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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862319/breakthroughs-in-modern-cancer-therapy-and-elusive-cardiotoxicity-critical-research-practice-gaps-challenges-and-insights
#1
REVIEW
Ping-Pin Zheng, Jin Li, Johan M Kros
To date, five cancer treatment modalities have been defined. The three traditional modalities of cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy, and the two modern modalities include molecularly targeted therapy (the fourth modality) and immunotherapy (the fifth modality). The cardiotoxicity associated with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is well known. Similar adverse cardiac events are resurging with the fourth modality. Aside from the conventional and newer targeted agents, even the most newly developed, immune-based therapeutic modalities of anticancer treatment (the fifth modality), e...
September 1, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852361/the-scarcity-of-orthopaedic-physician-scientists
#2
Joseph A Buckwalter, Jacob M Elkins
Breakthrough advances in medicine almost uniformly result from the translation of new basic scientific knowledge into clinical practice, rather than from assessment, modification or refinement of current methods of diagnosis and treatment. However, as is intuitively understood, those most responsible for scientific conception and creation-scientists - are generally not the ones applying these advances at the patient's bedside or the operating room, and vice versa. Recognition of the scarcity of clinicians with a background that prepares them to develop new basic knowledge, and to critically evaluate the underlying scientific basis of methods of diagnosis and treatment, has led to initiatives including federally funded Physician-Scientist programs, whereby young, motivated scholars begin a rigorous training, which encompasses education and mentorship within both medical and scientific fields, culminating in the conferment of both MD and PhD degrees...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675799/dr-snow-killed-a-bird-the-genesis-of-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-anaesthesia
#3
L E Mather
This essay presents a pharmacologist's perspective of what would be now called 'preclinical research' and 'uncontrolled clinical trials' surrounding the first public demonstration by William Thomas Green Morton of painless surgery achieved by the inhalation of ether in a patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital on 16 October 1846. Of the many people who made history in those earliest days of surgical anaesthesia in both the United States and Great Britain, John Snow stands out for his personal research that spanned basic science and clinical medicine...
March 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647652/kinase-activity-in-recurring-primary-skull-base-chordomas-and-chondrosarcomas-identification-of-novel-pathways-of-oncogenesis-and-potential-drug-targets
#4
Philip Tatman, Joshua Osbun, Youssef Yakkioui, Sumanpret Kaur, Carolina Parada, Tina Busald, Donald Born, Owais Ahmad, Jing Zhang, Manuel Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: Chordomas and chondrosarcomas are tumors that can occur in the skull base. Currently, 45% of chordomas and 56% of chondrosarcomas recur within five years of surgery. The role of adjuvant therapy is highly debated. No pharmacotherapies have been approved by the FDA for chordomas or chondrosarcomas. The high propensity for recurrence and lack of definitive adjuvant therapy necessitates additional basic science research to identify molecular anomalies associated with recurrent disease...
June 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616108/advances-in-basic-science-methodologies-for-clinical-diagnosis-in-female-stress-urinary-incontinence
#5
REVIEW
Marwa Abdulaziz, Emily G Deegan, Alex Kavanagh, Lynn Stothers, Denise Pugash, Andrew Macnab
We provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently being explored to gain greater understanding of the complexity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) through better definition of structural anatomic data. Two methods of imaging and analysis are detailed for SUI with or without prolapse: 1) open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with or without the use of reference lines; and 2) 3D reconstruction of the pelvis using MRI. An additional innovative method of assessment includes the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which uses non-invasive photonics in a vaginal speculum to objectively evaluate pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function as it relates to SUI pathology...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529726/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-the-basics-the-gray-zone-and-the-target
#6
REVIEW
Dionysia Kelgiorgi, Christos Dervenis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) manifest with a range of symptoms and pose a therapeutic challenge. A team approach, in which many specialists come together, is necessary in the quest for the best patient-tailored treatment. Disciplines such as oncology, surgery, basic science, endocrinology, radiology, and nuclear medicine need to work side by side, equally contributing to patient care and to advancing our better understanding of this fascinating disease.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280722/tissue-engineered-solutions-in-plastic-and-reconstructive-surgery-principles-and-practice
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Al-Himdani, Zita M Jessop, Ayesha Al-Sabah, Emman Combellack, Amel Ibrahim, Shareen H Doak, Andrew M Hart, Charles W Archer, Catherine A Thornton, Iain S Whitaker
Recent advances in microsurgery, imaging, and transplantation have led to significant refinements in autologous reconstructive options; however, the morbidity of donor sites remains. This would be eliminated by successful clinical translation of tissue-engineered solutions into surgical practice. Plastic surgeons are uniquely placed to be intrinsically involved in the research and development of laboratory engineered tissues and their subsequent use. In this article, we present an overview of the field of tissue engineering, with the practicing plastic surgeon in mind...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176468/correlation-of-pre-operative-plasma-protein-concentrations-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-with-bleeding-outcomes-using-a-targeted-quantitative-proteomics-approach
#8
Nathan Clendenen, Ashley Tollefson, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Alice Cambiaghi, Manuela Ferrario, Miranda Kroehl, Anirban Banerjee, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen, Nathaen Weitzel
PURPOSE: Despite recent advancements in the use of thrombelastography (TEG) in the surgical setting, adequate technology to accurately predict bleeding phenotypes for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass on the basis of non-mechanical parameters is lacking. While basic science and translational studies have provided key mechanistic insights about the protein components of coagulation cascades and regulatory mediators of hemostasis and fibrinolysis, targeted protein assays are still missing and the association of protein profiles to bleeding phenotypes and TEG readouts have yet to be discovered...
