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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778783/intra-vitreal-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-fused-to-elastin-like-polypeptide-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#1
Parameswaran G Sreekumar, Zhe Li, Wan Wang, Christine Spee, David R Hinton, Ram Kannan, J Andrew MacKay
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible central vision loss, and the primary site of AMD pathology is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD characterized by extensive RPE cell loss, subsequent degeneration of photoreceptors, and thinning of retina. This report describes the protective potential of a peptide derived from the αB crystallin protein using a sodium iodate (NaIO3 ) induced mouse model of GA. Systemic NaIO3 challenge causes degeneration of the RPE and neighboring photoreceptors, which have similarities to retinas of GA patients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772385/optimization-of-collagen-elastin-like-polypeptide-composite-tissue-engineering-scaffolds-using-response-surface-methodology
#2
Bhuvaneswari Gurumurthy, Jason A Griggs, Amol V Janorkar
The ability of a tissue-engineered scaffold to regenerate functional tissues depends on its mechanical and biochemical properties. Though the commonly used collagen scaffolds have good biochemical properties, they fail due to their poor mechanical and physical properties. We have reinforced the collagen matrix with elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) to improve the mechanical and physical properties and optimized the composite composition using a novel statistical method of response surface methodology (RSM). RSM used a central composite design to correlate the 2 input factor variables (collagen and ELP concentrations) and 3 output objectives (tensile strength, elastic modulus, and toughness) using a second order polynomial equation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772327/creation-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-in-sheep-by-extrapolation-of-rodent-models-is-it-feasible
#3
Peter Verbrugghe, Jelle Verhoeven, Marnick Clijsters, Dominique Vervoort, Walter Coudyzer, Eric Verbeken, Bart Meuris, Paul Herijgers
BACKGROUND: Aortic abdominal aneurysms are a potentially deathly disease, needing surgical or endovascular treatment. To evaluate potentially new diagnostic tools and treatments a large animal model, which not only resembles the morphological characteristics but also the pathophysiological background, would be useful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rodent animal aneurysm models were extrapolated to sheep. Four groups were created: intraluminal infusion with an elastase-collagenase solution (n=4), infusion with elastase-collagenase solution combined with proximal stenosis (n=7), aortic xenograft (n=3), and elastase-collagenase treated xenograft (n=4)...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769427/supplementation-with-camelina-oil-prevents-negative-changes-in-the-artery-in-orchidectomized-rats
#4
M Pawlowska-Olszewska, I Puzio, A P Harrison, L Borkowski, G Tymicki, D Grabos
The aim of the research was to examine the influence of orchidectomy on the elasticity and wall structure of the abdominal aorta in male rats and to check whether camelina oil treatment has an effect on aorta wall characteristics in orchidectomized rats. Forty 2-month-old male Wistar rats were used in the experiment: 10 animals underwent a sham testis repositioning operation (SHO) and 30 rats were orchidectomized (ORX). After the convalescence period, the SHO and ORX1 rats were given physiological saline intragastrically for 8 weeks; simultaneously, the other rats received camelina oil at the dose of 5 g/kg/b...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766656/microencapsulated-rabbit-adipose-stem-cells-initiate-tissue-regeneration-in-a-rabbit-ear-defect-model
#5
Shirae K Leslie, David J Cohen, Sharon L Hyzy, Christopher R Dosier, Anthony Nicolini, Janina Sedlaczek, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
