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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934329/biochemical-and-biomechanical-properties-of-the-pacemaking-sinoatrial-node-extracellular-matrix-are-distinct-from-contractile-left-ventricular-matrix
#1
Jessica M Gluck, Anthony W Herren, Sergey Yechikov, Hillary K J Kao, Ambereen Khan, Brett S Phinney, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, James W Chan, Deborah K Lieu
Extracellular matrix plays a role in differentiation and phenotype development of its resident cells. Although cardiac extracellular matrix from the contractile tissues has been studied and utilized in tissue engineering, extracellular matrix properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node are largely unknown. In this study, the biomechanical properties and biochemical composition and distribution of extracellular matrix in the sinoatrial node were investigated relative to the left ventricle. Extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node was found to be overall stiffer than that of the left ventricle and highly heterogeneous with interstitial regions composed of predominantly fibrillar collagens and rich in elastin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932820/reduced-arterial-elasticity-due-to-surgical-skeletonization-is-ameliorated-by-abluminal-peg-hydrogel
#2
Karyn G Robinson, Rebecca A Scott, Anne M Hesek, Edward J Woodford, Wafa Amir, Thomas A Planchon, Kristi L Kiick, Robert E Akins
Arteries for bypass grafting are harvested either with neighboring tissue attached or as skeletonized vessels that are free of surrounding tissue. There are significant benefits to skeletonization, but reports suggest that skeletonized vessels may develop structural defects and are at risk for atherosclerosis. We investigated the specific short-term effects of skeletonization on carotid artery biomechanics and microanatomy in a rabbit model. Six carotid arteries were surgically skeletonized. To support healing, three of these received polyethylene glycol hydrogel injected along their exterior surfaces...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929492/potent-antitumor-effect-of-tumor-microenvironment-targeted-oncolytic-adenovirus-against-desmoplastic-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Yan Li, JinWoo Hong, Joung-Eun Oh, A-Rum Yoon, Chae-Ok Yun
Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Desmoplastic pancreatic tumors exhibit excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) and are thus highly resistant to anticancer therapeutics, since the ECM restricts drug penetration and dispersion. Here, we designed and generated two hypoxia-responsive and cancer-specific hybrid promoters, H(mT)E and H(E)mT. Transgene expression driven by each hybrid promoter was markedly higher under hypoxic conditions than normoxic conditions. Moreover, H(E)mT-driven transgene expression was highly cancer-specific and was superior to that of H(mT)E-driven expression...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926293/the-development-of-a-novel-wound-healing-material-silk-elastin-sponge
#4
Shingo Kawabata, Katsuya Kawai, Satoshi Somamoto, Kazuo Noda, Yoshitaka Matsuura, Yoko Nakamura, Shigehiko Suzuki
Silk-elastin is a recombinant protein polymer with repeating units of silk and elastin blocks. This novel wound healing promoting material has the ability to self-assemble from a liquid to a gel. We have already reported that an aqueous solution of silk-elastin has the potential to accelerate wound healing; however, there are several problems in applying silk-elastin in the clinical setting. To solve these problems, we developed a silk-elastin sponge that is easy to use in the clinical setting. In the present study, we examined whether the wound healing effect of the silk-elastin sponge is equal to the aqueous solution of silk-elastin in vivo...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923684/ikk%C3%AE-activation-in-the-fetal-lung-mesenchyme-alters-lung-vascular-development-but-not-airway-morphogenesis
#5
Alyssa M McCoy, Jennifer L Herington, Ashley N Stouch, Anamika B Mukherjee, Omar Lakhdari, Timothy S Blackwell, Lawrence S Prince
In the immature lung, inflammation and injury disrupt epithelial-mesenchymal interactions required for normal development. Innate immune signaling and NF-κB activation disrupt the normal expression of multiple mesenchymal genes playing key roles in airway branching and alveolar formation. To test the role of the NF-κB pathway specifically in lung mesenchyme, we utilized the mesenchymal Twist2-Cre to drive expression of a constitutively active IKKβ mutant (IKKβca) in developing mice. Embryonic Twist2-IKKβca mice were generated in expected numbers and appeared grossly normal...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919421/exosomes-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mesenchymal-stem-cells-stimulates-rejuvenation-of-human-skin
#6
Yoon-Jin Kim, Sae Mi Yoo, Hwan Hee Park, Hye Jin Lim, Yu-Lee Kim, Seunghee Lee, Kyung-Sun Kang, Kwang-Won Seo
Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) play an important role in cutaneous wound healing, and recent studies suggested that MSC-derived exosomes activate several signaling pathways, which are conducive in wound healing and cell growth. In this study, we investigated the roles of exosomes that are derived from USC-CM (USC-CM Exos) in cutaneous collagen synthesis and permeation. We found that USC-CM has various growth factors associated with skin rejuvenation. Our in vitro results showed that USC-CM Exos integrate in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDFs) and consequently promote cell migration and collagen synthesis of HDFs...