July 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009734/the-role-of-phd-faculty-in-advancing-research-in-departments-of-surgery
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Teresa M Bell, Nakul Valsangkar, Mugdha Joshi, John Mayo, Casi Blanton, Teresa A Zimmers, Laura Torbeck, Leonidas G Koniaris
OBJECTIVE: To determine the academic contribution as measured by number of publications, citations, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding from PhD scientists in US departments of surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The number of PhD faculty working in US medical school clinical departments now exceeds the number working in basic science departments. The academic impact of PhDs in surgery has not been previously evaluated. METHODS: Academic metrics for 3850 faculties at the top 55 NIH-funded university and hospital-based departments of surgery were collected using NIH RePORTER, Scopus, and departmental websites...
January 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this article is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
April 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679752/plastic-surgery-challenges-in-war-wounded-ii-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Ian L Valerio, Jennifer M Sabino, Christopher L Dearth
Background: A large volume of service members have sustained complex injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). These injuries are complicated by contamination with particulate and foreign materials, have high rates of bacterial and/or fungal infections, are often composite-type defects with massive soft tissue wounds, and usually have multisystem involvement. While traditional treatment modalities remain a mainstay for optimal wound care, traditional reconstruction approaches alone may be inadequate to fully address the scope and magnitude of such massive complex wounds...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464627/-lay-emphasis-on-the-basic-research-in-the-field-of-burn-surgery-in-china
#12
D H Hu, K Tao
The therapeutic methods and effects have been improved greatly in burn care and management with several important advancements in the past few decades, resulting in more effective patient stabilization and significantly decreased mortality in China. However, the challenging clinical problems still exist, such as a lack of ideally efficient scheme and drugs to protect damaged tissue and internal organs after severe burn, the limited functional cosmetic outcomes of current treatment techniques and synthetic skin substitutes for deep burn wound repair and reconstruction, the high mortality of severe sepsis accompanying with burn injury patients, and the uncontrolled scar formation and modification or potential regeneration in burn wound healing, a further exploration into both underling mechanisms and curable therapies...
July 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438385/the-top-50-articles-on-minimally-invasive-spine-surgery
#13
REVIEW
Sohrab S Virk, Elizabeth Yu
STUDY DESIGN: Bibliometric study of current literature. OBJECTIVE: To catalog the most important minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery articles using the amount of citations as a marker of relevance. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: MIS surgery is a relatively new tool used by spinal surgeons. There is a dynamic and evolving field of research related to MIS techniques, clinical outcomes, and basic science research. To date, there is no comprehensive review of the most cited articles related to MIS surgery...
April 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426064/-cross-merging-promoting-innovative-development-a-discussion-on-challenges-and-opportunities-that-burn-surgery-faces
#14
D H Hu, J Q Liu
Burn surgery in the 21st century is now facing both serious challenges and opportunities for development. Interlacing of different disciplines is not only the source of scientific innovation and development in science of burn surgery, but also the trend of advancement of the discipline in the future. Therefore, it is imperative that burn surgery should strengthen multidisciplinary cooperation in order to develop new treatment concept and technology, widen and deepen basic researches with interdisciplinary methodology, and combine the translational medicine, integration medicine, and precision medicine, in order to form the salient feature of discipline of burn surgery...
