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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333905/-the-inflammatory-processes-in-atherogenesis
#1
Natalia Cichoń, Dominika Lach, Angela Dziedzic, Michał Bijak, Joanna Saluk
Atherogenesis is the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation, leading to coronary artery heart disease. This process involves immune cells, mainly T and B cells, monocytes and macrophages. The process of atherogenesis is induced by inflammatory damage of endothelial cells. The characteristic construction features of the atherosclerotic plaque is a predisposing factor for acute coronary syndromes. The accumulation of inflammatory cells in the artery inner membrane enhances the local inflammatory process due to the secretion of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases, which accelerate the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the arteries...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332302/protein-bodies-how-the-er-deals-with-high-accumulation-of-recombinant-proteins
#2
Reza Saberianfar, Rima Menassa
Protein bodies (PBs) are highly specialized protein storage organelles in cereal seeds. PB formation in seeds initiates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and depending on the plant species, PBs remain in the ER or find their way out of the ER, bypass the Golgi and end up in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) (Khan et al., 2012). Protein bodies have been ectopically induced in leaves by producing high amounts of ER-retrieved recombinant proteins, usually by fusing them to protein tags such as Zera(®) , elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and hydrophobin-I (HFBI)...
March 23, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324130/the-oblique-popliteal-ligament-an-anatomic-and-mri-investigation
#3
Mandy Hedderwick, Mark D Stringer, Liam McRedmond, Grant R Meikle, Stephanie J Woodley
PURPOSE: Despite being the largest ligament on the posterior aspect of the knee, relatively little is known about the normal morphology of the oblique popliteal ligament (OPL). The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed anatomy of the OPL in cadavers and healthy volunteers. METHODS: The posterior knee was investigated in 25 cadaver lower limbs (mean age 76 ± 9.5 years; 7 men) by dissection, histology, and serial plastination and in 14 healthy individuals (mean age 23 ± 3...
March 21, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322869/scaffold-free-high-throughput-generation-of-quiescent-valvular-microtissues
#4
Annelies Roosens, Inès Puype, Ria Cornelissen
AIMS: The major challenge of working with valvular interstitial cells in vitro is the preservation or recovery of their native quiescent state. In this study, a biomimetic approach is used which aims to engineer small volume, high quality valve microtissues, having a potential in regenerative medicine and as a relevant 3D in vitro model to provide insights into valve (patho)biology. METHODS AND RESULTS: To form micro-aggregates, porcine valvular interstitial cells were seeded in agarose micro-wells and cultured in medium supplemented with 250μM Ascorbic Acid 2-phosphate for 22days...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315430/oncolytic-adenovirus-expressing-relaxin-ydc002-enhances-therapeutic-efficacy-of-gemcitabine-against-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Kyung Hee Jung, Il-Kyu Choi, Hee-Seung Lee, Hong Hua Yan, Mi Kwon Son, Hyo Min Ahn, JinWoo Hong, Chae-Ok Yun, Soon-Sun Hong
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease for which limited therapeutic options are available. Pancreatic cancer exhibits a pronounced collagen-rich stromal reaction, which induces chemoresistance by inhibiting drug diffusion into the tumor. Complementary treatment with oncolytic virus such as an oncolytic adenovirus expressing relaxin (YDC002) is an innovative treatment option for combating chemoresistant pancreatic cancer. Here, we examined the ability of combined treatment with gemcitabine and YDC002, which degrades extracellular matrix (ECM), to efficiently treat chemoresistant and desmoplastic pancreatic cancer...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315339/elastic-microfibril-distribution-in-the-cornea-differences-between-normal-and-keratoconic-stroma
#6
Tomas L White, Philip N Lewis, Robert D Young, Koji Kitazawa, Tsutomu Inatomi, Shigeru Kinoshita, Keith M Meek
The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus, this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior cornea from limbus-to-limbus...