September 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916838/functionally-distinct-tendons-from-elastin-haploinsufficient-mice-exhibit-mild-stiffening-and-tendon-specific-structural-alteration
#7
Jeremy D Eekhoff, Fei Fang, Lindsey G Kahan, M G Espinosa, Austin J Cocciolone, Jessica E Wagenseil, Robert P Mecham, Spencer P Lake
Elastic fibers are present in low quantities in tendon, where they are located both within fascicles near tenocytes and more broadly in the interfascicular matrix. While elastic fibers have long been known to be significant in the mechanics of elastin-rich tissue (i.e. vasculature, skin, lungs), recent studies have suggested a mechanical role for elastic fibers in tendons that is dependent on specific tendon function. However, the exact contribution of elastin to properties of different types of tendons (e...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916836/modelling-the-deformation-of-the-elastin-network-in-aortic-valve
#8
Afshin Anssari-Benam, Andrea Bucchi
This paper is concerned with proposing a suitable structurally-motivated strain energy function for modelling the deformation of the elastin network within the aortic valve (AV) tissue. The AV elastin network is the main non-collagenous load-bearing component of the valve matrix and therefore, within the context of continuum-based modelling of the AV, it essentially serves as the contribution of the 'isotropic matrix'. To date, such function has mainly been considered as either a generic neo-Hookean term or a general exponential function...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915968/magnesium-to-counteract-elastin-degradation-and-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Rob Janssen
Accelerated elastin degradation is an important pathogenic mechanism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leading to irreversible lung function loss and cardiovascular comorbidities. The rate of elastin breakdown is a predictor of mortality in patients with COPD. Decelerating elastinolysis might be an attractive therapeutic target in this debilitating condition. Vascular calcification starts in the elastin network of the arterial wall and is enhanced in patients with COPD. Elastin calcification is accompanied by an upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression and consequently a shift in the elastase/anti-elastase balance towards degradation...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912461/vimentin-knockout-results-in-increased-expression-of-sub-endothelial-basement-membrane-components-and-carotid-stiffness-in-mice
#10
Benoit Langlois, Ekaterina Belozertseva, Ara Parlakian, Mustapha Bourhim, Jacqueline Gao-Li, Jocelyne Blanc, Lei Tian, Dario Coletti, Carlos Labat, Zhor Ramdame-Cherif, Pascal Challande, Véronique Regnault, Patrick Lacolley, Li Zhenlin
Intermediate filaments are involved in stress-related cell mechanical properties and in plasticity via the regulation of focal adhesions (FAs) and the actomyosin network. We investigated whether vimentin regulates endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and thereby influences vasomotor tone and arterial stiffness. Vimentin knockout mice (Vim(-/-)) exhibited increased expression of laminin, fibronectin, perlecan, collagen IV and VE-cadherin as well as von Willebrand factor deposition in the subendothelial basement membrane...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905442/fibrillin-microfibrils-structural-tensometers-of-elastic-tissues
#11
REVIEW
Cay M Kielty
Fibrillin microfibrils are indispensable structural elements of connective tissues in multicellular organisms from early metazoans to humans. They have an extensible periodic beaded organization, and support dynamic tissues such as ciliary zonules that suspend the lens. In tissues that express elastin, including blood vessels, skin and lungs, microfibrils support elastin deposition and shape the functional architecture of elastic fibres. The vital contribution of microfibrils to tissue form and function is underscored by the heritable fibrillinopathies, especially Marfan syndrome with severe elastic, ocular and skeletal tissue defects...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894617/idiopathic-myointimal-hyperplasia-of-mesenteric-veins-of-the-ileum-and-colon-in-a-patient-with-crohn-s-disease-a-case-report-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#12
Sharon J Song, Stuti G Shroff
Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of the mesenteric veins (IMHMV) is a rare disease characterized by intimal smooth muscle proliferation, leading to the thickening of small to medium-sized mesenteric veins. This vascular disease mimics inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) clinically and endoscopically, while showing ischemic mucosal changes without the classic features of IBD on biopsy. Given the mixed picture, this entity is frequently misdiagnosed. Surgical resection of the diseased bowel segment reveals the true etiology of the pathology and is curative...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891970/the-abcc6-transporter-a-new-player-in-biomineralization
#13
REVIEW
Guillaume Favre, Audrey Laurain, Tamas Aranyi, Flora Szeri, Krisztina Fulop, Olivier Le Saux, Christophe Duranton, Gilles Kauffenstein, Ludovic Martin, Georges Lefthériotis
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited metabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. Since the first description of the disease in 1896, alleging a disease involving the elastic fibers, the concept evolved with the further discoveries of the pivotal role of ectopic mineralization that is preponderant in the elastin-rich tissues of the skin, eyes and blood vessel walls. After discovery of the causative gene of the disease in 2000, the function of the ABCC6 protein remains elusive...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886479/high-sensitivity-hplc-method-for-determination-of-the-allysine-concentration-in-tissue-by-use-of-a-naphthol-derivative
#14
Philip A Waghorn, Bruno L Oliveira, Chloe M Jones, Andrew M Tager, Peter Caravan
Common to all fibrotic and metastatic diseases is the uncontrollable remodeling of tissue that leads to the accumulation of fibrous connective tissue components such as collagen and elastin. Build-up of fibrous tissue occurs through the cross-linking of collagen or elastin monomers, which is initiated through the oxidation of lysine residues to form α-aminoadipic-δ-semialdehyde (allysine). To provide a measure of the extent of collagen oxidation in disease models of fibrosis or metastasis, a rapid, sensitive HPLC method was developed to quantify the amount of allysine present in tissue...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879687/recombinant-synthesis-of-hybrid-lipid-peptide-polymer-fusions-that-self-assemble-and-encapsulate-hydrophobic-drugs
#15
Kelli M Luginbuhl, Davoud Mozhdehi, Michael Dzuricky, Parisa Yousefpour, Fred C Huang, Nicholas R Mayne, Kristen Buehne, Ashutosh Chilkoti
Inspired by biohybrid molecules that are synthesized in Nature through post-translational modification (PTM), we have exploited a eukaryotic PTM to recombinantly synthesize lipid-polypeptide hybrid materials. By co-expressing yeast N-myristoyltransferase with an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) fused to a short recognition sequence in E. coli, we show robust and high yield modification of the ELP with myristic acid. The ELP's reversible phase behavior is retained upon myristoylation and can be tuned to span a 30-60 °C...