January 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426063/-inherit-enterprising-spirit-of-burn-discipline-and-meet-the-new-challenge
#15
Y H Sun
Burn is a common trauma in peace time and war. Burn care was not designated as a specific discipline but a subspecialty of general surgery in China until the 1950s. In 1958, along with the development of metallurgical industry in China, the number of burn patients was increased remarkably, followed by establishment of modern burn departments. A steel worker sustaining a burn injury with size of 89% total burn surface area (TBSA) and full-thickness wound size of 23% TBSA was successfully cured by burn experts of Shanghai Guangci Hospital (renamed Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiao Tong University)...
January 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418226/opportunistic-salpingectomy-for-prevention-of-sporadic-ovarian-cancer-a-jump-from-basic-science-to-clinical-practice
#16
Alicja Ziętek, Michał Bogusiewicz, Justyna Szumiło, Tomasz Rechberger
Ovarian cancer is the most malignant and aggressive gynecological cancer. Due to nonspecific symptoms in the early stage and a lack of effective screening methods, it is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage. The high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) represents 75% of all ovarian cancers and accounts for the majority of deaths. Contemporary thought suggests that precursor lesions of HGSC originate in the fallopian tube. The presumed precursor tubal lesion, localized at the fimbrial end of the fallopian tubes, is termed the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC)...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307253/applied-clinical-anatomy-the-successful-integration-of-anatomy-into-specialty-specific-senior-electives
#17
Helen Morgan, John Zeller, David T Hughes, Suzanne Dooley-Hash, Katherine Klein, Rachel Caty, Sally Santen
PURPOSE: A strong foundation in anatomical knowledge is essential for physicians in all fields. Despite this established importance, anatomy continues to be primarily taught only during the pre-clinical years of medical school. Senior medical students have more mature clinical reasoning and analytical skills; therefore, advanced anatomy courses have great potential to integrate basic and clinical sciences to better prepare senior medical students for residency. METHODS: At our institution, five electives have been implemented that integrate anatomical education in clinical contexts in the fields of emergency medicine, musculoskeletal medicine, radiology, surgery, and obstetrics and gynecology...
January 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115898/the-role-of-phd-faculty-in-advancing-research-in-departments-of-surgery
#18
Teresa M Bell, Nakul Valsangkar, Mugdha Joshi, John Mayo, Casi Blanton, Teresa A Zimmers, Laura Torbeck, Leonidas G Koniaris
OBJECTIVE: To determine the academic contribution as measured by number of publications, citations, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding from PhD scientists in US departments of surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The number of PhD faculty working in US medical school clinical departments now exceeds the number working in basic science departments. The academic impact of PhDs in surgery has not been previously evaluated. METHODS: Academic metrics for 3850 faculties at the top 55 NIH-funded university and hospital-based departments of surgery were collected using NIH RePORTER, Scopus, and departmental websites...
January 27, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914877/large-animal-models-in-experimental-knee-sports-surgery-focus-on-clinical-translation
#19
Henning Madry, Mitsuo Ochi, Magali Cucchiarini, Dietrich Pape, Romain Seil
Large animal models play a crucial role in sports surgery of the knee, as they are critical for the exploration of new experimental strategies and the clinical translation of novel techniques. The purpose of this contribution is to provide critical aspects of relevant animal models in this field, with a focus on paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, high tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage repair. Although there is no single large animal model strictly replicating the human knee joint, the sheep stifle joint shares strong similarities...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26806975/publication-trend-in-the-indian-journal-of-orthopaedics-what-is-published-and-why
#20
Rishiram Poudel, Venkatesan Sampath Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Shah Alam Khan
BACKGROUND: Factors influencing publication of manuscripts in reputed journals have never been studied to the best of our knowledge. This study was conducted to evaluate the trend in publication within the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics (IJO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by accessing the online database of the IJO. All the issues available online were included. Published articles were classified into one of the following thirteen categories: (i) Basic Sciences (ii) trauma (upper limb and lower limb) (iii) infections (iv) pediatric orthopedics (v) arthroplasty (vi) arthroscopy (vii) spine surgery (viii) musculoskeletal oncology (ix) hand and microvascular surgery (x) adult reconstruction (including the Ilizarov technique) (xi) general orthopedics and miscellaneous (xii) letter to editor (xiii) book review...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
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