Cell-based tissue engineering can promote cartilage tissue regeneration, but cell retention in the implant site post-delivery is problematic. Alginate microbeads containing adipose stem cells (ASCs) pretreated with chondrogenic media (CM) have been used successfully to regenerate hyaline cartilage in critical size defects in rat xiphoid suggesting that they may be used to treat defects in elastic cartilages like the ear. To test this, we used microbeads made with low viscosity, high mannuronate medical grade alginate using a high electrostatic potential and a calcium cross linking solution containing glucose...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760458/hyperglycemia-does-not-affect-tissue-repair-responses-in-shear-stress-induced-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-apoe-mice
#6
Sabrina Hsiung, Anki Knutsson, Jenifer Vallejo, Pontus Dunér, Suvi E Heinonen, Ann-Cathrine Jönsson-Rylander, Eva Bengtsson, Jan Nilsson, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson
The mechanisms responsible for macrovascular complications in diabetes remain to be fully understood. Recent studies have identified impaired vascular repair as a possible cause of plaque vulnerability in diabetes. This notion is supported by observations of a reduced content of fibrous proteins and smooth muscle cell mitogens in carotid endarterectomy from diabetic patients along with findings of decreased circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells. In the present study we used a diabetic mouse model to characterize how hyperglycemia affects arterial repair responses...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759420/lysyl-oxidase-like-2-contributes-to-renal-fibrosis-in-col4%C3%AE-3-alport-mice
#7
Dominic Cosgrove, Brianna Dufek, Daniel T Meehan, Duane Delimont, Michael Hartnett, Gina Samuelson, Michael Anne Gratton, Grady Phillips, Deidre A MacKenna, Gretchen Bain
Lysyl oxidase like-2 (LOXL2) is an amine oxidase with both intracellular and extracellular functions. Extracellularly, LOXL2 promotes collagen and elastin crosslinking, whereas intracellularly, LOXL2 has been reported to modify histone H3, stabilize SNAIL, and reduce cell polarity. Although LOXL2 promotes liver and lung fibrosis, little is known regarding its role in renal fibrosis. Here we determine whether LOXL2 influences kidney disease in COL4A3 (-/-) Alport mice. These mice were treated with a small molecule inhibitor selective for LOXL2 or with vehicle and assessed for glomerular sclerosis and fibrosis, albuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, lifespan, pro-fibrotic gene expression and ultrastructure of the glomerular basement membrane...
May 11, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756506/dislocation-rate-increases-with-bariatric-surgery-before-total-hip-arthroplasty
#8
Brian T Nickel, Mitchell R Klement, Colin Penrose, Cynthia L Green, Michael P Bolognesi, Thorsten M Seyler
INTRODUCTION: Annually in the USA, 113,000 patients with refractory obesity undergo bariatric surgery (BS), and a subset does so in order to lower body mass index to become a more desirable total hip arthroplasty (THA) candidate. This study aims to evaluate THA risk with and without bariatric surgery. METHODS: 12,160 patients were identified in a claim-based review of the entire Medicare database with ICD-9 codes to identify patients in three groups. Patients who underwent BS prior to THA (Group I: 1,545 experimental group) and two control groups that did not undergo BS but had either a body mass index >40 (Group II: 6,918 bariatric control) or <25 (Group III: 3,697 normal weight control)...
May 1, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754316/compromised-mechanical-homeostasis-in-arterial-aging-and-associated-cardiovascular-consequences
#9
J Ferruzzi, D Madziva, A W Caulk, G Tellides, J D Humphrey
Aging leads to central artery stiffening and associated hemodynamic sequelae. Because healthy arteries exhibit differential geometry, composition, and mechanical behaviors along the central vasculature, we sought to determine whether wall structure and mechanical function differ across five vascular regions-the ascending and descending thoracic aorta, suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta, and common carotid artery-in 20 versus 100-week-old male wild-type mice. Notwithstanding generally consistent changes across these regions, including a marked thickening of the arterial wall, diminished in vivo axial stretch, and loss of elastic energy storage capacity, the degree of changes tended to be slightly greater in abdominal than in thoracic or carotid vessels...