March 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306194/electrospun-biodegradable-microfibers-induce-new-collagen-formation-in-a-rat-abdominal-wall-defect-model-a-possible-treatment-for-pelvic-floor-repair
#7
Cecilie Glindtvad, Menglin Chen, Jens Vinge Nygaard, Lise Wogensen, Axel Forman, Carl Christian Danielsen, Mehmet Berat Taskin, Karl-Erik Andersson, Susanne Maigaard Axelsen
Half of the female population over age 50 years will experience pelvic organ prolapse. We suggest a new approach based on tissue engineering principles to functionally reconstruct the anatomical structures of the pelvic floor. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical performance and effect on collagen and elastin production of a degradable mesh releasing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Implantation of biodegradable mesh with or without bFGF in their core has been conducted in 40 rats in an abdominal wall defect model...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303272/structural-and-functional-differences-between-aorta-and-vena-cava
#8
Jeffrey M Mattson, Yanhang Zhang
Elastin and collagen fibers are the major load-bearing extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents of the vascular wall. Arteries function differently than veins in the circulatory system, however as a result from several treatment options veins are subjected to sudden elevated arterial pressure. It is thus important to recognize the fundamental structure and function differences between a vein and an artery. Our research compared the relationship between biaxial mechanical function and ECM structure of porcine thoracic aorta and inferior vena cava...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299729/expression-and-purification-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Krishna K Singh, Ruchi Jain, Harini Ramanan, Deepak K Saini
The MMP (matrix metalloproteinases) family of endopeptidases are involved in cleavage induced remodelling of the extracellular matrix including collagen, fibrinogen, elastin, and gelatin. Owing to their proteolytic activity which can cleave and degrade multiple intracellular substrates, the overexpression and purification of these proteins tends to be toxic. Here we describe a novel "matrix assisted refolding" protocol to overcome the technical challenges associated with overexpression and purification of full-length MMPs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296545/the-effects-of-nicotine-administration-on-the-pathophysiology-of-rat-aortic-wall
#10
H Kugo, N Zaima, H Tanaka, T Urano, N Unno, T Moriyama
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the progressive dilation of the abdominal aorta. Nicotine is reported to be associated with the development and rupture of AAA, but the pathological effects of nicotine on normal rat aorta have not been determined. We investigated pathological changes in the aortic wall of rats caused by the administration of nicotine. Nicotine administration weakened the vascular wall, increased gelatinolytic activity and promoted the destruction of elastin and collagen in the rat abdominal aorta...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288890/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-associated-microrna-516a-5p-regulates-expressions-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-in-human-abdominal-aortic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Crystal Yin Tung Chan, Bernice Lai Yee Cheuk, Stephen Wing Keung Cheng
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been highlighted to be involved in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with the emergence of recent miRNA microarray profiling studies. miR-516a-5p has been shown to be significantly overexpressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from human AAA tissues from our previous microarray study, suggesting its crucial association with AAA. In addition, further bioinformatics analysis predicted methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which regulates homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and is proposed to be a risk gene for AAA formation, to be the down-regulation target of miR-516a-5p...
March 10, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288701/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-and-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-mechanisms-animal-models-and-potential-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Lara T Meital, Shaun L Sandow, Philip C Calder, Fraser D Russell
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with macrophage accumulation in the adventitia, oxidative stress, medial elastin degradation and aortic dilation. Progression of AAA is linked to increased risk of rupture, which carries a high mortality rate. Drug therapies trialled to date lack efficacy and although aneurysm repair is available for patients with large aneurysm, peri-surgical morbidity and mortality have been widely reported. Recent studies using rodent models of AAA suggest that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) and their metabolites can moderate inflammation and oxidative stress perpetuated by infiltrating macrophages and intervene in the destruction of medial elastin...
March 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288284/sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-attenuates-diet-induced-aortic-stiffening-independent-of-changes-in-body-composition
#13
Tyler Garner, An Ouyang, Adam J Berrones, Marilyn S Campbell, Bing Du, Bradley S Fleenor
We hypothesized a sweet potato intervention would prevent high fat diet-induced aortic stiffness, which would be associated with decreased arterial oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Young (8-week old) C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low fat (LF, 10% fat), high fat (HF, 60% fat), low fat sweet potato (LFSP, 10% fat containing 260.3 ug/kcal SP), or high fat sweet potato diet (HFSP, 60% fat containing 260.3 ug/kcal SP) for 16 weeks. Compared to LF and LFSP, HF and HFSP fed mice had increased body mass and percent fat mass with lower percent lean mass (all, P<0...