September 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869385/microneedling-a-form-of-collagen-induction-therapy-our-first-experiences
#16
H Šuca, R Zajíček, Z Vodsloň
INTRODUCTION: Microneedling (percutaneous collagen induction therapy) is a new promising miniinvasive therapeutic method for the treatment of skin alterations of different aetiology, including burn scars. Since 2016, it is also available at our department. The microtraumatization of scars with the Dermaroller® leads to an activation of the healing cascade, activation of growth factors, which activate cell proliferation in the wound, increased synthesis and deposit of collagen - elastin complex with successive transformation of collagen III to collagen I, to neoangiogenesis and thus to accelerated scar remodelling...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Plasticae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869383/experience-with-integra%C3%A2-at-the-prague-burns-centre-2002-2016
#17
R Zajíček, I Grossová, H Šuca, R Kubok, I Pafčuga
INTRODUCTION: Integra® dermal replacement has a wide spectrum of use both in burn medicine as well as in reconstructive plastic surgery and traumatology. Since 2002, it has been a part of surgical treatment of patients at Prague Burns Centre of the Královské Vinohrady Teaching Hospital. STUDY GROUP: Integra® was used in 47 patients in total between years 2002 and 2016. In this group there were 28 paediatric patients and 19 adult patients. Eleven children were operated during the reconstructive period, 8 children had an acute injury...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Plasticae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869362/self-assembly-of-thermoresponsive-recombinant-silk-elastinlike-nanogels
#18
Kyle J Isaacson, Mark Martin Jensen, Alexandre H Watanabe, Bryant E Green, Marcelo A Correa, Joseph Cappello, Hamidreza Ghandehari
Recombinant silk-elastinlike protein polymers (SELPs) combine the biocompatibility and thermoresponsiveness of human tropoelastin with the strength of silk. Direct control over structure of these monodisperse polymers allows for precise correlation of structure with function. This work describes the fabrication of the first SELP nanogels and evaluation of their physicochemical properties and thermoresponsiveness. Self-assembly of dilute concentrations of SELPs results in nanogels with enhanced stability over micelles due to physically crosslinked beta-sheet silk segments...
September 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869356/a-plant-produced-candidate-subunit-vaccine-reduces-shedding-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-in-ruminants
#19
Sean Miletic, Martin Hünerberg, Angelo Kaldis, Jacqueline MacDonald, Antoine Leuthreau, Tim McAllister, Rima Menassa
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are commonly present in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and cause serious infectious disease in humans. Immunizing cattle against EHEC is a promising strategy to decrease the risk of food contamination; however, veterinary vaccines against EHEC such as Econiche have not been widely adopted by the agricultural industry, and have been discontinued, prompting the need for more cost-effective EHEC vaccines. The objective of this project was to develop a platform to produce plant-made antigens for oral vaccination of ruminants against EHEC...
September 4, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865186/hyaluronic-acid-hydroxyapatite-nanocomposite-hydrogels-for-enhanced-biophysical-and-biological-performance-in-a-dermal-matrix
#20
Seol-Ha Jeong, Yingfang Fan, Kwang-Hee Cheon, Jaeuk Baek, Sukwha Kim, Hyoun-Ee Kim
A hyaluronic acid (HAc) - hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocomposite (HAc-nanoHAp) hydrogel was fabricated through an in situ precipitation process for mechanical and biological enhancement as a soft tissue augmentation product. In this study, these composite hydrogel fillers were analyzed from three different perspectives and compared with pure HAc hydrogel for soft tissue augmentation application: 1) rheological behaviors, 2) in vivo lateral diffusion under mouse skin, and 3) wrinkle improvement in a photo-aged mouse model...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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