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Surgery, advances, basic sciences.

C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Ian L Valerio, Jennifer M Sabino, Christopher L Dearth
Background: A large volume of service members have sustained complex injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). These injuries are complicated by contamination with particulate and foreign materials, have high rates of bacterial and/or fungal infections, are often composite-type defects with massive soft tissue wounds, and usually have multisystem involvement. While traditional treatment modalities remain a mainstay for optimal wound care, traditional reconstruction approaches alone may be inadequate to fully address the scope and magnitude of such massive complex wounds...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
D H Hu, K Tao
The therapeutic methods and effects have been improved greatly in burn care and management with several important advancements in the past few decades, resulting in more effective patient stabilization and significantly decreased mortality in China. However, the challenging clinical problems still exist, such as a lack of ideally efficient scheme and drugs to protect damaged tissue and internal organs after severe burn, the limited functional cosmetic outcomes of current treatment techniques and synthetic skin substitutes for deep burn wound repair and reconstruction, the high mortality of severe sepsis accompanying with burn injury patients, and the uncontrolled scar formation and modification or potential regeneration in burn wound healing, a further exploration into both underling mechanisms and curable therapies...
July 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Sohrab S Virk, Elizabeth Yu
STUDY DESIGN: Bibliometric study of current literature OBJECTIVE.: To catalog the most important minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery articles using the amount of citations as a marker of relevance. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: MIS surgery is a relatively new tool used by spinal surgeons. There is a dynamic and evolving field of research related to MIS techniques, clinical outcomes and basic science research. To date, there is no comprehensive review of the most cited articles related to MIS surgery...
July 19, 2016: Spine
D H Hu, J Q Liu
Burn surgery in the 21st century is now facing both serious challenges and opportunities for development. Interlacing of different disciplines is not only the source of scientific innovation and development in science of burn surgery, but also the trend of advancement of the discipline in the future. Therefore, it is imperative that burn surgery should strengthen multidisciplinary cooperation in order to develop new treatment concept and technology, widen and deepen basic researches with interdisciplinary methodology, and combine the translational medicine, integration medicine, and precision medicine, in order to form the salient feature of discipline of burn surgery...
January 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Y H Sun
Burn is a common trauma in peace time and war. Burn care was not designated as a specific discipline but a subspecialty of general surgery in China until the 1950s. In 1958, along with the development of metallurgical industry in China, the number of burn patients was increased remarkably, followed by establishment of modern burn departments. A steel worker sustaining a burn injury with size of 89% total burn surface area (TBSA) and full-thickness wound size of 23% TBSA was successfully cured by burn experts of Shanghai Guangci Hospital (renamed Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiao Tong University)...
January 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Alicja Ziętek, Michał Bogusiewicz, Justyna Szumiło, Tomasz Rechberger
Ovarian cancer is the most malignant and aggressive gynecological cancer. Due to nonspecific symptoms in the early stage and a lack of effective screening methods, it is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage. The high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) represents 75% of all ovarian cancers and accounts for the majority of deaths. Contemporary thought suggests that precursor lesions of HGSC originate in the fallopian tube. The presumed precursor tubal lesion, localized at the fimbrial end of the fallopian tubes, is termed the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC)...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Helen Morgan, John Zeller, David T Hughes, Suzanne Dooley-Hash, Katherine Klein, Rachel Caty, Sally Santen
PURPOSE: A strong foundation in anatomical knowledge is essential for physicians in all fields. Despite this established importance, anatomy continues to be primarily taught only during the pre-clinical years of medical school. Senior medical students have more mature clinical reasoning and analytical skills; therefore, advanced anatomy courses have great potential to integrate basic and clinical sciences to better prepare senior medical students for residency. METHODS: At our institution, five electives have been implemented that integrate anatomical education in clinical contexts in the fields of emergency medicine, musculoskeletal medicine, radiology, surgery, and obstetrics and gynecology...
June 15, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Teresa M Bell, Nakul Valsangkar, Mugdha Joshi, John Mayo, Casi Blanton, Teresa A Zimmers, Laura Torbeck, Leonidas G Koniaris
OBJECTIVE: To determine the academic contribution as measured by number of publications, citations, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding from PhD scientists in US departments of surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The number of PhD faculty working in US medical school clinical departments now exceeds the number working in basic science departments. The academic impact of PhDs in surgery has not been previously evaluated. METHODS: Academic metrics for 3850 faculties at the top 55 NIH-funded university and hospital-based departments of surgery were collected using NIH RePORTER, Scopus, and departmental websites...
