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Musculoskeletal system

Nico E Knibbe, Elien Zwaenepoel, Hanneke Jj Knibbe, Dimitri Beeckman
The Danish automated Vendlet V5s repositioning system is intended to reduce pressure ulcer risk in patients and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in caregivers. In two Belgian nursing homes, 13 residents with mobility levels C, D and E experienced the repositioning system, operated by 35 caregivers, for 4 weeks. Data about skin condition, nursing time needed for repositioning and MSD symptoms were collected. The use of the repositioning system was not associated with the development of nor a reduction in skin problems; the study included residents who were vulnerable to or already had pressure ulcers...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Leticia Leon, Luis Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Maria Dolores Aguilar, Juan Ángel Jover, Cristina Vadillo, Marta Redondo, Lydia Abasolo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Rosser classification system for disease states in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Our study was based on a questionnaire validation design. Patients were attended at an outpatient rheumatology clinic at Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain. The Rosser classification system was completed by the physician from the research team (PMQ) and by the patient (HMQ)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Laurence Vico, Alan Hargens
Space sojourns are challenging for life. The ability of the human body to adapt to these extreme conditions has been noted since the beginning of human space travel. Skeletal alterations that occur during spaceflight are now better understood owing to tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT, and murine models help researchers to understand cellular and matrix changes that occur in bone and that are difficult to measure in humans. However, questions remain with regard to bone adaptation and osteocyte fate, as well as to interactions of the skeleton with fluid shifts towards the head and with the vascular system...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Frances T Sheehan, Elizabeth L Brainerd, Karen L Troy, Sandra J Shefelbine, Janet L Ronsky
Although all functional movement arises from the interplay between the neurological, skeletal, and muscular systems, it is the skeletal system that forms the basic framework for functional movement. Central to understanding human neuromuscular development, along with the genesis of musculoskeletal pathologies, is quantifying how the human skeletal system adapts and mal-adapts to its mechanical environment. Advancing this understanding is hampered by an inability to directly and non-invasively measure in vivo strains, stresses, and forces on bone...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Lauren A Jevons, Franchesca D Houghton, Rahul S Tare
The rise in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases is attributed to an increasing ageing population. The debilitating effects of musculoskeletal diseases, coupled with a lack of effective therapies, contribute to huge financial strains on healthcare systems. The focus of regenerative medicine has shifted to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), namely, human embryonic stem cells and human-induced PSCs, due to the limited success of adult stem cell-based interventions. PSCs constitute a valuable cell source for musculoskeletal regeneration due to their capacity for unlimited self-renewal, ability to differentiate into all cell lineages of the three germ layers and perceived immunoprivileged characteristics...
March 20, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Klemen Čamernik, Ariana Barlič, Matej Drobnič, Janja Marc, Matjaž Jeras, Janja Zupan
The musculoskeletal system includes tissues that have remarkable regenerative capabilities. Bone and muscle sustain micro-damage throughout the lifetime, yet they continue to provide the body with the support that is needed for everyday activities. Our current understanding is that the regenerative capacity of the musculoskeletal system can be attributed to the mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) that reside within its different anatomical compartments. These MSCs can replenish various tissues with progenitor cells to form functional cells, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and others...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Hwi Don Lee, Jun Geun Shin, Hoon Hyun, Bong-Ahn Yu, Tae Joong Eom
Tendons are tough, flexible, and ubiquitous tissues that connect muscle to bone. Tendon injuries are a common musculoskeletal injury, which affect 7% of all patients and are involved in up to 50% of sports-related injuries in the United States. Various imaging modalities are used to evaluate tendons, and both magnetic resonance imaging and sonography are used clinically to evaluate tendons with non-invasive and non-ionizing radiation. However, these modalities cannot provide 3-dimensional (3D) structural images and are limited by angle dependency...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Horng-Ruey Chua, Weng-Kin Wong, Venetia Huiling Ong, Dipika Agrawal, Anantharaman Vathsala, Hui-Ming Tay, Amartya Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: To evaluate 1-year mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and to determine association between initial AKI recovery patterns ( reversal within 5 days, beyond 5 days but recovery, or nonrecovery) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. METHODS: Prospective observational study, with retrospective evaluation of initial nonconsenters, of critically ill patients with septic AKI. RESULTS: We studied 207 patients (age, mean [SD]: 64 [16] years, 39% males), of which 56 (27%), 18 (9%), and 9 (4%) died in intensive care unit (ICU), post-ICU in hospital, and posthospitalization, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Daniel John Cleather
The patella is traditionally understood to be a "joint spacer" that increases the moment arm of the patellar tendon. This characterisation is unsatisfactory as it fails to explain the more interesting characteristics of the patella: 1) that the changing pivot point of the patella causes the ratio of quadriceps to patellar tendon force to almost double as the knee flexes; 2) that the patellar tendon exerts an anteriorly directed force on the tibia when the knee is extended but this switches to a posterior draw as the knee flexes; and 3) that the presence of the patella allows the quadriceps to exert different moments on the femur and tibia...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Sharon Reif, Rachel Sayko Adams, Grant A Ritter, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Tong-Hsien Chow, Yih-Shyuan Chen, Jia-Chang Wang
BACKGROUND: Plantar pressure measurement is effective for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating foot performance. We sought to explore the characteristics of plantar pressures in elite sprinters and recreational runners during static standing and walking. METHODS: Arch index (AI) values, regional plantar pressure distributions (PPDs), and footprint characteristics were examined in 80 elite sprinters and 90 recreational runners using an optical plantar pressure measurement system...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Michael A Samaan, Stacie I Ringleb, Sebastian Y Bawab, Eric K Greska, Joshua T Weinhandl
The effects of ACL-reconstruction on lower extremity joint mechanics during performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Single Leg Hop (SLH) are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine if altered lower extremity mechanics occur during the SEBT and SLH after ACL-reconstruction. One female Division I collegiate athlete performed the SEBT and SLH tasks, bilaterally, both before ACL injury and 27 months after ACL-reconstruction. Maximal reach, hop distances, lower extremity joint kinematics and moments were compared between both time points...