March 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280656/noninvasive-measurement-of-ear-cartilage-elasticity-on-the-cellular-level-a-new-method-to-provide-biomechanical-information-for-tissue-engineering
#14
Ernst Jan Bos, Koen van der Laan, Marco N Helder, Margriet G Mullender, Davide Iannuzzi, Paul P van Zuijlen
BACKGROUND: An important feature of auricular cartilage is its stiffness. To tissue engineer new cartilage, we need objective tools to provide us with the essential biomechanical information to mimic optimal conditions for chondrogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) development. In this study, we used an optomechanical sensor to investigate the elasticity of auricular cartilage ECM and tested whether sensitivity and measurement reproducibility of the sensor would be sufficient to accurately detect (subtle) differences in matrix compositions in healthy, diseased, or regenerated cartilage...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279921/computational-smart-polymer-design-based-on-elastin-protein-mutability
#15
Anna Tarakanova, Wenwen Huang, Anthony S Weiss, David L Kaplan, Markus J Buehler
Soluble elastin-like peptides (ELPs) can be engineered into a range of physical forms, from hydrogels and scaffolds to fibers and artificial tissues, finding numerous applications in medicine and engineering as "smart polymers". Elastin-like peptides are attractive candidates as a platform for novel biomaterial design because they exhibit a highly tunable response spectrum, with reversible phase transition capabilities. Here, we report the design of the first virtual library of elastin-like protein models using methods for enhanced sampling to study the effect of peptide chemistry, chain length, and salt concentration on the structural transitions of ELPs, exposing associated molecular mechanisms...
May 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274938/sex-specific-differences-in-age-dependent-progression-of-aortic-dysfunction-and-related-cardiac-remodeling-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#16
Suzan Al-Gburi, Andreas Johannes Deussen, Roberta Galli, Michael H Muders, Birgit Zatschler, Anja Neisser, Bianca Müller, Irakli Kopaliani
Sex-specific differences in renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and arterial pressure have been evidenced in many mammals including spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although SHRs have been used extensively as a leading experimental model of hypertension, effects of sex-specific differences in RAS on aortic function and related cardiac remodeling during aging and hypertension have not been documented in detail. We examined structural and functional changes in aorta and heart of female and male SHRs at ages of 5, 14, 29 and 36-weeks...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274518/replacing-the-anterior-mitral-valve-leaflet-with-autologous-jugular-vein-in-a-sheep-model
#17
Jacques T Janson, Andre Coetzee, Gawie Rossouw, Izak Loftus, Adriaan Murray, Pieter Rossouw, Philip Herbst
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the use of an autologous vein graft, supported by expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) chordae tendineae, to replace an anterior mitral valve leaflet. METHODS: A double-layered autologous jugular vein graft, supported by ePTFE chords, was used to create an anterior mitral valve leaflet in 21 sheep. Mitral valve function was monitored with echocardiography for up to 10 months. Surviving sheep were euthanized between 6 and 10 months later, and vein implants were examined histologically...
March 5, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271705/thermally-triggered-in-situ-assembly-of-gold-nanoparticles-for-cancer-multimodal-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy
#18
Mengmeng Sun, Dong Peng, Hanjun Hao, Jin Hu, Dongliang Wang, Kun Wang, Jing Liu, Ximin Guo, Yen Wei, Weiping Gao
The assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to AuNP assemblies is of interest for cancer therapy and imaging. Herein we introduce a new and general paradigm, thermally triggered AuNP assembly, for the development of novel intelligent platforms for cancer photothermal therapy (PTT) and multimodal imaging. Site-specific conjugation of a thermally sensitive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) to AuNPs yields thermally sensitive ELP-AuNPs. Interestingly, ELP-AuNPs can in situ form AuNP assemblies composed of short necklace-like or worm-like gold nanostructures at elevated temperatures and thus show strong near-infrared light absorption and high photothermal effect...
March 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269985/self-assembling-vhh-elastin-like-peptides-for-photodynamic-nanomedicine
#19
Jan Pille, Sanne A M van Lith, Jan C M van Hest, William P J Leenders
Recombinant llama heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) are promising tools in the field of targeted nanomedicine. 7D12, a VHH against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is overexpressed in various cancers, has been evaluated as an effective cancer-targeting VHH in multiple studies. The small size of VHHs (15-20 kDa) results in a low circulation half-life, which can be disadvantageous for certain applications. A solution to this problem is to attach VHHs to the surface of nanoparticles to increase the hydrodynamic radius of the conjugate...
March 16, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268018/elastin-like-protein-hyaluronic-acid-elp-ha-hydrogels-with-decoupled-mechanical-and-biochemical-cues-for-cartilage-regeneration
#20
Danqing Zhu, Huiyuan Wang, Pavin Trinh, Sarah C Heilshorn, Fan Yang
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix and is an attractive material for use as 3D injectable matrices for cartilage regeneration. While previous studies have shown the promise of HA-based hydrogels to support cell-based cartilage formation, varying HA concentration generally led to simultaneous changes in both biochemical cues and stiffness. How cells respond to the change of biochemical content of HA remains largely unknown. Here we report an adaptable elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogel platform using dynamic covalent chemistry, which allows variation of HA concentration without affecting matrix stiffness...
March 3, 2017: Biomaterials
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