January 27, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Henning Madry, Mitsuo Ochi, Magali Cucchiarini, Dietrich Pape, Romain Seil
Large animal models play a crucial role in sports surgery of the knee, as they are critical for the exploration of new experimental strategies and the clinical translation of novel techniques. The purpose of this contribution is to provide critical aspects of relevant animal models in this field, with a focus on paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, high tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage repair. Although there is no single large animal model strictly replicating the human knee joint, the sheep stifle joint shares strong similarities...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Rishiram Poudel, Venkatesan Sampath Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Shah Alam Khan
BACKGROUND: Factors influencing publication of manuscripts in reputed journals have never been studied to the best of our knowledge. This study was conducted to evaluate the trend in publication within the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics (IJO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by accessing the online database of the IJO. All the issues available online were included. Published articles were classified into one of the following thirteen categories: (i) Basic Sciences (ii) trauma (upper limb and lower limb) (iii) infections (iv) pediatric orthopedics (v) arthroplasty (vi) arthroscopy (vii) spine surgery (viii) musculoskeletal oncology (ix) hand and microvascular surgery (x) adult reconstruction (including the Ilizarov technique) (xi) general orthopedics and miscellaneous (xii) letter to editor (xiii) book review...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Hani J Marcus, Christopher J Payne, Archie Hughes-Hallett, Gauthier Gras, Konrad Leibrandt, Dipankar Nandi, Guang-Zhong Yang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate and extent of translation of innovative surgical devices from the laboratory to first-in-human studies, and to evaluate the factors influencing such translation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Innovative surgical devices have preceded many of the major advances in surgical practice. However, the process by which devices arising from academia find their way to translation remains poorly understood. METHODS: All biomedical engineering journals, and the 5 basic science journals with the highest impact factor, were searched between January 1993 and January 2000 using the Boolean search term "surgery OR surgeon OR surgical"...
June 2016: Annals of Surgery
Michail Sideris, Apostolos Papalois, Georgios Tsoulfas, Sanjib Majumder, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Efstratios Koletsis, Panagiotis Dedeilias, Nikolaos Lymperopoulos, Savvas Papagrigoriadis, Vassilios Papalois, Georgios Zografos
BACKGROUND: Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases (ESMSC) is an international, animal model-based course. It combines interactive lectures with basic ex vivo stations and more advanced wet lab modules, that is, in vivo dissections and Heart Transplant Surgery on a swine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine medical students (male, N = 27, female N = 22, and mean age = 23.7 years) from King's College London (KCL) and Greek Medical Schools attended the course...
2015: BioMed Research International
Tarun Garg, Nitin K Jain, Goutam Rath, Amit Kumar Goyal
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photoactive process that uses the combination of photosensitizers (PSs) and specific wavelengths of light for the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases. PDT received increased attention after regulatory approval of several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators worldwide. With the advent of newer PSs, the role of PDT in the treatment of cancer and other diseases has been revolutionized. In addition, various targeting strategies developed for site-specific delivery of PSs will be helpful for avoiding phototoxicity to normal tissues...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Joseph G Ghafari
The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics celebrates its centennial, safeguarded by the nearly 115-year-old American Association of Orthodontists. This journey witnessed the rise and demise of various developments, concepts, and procedures, while basic knowledge is still needed. Various periods can be defined in the past century, but the goals remain to obtain more accurate diagnosis through precise anatomic imaging, more controlled and faster tooth movement, more discreet appliances, and the balance of esthetics, function, and stability...
November 2015: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Lisa Korus, Douglas C Ross, Christopher D Doherty, Thomas A Miller
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) and recent advances in nerve reconstruction (such as neurotization with nerve transfers) have improved outcomes for patients suffering peripheral nerve trauma. The purpose of this paper is to bridge the gap between the electromyographer/clinical neurophysiologist and the peripheral nerve surgeon. Whereas the preceding literature focuses on either the basic science behind nerve injury and reconstruction, or the surgical options and algorithms, this paper demonstrates how electromyography is not just a 'decision tool' when deciding whether to operate but is also essential to all phases of PNI management including surgery and rehabilitation...
February 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
David Oehme, Tony Goldschlager, Peter Ghosh, Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Graham Jenkin
Low back pain and degenerative disc disease are a significant cause of pain and disability worldwide. Advances in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies, particularly the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and intervertebral disc chondrocytes, have led to the publication of numerous studies and clinical trials utilising these biological therapies to treat degenerative spinal conditions, often reporting favourable outcomes. Stem cell mediated disc regeneration may bridge the gap between the two current alternatives for patients with low back pain, often inadequate pain management at one end and invasive surgery at the other...
2015: Stem Cells International
Jeremy Steinberger, Branko Skovrlj, John M Caridi, Samuel K Cho
STUDY DESIGN: Bibliometric review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and quantify the most frequently cited papers in lumbar spine surgery and to measure their impact on the entire lumbar spine literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Lumbar spine surgery is a dynamic and complex field. Basic science and clinical research remain paramount in understanding and advancing the field. While new literature is published at increasing rates, few studies make long-lasting impacts...
May 15, 2015: Spine
Russell S Berman, Ronald J Weigel
Surgical Oncology has evolved as a distinct subspecialty of General Surgery with a well-defined curriculum focused on surgical care of the cancer patient, specific areas of clinical and basic science research focus and specialty journals dedicated to the discipline. The Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO), originally formed as the James Ewing Society, has provided leadership in developing training programs in Surgical Oncology and for three decades has been involved in the approval and oversight of Surgical Oncology training programs...
December 2014: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Yi Liu
Along with the vigorous development of medical science and other related subjects, a lot of new techniques, concepts, materials, and methods continuously sprung up. The techniques of plastic and cosmetic surgery have already been used to repair burn wound at the early stage, especially to those wounds in extraordinary regions or caused by uncommon agents. These advances made burn wound treatment change from simply covering wound to save the patient's life to repairing wound and reconstructing function at the same time, which might achieve the aim of cosmetic repair in the future...
October 2014: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
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