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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777041/evolving-role-of-diet-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Arie Levine, Rotem Sigall Boneh, Eytan Wine
Recent advances in basic and clinical science over the last 3 years have dramatically altered our appreciation of the role of diet in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The marked increase in incidence of these diseases along with the important role of non-genetic susceptibility among patients with IBD has highlighted that these diseases have a strong environmental component. Progress in the field of microbiome and IBD has demonstrated that microbiome appears to play an important role in pathogenesis, and that diet may in turn impact the composition and functionality of the microbiome...
May 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433867/research-during-general-surgery-residency-a-web-based-review-of-opportunities-structure-and-outputs
#2
Audrey Brochu, Rajesh Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Academic research is an integral part of general surgery training. Despite the recent research curriculum requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, there is perceived lack of research structure for residents. The aim of this study was to identify research opportunities, structure, and academic outputs during general surgical United States (US) residency. METHODS: A Web-based review of all accredited general surgery US residency programs was undertaken...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409462/the-fregat-biobank-a-clinico-biological-database-dedicated-to-esophageal-and-gastric-cancers
#3
Christophe Mariette, Florence Renaud, Guillaume Piessen, Patrick Gele, Marie-Christine Copin, Emmanuelle Leteurtre, Christine Delaeter, Malek Dib, Stéphanie Clisant, Valentin Harter, Franck Bonnetain, Alain Duhamel, Véronique Christophe, Antoine Adenis
BACKGROUND: While the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancers is increasing, the prognosis of these cancers remains bleak. Endoscopy and surgery are the standard treatments for localized tumors, but multimodal treatments, associated chemotherapy, targeted therapies, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery are needed for the vast majority of patients who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis. Although survival has improved, most patients still present with advanced disease at diagnosis...
February 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392092/cutaneous-scarring-basic-science-current-treatments-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
Clement D Marshall, Michael S Hu, Tripp Leavitt, Leandra A Barnes, H Peter Lorenz, Michael T Longaker
Significance: Scarring of the skin from burns, surgery, and injury constitutes a major burden on the healthcare system. Patients affected by major scars, particularly children, suffer from long-term functional and psychological problems. Recent Advances: Scarring in humans is the end result of the wound healing process, which has evolved to rapidly repair injuries. Wound healing and scar formation are well described on the cellular and molecular levels, but truly effective molecular or cell-based antiscarring treatments still do not exist...
February 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309287/american-urogynecologic-society-prolapse-consensus-conference-summary-report
#5
Nazema Y Siddiqui, W Thomas Gregory, Victoria L Handa, John O L DeLancey, Holly E Richter, Pamela Moalli, Matthew D Barber, Samantha Pulliam, Anthony G Visco, Marianna Alperin, Carlos Medina, Matthew O Fraser, Catherine S Bradley
OBJECTIVES: The 2016 American Urogynecologic Society Prolapse Consensus Conference brought together thought leaders in the field of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The goal was to identify critical areas of need for future research. This article summarizes the findings. METHODS: Prior to the conference, 5 major focus areas were identified. Focus areas were explored over the 2-day conference. Clinicians, clinical and basic science researchers, and representatives from government agencies, industry, patient advocacy groups, and the public convened to identify the major gaps in knowledge in each of these focus areas...
January 5, 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156177/proceedings-of-the-american-association-of-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgeon-s-2017-clinical-and-scientific-innovations-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery-csioms
#6
Joseph E Cillo, Tara Aghaloo, David Basi, Gary F Bouloux, Joshua A Campbell, Joli Chou, Thomas Dodson, Sean P Edwards, Deepak Kademani, Zachary Peacock
The sixth biennial Clinical and Scientific Innovations in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, formerly the Research Summit, of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and its Committee on Research Planning and Technology Assessment was held in Rosemont, Illinois from April 28 to 30, 2017. The goal of the symposium is to provide a forum for the latest clinical and scientific advances to be brought to the specialty. It also nurtures collaboration and the development of relationships between oral and maxillofacial surgeons and researchers to bridge the gap between clinical and basic science...