March 15, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Zaiyang Long, Donald J Tradup, Pengfei Song, Scott F Stekel, Shigao Chen, Katrina N Glazebrook, Nicholas J Hangiandreou
Because of the rapidly growing use of ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) in clinical practices, there is a significant need for development of clinical physics performance assessment methods for this technology. This study aims to report two clinical medical physicists' tasks: (a) acceptance testing (AT) of SWE function on ten commercial ultrasound systems for clinical liver application and (b) comparison of SWE measurements of targets across vendors for clinical musculoskeletal application. For AT, ten GE LOGIQ E9 XDclear 2...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Yet Yen Yan, Jenn Nee Khoo, Tien Jin Tan, Joe Francis, Le Roy Chong, Elizabeth Hui-Ying Chan
PURPOSE: To review the errors made by radiology trainees in the reporting of cervical spine CTs (CCT) and to compare the discrepancy rates between the stages of training. METHODS: All CCTs reported by trainees after office hours between January 2015 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed by a team of five musculoskeletal consultants with experience ranging between 7 and 15 years. Discrepancies between the provisional report by the trainee and the findings by the musculoskeletal consultants were graded according to the RADPEER scoring system...
March 14, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Pia Elfving, Kari Puolakka, Vappu Rantalaiho, Hannu Kautiainen, Lauri J Virta, Oili Kaipiainen-Seppänen
Objectives of this study were to examine work disability (WD) and its leading causes in incident SLE patients. Data were derived from the Finnish nationwide registries to identify all non-retired, 18 to 64-year-old incident SLE patients between 2000 and 2007. Sick benefits and WD pensions and the causes for them were monitored until the end of 2008. A total of 446 working-aged, incident SLE patients available for work force (mean age 42 ± 13 years, 89% females) were found. During the follow-up (median 5...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Devin Vaswani, Adam N Wallace, Preston S Eiswirth, Thomas P Madaelil, Randy O Chang, Anderanik Tomasian, Jack W Jennings
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation in achieving local tumor control and pain palliation of sarcoma metastases within the musculoskeletal system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 64 sarcoma metastases within the musculoskeletal system in 26 women and 15 men (total = 41) treated with ablation between December 2011 and August 2016 was performed. Mean age of the cohort was 42.9 years ± 16.0 years...
March 14, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Alessandro Napoli, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
Bone and muscle are two deeply interconnected organs and a strong relationship between them exists in their development and maintenance. The peak of both bone and muscle mass is achieved in early adulthood, followed by a progressive decline after the age of 40. The increase in life expectancy in developed countries resulted in an increase of degenerative diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and are associated with a significant increase in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Endrias Markos Woldesemayat, Andargachew Kassa, Taye Gari, Mesay Hailu Dangisso
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCDs) multi-morbidity is becoming one of the public health problems in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of NCCDs and multi-morbidity among adult patients at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (HUCSH). METHODS: Between January and February 2016, a cross-sectional study was carried out among patients aged ⩾ 18 years attending the outpatient department of the hospital...
March 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Caroline Daly, Eve Griffin, Darren M Ashcroft, Roger T Webb, Ivan J Perry, Ella Arensman
Background: Intentional drug overdose (IDO) is the most common form of hospital-treated self-harm, yet no national study has systematically classified the range of drugs involved using a validated system. We aimed to determine the profile of patients engaging in overdose, to identify drugs frequently used and to quantify the contributions of multiple drug use and alcohol involvement. Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, the National Self-Harm Registry, Ireland recorded 18 329 presentations of non-fatal IDO to Irish emergency departments...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Alireza Esmaeili, Andrew M Stewart, William G Hopkins, George P Elias, Brendan H Lazarus, Amber E Rowell, Robert J Aughey
Aim: The sit and reach test (S&R), dorsiflexion lunge test (DLT), and adductor squeeze test (AST) are commonly used in weekly musculoskeletal screening for athlete monitoring and injury prevention purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the normal week to week variability of the test scores, individual differences in variability, and the effects of training load on the scores. Methods: Forty-four elite Australian rules footballers from one club completed the weekly screening tests on day 2 or 3 post-main training (pre-season) or post-match (in-season) over a 10 month season...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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