May 12, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752829/the-role-of-th1-th2-cytokines-played-in-regulation-of-specific-cd4-th1-cells-conversion-and-activation-during-inflammatory-reaction-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Jiaolin Sun, Ting Liu, Ying Yan, Kaikai Huo, Wenna Zhang, Hanhan Liu, Zhihong Shi
BACKGROUNDS: CD4 + Th1-CXCR3 signaling pathway may play a key role in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to explore Th1/Th2 cytokines ratio differences of patients in different stages of COPD and to confirm the hypothesis that elastin exposure might serve as an antigen to initiate the stimulation of CD4 + Th1-CXCR3 immune inflammation pathway. METHODS: Patients of COPD in different stages and normal individuals were enrolled...
May 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752580/loss-of-hox5-function-results-in-myofibroblast-mislocalization-and-distal-lung-matrix-defects-during-postnatal-development
#11
Steven M Hrycaj, Leilani Marty-Santos, Andrew J Rasky, Nicholas W Lukacs, Deneen M Wellik
Alveologenesis is the final stage of lung development and is responsible for the formation of the principle gas exchange units called alveoli. The lung mesenchyme, in particular the alveolar myofibroblasts, are drivers of alveolar development, however, few key regulators that govern the proper distribution and behavior of these cells in the distal lung during alveologenesis have been identified. While Hox5 triple mutants (Hox5 aabbcc) exhibit neonatal lethality, four-allele, compound mutant mice (Hox5 AabbCc) are born in Mendelian ratios and are phenotypically normal at birth...
April 27, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748585/humanizing-miniature-hearts-through-4-flow-cannulation-perfusion-decellularization-and-recellularization
#12
Duong T Nguyen, Matthew O'Hara, Cecilia Graneli, Ryan Hicks, Tasso Miliotis, Ann-Christin Nyström, Sara Hansson, Pia Davidsson, Li-Ming Gan, Maria Chiara Magnone, Magnus Althage, Sepideh Heydarkhan-Hagvall
Despite improvements in pre-clinical drug testing models, predictability of clinical outcomes continues to be inadequate and costly due to poor evidence of drug metabolism. Humanized miniature organs integrating decellularized rodent organs with tissue specific cells are translational models that can provide further physiological understanding and evidence. Here, we evaluated 4-Flow cannulated rat hearts as the fundamental humanized organ model for cardiovascular drug validation. Results show clearance of cellular components in all chambers in 4-Flow hearts with efficient perfusion into both coronary arteries and cardiac veins...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745022/restoring-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-preserves-mitochondrial-function-and-delays-vascular-aging-in-mice
#13
Kirsty Foote, Johannes Reinhold, Emma P K Yu, Nichola L Figg, Alison Finigan, Michael P Murphy, Martin R Bennett
Aging is the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular aging remain unclear. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is linked to aging, but whether mtDNA damage or mitochondrial dysfunction is present and directly promotes vascular aging is unknown. Furthermore, mechanistic studies in mice are severely hampered by long study times and lack of sensitive, repeatable and reproducible parameters of arterial aging at standardized early time points. We examined the time course of multiple invasive and noninvasive arterial physiological parameters and structural changes of arterial aging in mice, how aging affects vessel mitochondrial function, and the effects of gain or loss of mitochondrial function on vascular aging...
May 9, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744414/human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-are-superior-to-human-osteoblasts-hob-in-bone-tissue-engineering-on-a-collagen-fibroin-elr-blend
#14
Esen Sayin, Rosti Hama Rashid, José Carlos Rodríguez-Cabello, Ahmed Elsheikh, Erkan Türker Baran, Vasif Hasirci
The ultrastructure of the bone provides a unique mechanical strength against compressive, torsional and tensional stresses. An elastin-like recombinamer (ELR) with a nucleation sequence for hydroxyapatite was incorporated into films prepared from a collagen - silk fibroin blend carrying microchannel patterns to stimulate anisotropic osteogenesis. SEM and fluorescence microscopy showed the alignment of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and the human osteoblasts (HOBs) on the ridges and in the grooves of microchannel patterned collagen-fibroin-ELR blend films...