February 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099240/advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-possible-treatments-for-multiple-hereditary-exostoses-from-the-2016-international-mhe-conference
#7
Anne Q Phan, Maurizio Pacifici, Jeffrey D Esko
Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects about 1 in 50,000 children worldwide. MHE, also known as hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or multiple osteochondromas (MO), is characterized by cartilage-capped outgrowths called osteochondromas that develop adjacent to the growth plates of skeletal elements in young patients. These benign tumors can affect growth plate function, leading to skeletal growth retardation, or deformations, and can encroach on nerves, tendons, muscles, and other surrounding tissues and cause motion impairment, chronic pain, and early onset osteoarthritis...
January 2018: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966380/management-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-what-s-in-and-what-s-out
#8
Benjamin Todd Raines, Emily Naclerio, Seth L Sherman
Sports medicine physicians have a keen clinical and research interest in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The biomechanical, biologic, and clinical data researchers generate, help drive injury management and prevention practices globally. The current concepts in ACL injury and surgery are being shaped by technological advances, expansion in basic science research, resurging interest in ACL preservation, and expanding efforts regarding injury prevention. As new methods are being developed in this field, the primary goal of safely improving patient outcomes will be a unifying principle...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862319/breakthroughs-in-modern-cancer-therapy-and-elusive-cardiotoxicity-critical-research-practice-gaps-challenges-and-insights
#9
REVIEW
Ping-Pin Zheng, Jin Li, Johan M Kros
To date, five cancer treatment modalities have been defined. The three traditional modalities of cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy, and the two modern modalities include molecularly targeted therapy (the fourth modality) and immunotherapy (the fifth modality). The cardiotoxicity associated with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is well known. Similar adverse cardiac events are resurging with the fourth modality. Aside from the conventional and newer targeted agents, even the most newly developed, immune-based therapeutic modalities of anticancer treatment (the fifth modality), e...
January 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852361/the-scarcity-of-orthopaedic-physician-scientists
#10
Joseph A Buckwalter, Jacob M Elkins
Breakthrough advances in medicine almost uniformly result from the translation of new basic scientific knowledge into clinical practice, rather than from assessment, modification or refinement of current methods of diagnosis and treatment. However, as is intuitively understood, those most responsible for scientific conception and creation-scientists - are generally not the ones applying these advances at the patient's bedside or the operating room, and vice versa. Recognition of the scarcity of clinicians with a background that prepares them to develop new basic knowledge, and to critically evaluate the underlying scientific basis of methods of diagnosis and treatment, has led to initiatives including federally funded Physician-Scientist programs, whereby young, motivated scholars begin a rigorous training, which encompasses education and mentorship within both medical and scientific fields, culminating in the conferment of both MD and PhD degrees...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675799/dr-snow-killed-a-bird-the-genesis-of-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-anaesthesia
#11
L E Mather
This essay presents a pharmacologist's perspective of what would be now called 'preclinical research' and 'uncontrolled clinical trials' surrounding the first public demonstration by William Thomas Green Morton of painless surgery achieved by the inhalation of ether in a patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital on 16 October 1846. Of the many people who made history in those earliest days of surgical anaesthesia in both the United States and Great Britain, John Snow stands out for his personal research that spanned basic science and clinical medicine...
March 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647652/kinase-activity-in-recurring-primary-skull-base-chordomas-and-chondrosarcomas-identification-of-novel-pathways-of-oncogenesis-and-potential-drug-targets
#12
Philip D Tatman, Joshua Osbun, Youssef Yakkioui, Sumanpret Kaur, Carolina Parada, Tina Busald, Donald Born, Owais Ahmad, Jing Zhang, Manuel Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Chordomas and chondrosarcomas can occur in the skull base. Currently, 45% of chordomas and 56% of chondrosarcomas recur within 5 years of surgery. The role of adjuvant therapy is highly debated. No pharmacotherapies have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for chordomas or chondrosarcomas. High propensity for recurrence and lack of definitive adjuvant therapy necessitate additional basic science research to identify molecular anomalies associated with recurrent disease...
