia Rivas, Lucia Fuentes, Patricia Valverde, Federico Antillón-Klussmann, Mauricio Castellanos, E Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Kevin Messacar, John Kurap, Marisol Bustamante, Scott C Howard, Bradley Efron, Sandra Luna-Fineman
BACKGROUND: Treatment refusal and abandonment are major causes of treatment failure for children with cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), like Guatemala. This study identified risk factors for and described the intervention that decreased abandonment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of Guatemalan children (0-18 years) with cancer treated at the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica (UNOP), 2001-2008, using the Pediatric Oncology Network Database...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420405/do-international-health-partnerships-contribute-to-reverse-innovation-a-mixed-methods-study-of-thet-supported-partnerships-in-the-uk
#15
Kavian Kulasabanathan, Hamdi Issa, Yasser Bhatti, Matthew Prime, Jacqueline Del Castillo, Ara Darzi, Matthew Harris
BACKGROUND: International health partnerships (IHPs) are changing, with an increased emphasis on mutual accountability and joint agenda setting for both the high- and the low- or middle-income country (LMIC) partners. There is now an important focus on the bi-directionality of learning however for the UK partners, this typically focuses on learning at the individual level, through personal and professional development. We sought to evaluate whether this learning also takes the shape of 'Reverse Innovation' -when an idea conceived in a low-income country is subsequently adopted in a higher-income country...
April 18, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419625/meta-analysis-of-interventions-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-in-adult-survivors-of-mass-violence-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
REVIEW
Nexhmedin Morina, Mina Malek, Angela Nickerson, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND: Most survivors of mass violence live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled psychotherapy trials for adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in LMICs. METHODS: We included 18 clinical trials (3,058 participants), in which 25 and 18 treatment arms measured symptoms of PTSD and depression, respectively. RESULTS: Active treatments for PTSD yielded a large aggregated pre-post effect size (g = 1...
April 18, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417184/comparison-of-epidemiology-of-the-injuries-and-outcomes-in-two-first-level-trauma-centers-in-colombia-using-the-pan-american-trauma-registry-system
#17
Anu Ramachandran, Anju Ranjit, Cheryl K Zogg, Juan P Herrera-Escobar, Jessica R Appelson, Luis F Pino, Michel B Aboutanous, Adil H Haider, Carlos A Ordonez
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the epidemiology of traumatic injuries and mortality outcomes between two tertiary-care trauma centers in Colombia using data from Pan-American Trauma Registry (PATR). METHODS: January 1-December 31, 2012, data from the Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV, public) and Fundacion Valle del Lili (FVL, private) in Cali, Colombia, were considered. Differences in demographic and clinical information were compared using descriptive statistics...
April 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407810/does-task-shifting-yield-cost-savings-and-improve-efficiency-for-health-systems-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#18
Gabriel Seidman, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: Task shifting has become an increasingly popular way to increase access to health services, especially in low-resource settings. Research has demonstrated that task shifting, including the use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver care, can improve population health. This systematic review investigates whether task shifting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) results in efficiency improvements by achieving cost savings. METHODS: Using the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and the Health Economic Evaluation Database on March 22, 2016...
April 13, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406872/assessing-the-readiness-of-nursing-sectors-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-to-adopt-holistic-practice-rwanda-as-exemplar
#19
William Rosa
Over the past several years, holistic nursing education has become more readily available to nurses working in high-income nations, and holistic practice has become better defined and promoted through countless organizational and governmental initiatives. However, global nursing community members, particularly those serving in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) within resource-constrained health care systems, may not find holistic nursing easily accessible or applicable to practice. The purpose of this article is to assess the readiness of nursing sectors within these resource-constrained settings to access, understand, and apply holistic nursing principles and practices within the context of cultural norms, diverse definitions of the nursing role, and the current status of health care in these countries...
May 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406775/motivating-and-demotivating-factors-for-community-health-workers-engaged-in-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-programs-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#20
Leah Shipton, Aysha Zahidie, Fauziah Rabbani
This systematic review aimed to synthesize primary research on motivating factors of community health workers (CHWs) for maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Peer-reviewed literatures were systematically searched in five databases. Identified studies were then screened and selected for inclusion. The eligibility criteria were reported primary qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, with participants being CHWs in LMICs who address MNCH, which investigated motivation or related concepts of retention, attrition, and performance...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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