June 2017: Bioactive Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740318/natural-antioxidants-multiple-mechanisms-to-protect-skin-from-solar-radiation
#15
REVIEW
Spencer Dunaway, Rachel Odin, Linli Zhou, Liyuan Ji, Yuhang Zhang, Ana L Kadekaro
Human skin exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in a dramatic increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The sudden increase in ROS shifts the natural balance toward a pro-oxidative state, resulting in oxidative stress. The detrimental effects of oxidative stress occur through multiple mechanisms that involve alterations to proteins and lipids, induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, DNA damage, and activation of signaling pathways that affect gene transcription, cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738068/pressure-induced-dissolution-and-reentrant-formation-of-condensed-liquid-liquid-phase-separated-elastomeric-%C3%AE-elastin
#16
Roland Hermann Alfons Winter, Hasan Cinar, Süleyman Cinar, Hue Sun Chan
We investigated the combined effects of temperature and pressure on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) phenomena of α-elastin up to the multi-kbar regime. FT-IR spectroscopy, CD, UV/Vis absorption, phase-contrast light and fluorescence microscopy techniques were employed to reveal structural changes and mesoscopic phase states of the system. A novel pressure-induced reentrant LLPS was observed in the intermediate temperature range. A molecular-level picture, in particular on the role of hydrophobic interactions, hydration and void volume in controlling LLPS phenomena is presented...
May 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737250/genetically-engineered-elastin-based-biomaterials-for-biomedical-applications
#17
Mercedes Santos, Sofia Serrano-Ducar, Juan Gonzalez-Valdivieso, Reinaldo Vallejo, Alessandra Girotti, Purificacion Cuadrado, Francisco Javier Arias
Protein-based polymers are some of the most promising candidates for a new generation of innovative biomaterials as recent advances in genetic-engineering and biotechnological techniques mean that protein-based biomaterials can be designed and constructed with a high degree of complexity and accuracy. Moreover, their sequences, which are derived from structural protein-based modules, can easily be modified to include bioactive motifs that improve their functions and material-host interactions, thereby satisfying fundamental biological requirements...
May 7, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736573/semi-ipn-and-ipn-based-hydrogels
#18
Nicole Zoratto, Pietro Matricardi
Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) and interpenetrating polymeric networks (IPNs) have emerged as innovative materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The interest in these structures is due to the possibility of combining the favorable properties of each polymeric component of the IPNs or semi-IPNs leading to a new system with properties that often differ from those of the two single components. In this respect, polysaccharides represent an opportunity in this field, combining a general biocompatibility and a good availability...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732010/lysyl-oxidase-family-members-in-urological-tumorigenesis-and-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Tao Li, Changjing Wu, Liang Gao, Feng Qin, Qiang Wei, Jiuhong Yuan
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular copper-dependent monoamine oxidase that catalyzes crosslinking of soluble collagen and elastin into insoluble, mature fibers. Lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXL), LOX isozymes with partial structural homology, exhibit similar catalytic activities. This review summarizes recent findings describing the roles of LOX family members in urological cancers and fibrosis. LOX/LOXL play key roles in extracellular matrix stability and integrity, which is essential for normal female pelvic floor function...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729633/thrombospondin-4-mediates-cardiovascular-remodelling-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#20
Teresa Palao, Lejla Medzikovic, Catarina Rippe, Shaynah Wanga, Claudia Al-Mardini, Angela van Weert, Judith de Vos, Nicole N van der Wel, Henk A van Veen, Ed T van Bavel, Karl Swärd, Vivian de Waard, Erik Ntp Bakker
Thrombospondin 4 (TSP-4) expression is induced in the heart and vasculature under pathological conditions, including myocardial infarction, myocardial pressure overload, and hypertension. TSP-4 is linked to remodelling processes, where it may affect extracellular matrix protein organization. In previous work, we studied the role of TSP-4 in small arteries during hypertension using Ang II-treated Thrombospondin 4 knockout (Thbs4-/- ) mice. We reported increased heart weight, as well as the occurrence of aortic aneurysms in the Ang II-treated Thbs4-/- animals...
April 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
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