November 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616108/advances-in-basic-science-methodologies-for-clinical-diagnosis-in-female-stress-urinary-incontinence
#13
REVIEW
Marwa Abdulaziz, Emily G Deegan, Alex Kavanagh, Lynn Stothers, Denise Pugash, Andrew Macnab
We provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently being explored to gain greater understanding of the complexity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) through better definition of structural anatomic data. Two methods of imaging and analysis are detailed for SUI with or without prolapse: 1) open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with or without the use of reference lines; and 2) 3D reconstruction of the pelvis using MRI. An additional innovative method of assessment includes the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which uses non-invasive photonics in a vaginal speculum to objectively evaluate pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function as it relates to SUI pathology...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529726/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-the-basics-the-gray-zone-and-the-target
#14
REVIEW
Dionysia Kelgiorgi, Christos Dervenis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) manifest with a range of symptoms and pose a therapeutic challenge. A team approach, in which many specialists come together, is necessary in the quest for the best patient-tailored treatment. Disciplines such as oncology, surgery, basic science, endocrinology, radiology, and nuclear medicine need to work side by side, equally contributing to patient care and to advancing our better understanding of this fascinating disease.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280722/tissue-engineered-solutions-in-plastic-and-reconstructive-surgery-principles-and-practice
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Al-Himdani, Zita M Jessop, Ayesha Al-Sabah, Emman Combellack, Amel Ibrahim, Shareen H Doak, Andrew M Hart, Charles W Archer, Catherine A Thornton, Iain S Whitaker
Recent advances in microsurgery, imaging, and transplantation have led to significant refinements in autologous reconstructive options; however, the morbidity of donor sites remains. This would be eliminated by successful clinical translation of tissue-engineered solutions into surgical practice. Plastic surgeons are uniquely placed to be intrinsically involved in the research and development of laboratory engineered tissues and their subsequent use. In this article, we present an overview of the field of tissue engineering, with the practicing plastic surgeon in mind...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176468/correlation-of-pre-operative-plasma-protein-concentrations-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-with-bleeding-outcomes-using-a-targeted-quantitative-proteomics-approach
#16
Nathan Clendenen, Ashley Tollefson, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Alice Cambiaghi, Manuela Ferrario, Miranda Kroehl, Anirban Banerjee, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen, Nathaen Weitzel
PURPOSE: Despite recent advancements in the use of thrombelastography (TEG) in the surgical setting, adequate technology to accurately predict bleeding phenotypes for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass on the basis of non-mechanical parameters is lacking. While basic science and translational studies have provided key mechanistic insights about the protein components of coagulation cascades and regulatory mediators of hemostasis and fibrinolysis, targeted protein assays are still missing and the association of protein profiles to bleeding phenotypes and TEG readouts have yet to be discovered...
July 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009734/the-role-of-phd-faculty-in-advancing-research-in-departments-of-surgery
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Teresa M Bell, Nakul Valsangkar, Mugdha Joshi, John Mayo, Casi Blanton, Teresa A Zimmers, Laura Torbeck, Leonidas G Koniaris
OBJECTIVE: To determine the academic contribution as measured by number of publications, citations, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding from PhD scientists in US departments of surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The number of PhD faculty working in US medical school clinical departments now exceeds the number working in basic science departments. The academic impact of PhDs in surgery has not been previously evaluated. METHODS: Academic metrics for 3850 faculties at the top 55 NIH-funded university and hospital-based departments of surgery were collected using NIH RePORTER, Scopus, and departmental websites...
January 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this article is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
April 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679752/plastic-surgery-challenges-in-war-wounded-ii-regenerative-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Ian L Valerio, Jennifer M Sabino, Christopher L Dearth
Background: A large volume of service members have sustained complex injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). These injuries are complicated by contamination with particulate and foreign materials, have high rates of bacterial and/or fungal infections, are often composite-type defects with massive soft tissue wounds, and usually have multisystem involvement. While traditional treatment modalities remain a mainstay for optimal wound care, traditional reconstruction approaches alone may be inadequate to fully address the scope and magnitude of such massive complex wounds...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464627/-lay-emphasis-on-the-basic-research-in-the-field-of-burn-surgery-in-china
#20
D H Hu, K Tao
The therapeutic methods and effects have been improved greatly in burn care and management with several important advancements in the past few decades, resulting in more effective patient stabilization and significantly decreased mortality in China. However, the challenging clinical problems still exist, such as a lack of ideally efficient scheme and drugs to protect damaged tissue and internal organs after severe burn, the limited functional cosmetic outcomes of current treatment techniques and synthetic skin substitutes for deep burn wound repair and reconstruction, the high mortality of severe sepsis accompanying with burn injury patients, and the uncontrolled scar formation and modification or potential regeneration in burn wound healing, a further exploration into both underling mechanisms and curable therapies...
July 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
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