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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161047/mapping-extracellular-matrix-proteins-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-by-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#1
Peggi M Angel, Susana Comte-Walters, Lauren E Ball, Kacey Talbot, Anand Mehta, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Richard R Drake
Collagens and elastin form the fundamental framework of all tissues and organs and their expression and post-translational processing are tightly regulated in disease and health. Due to their unique structural composition and properties, it is a recognized challenge to access these protein structures within the complex tissue microenvironment to understand how localized changes modulate tissue health. We describe a new workflow using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption /ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) with collagenase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes to access and report on spatial localization of collagen and elastin sequences in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154818/microrna-21-promotes-wound-healing-via-the-smad7-smad2-3-elastin-pathway
#2
Xiaoyan Li, Lijia Guo, Yitong Liu, Yingying Su, Yongmei Xie, Juan Du, Songling Wang, Hao Wang, Yi Liu
Wound healing is regulated by a complex network of cells, molecules, and cytokines, as well as microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs were confirmed to influence the wound healing process, and miR-21, an important member of the miRNA family, was also shown to regulate wound healing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-21 in the wound healing process and the possible underlying cell signaling pathways. We isolated GMSCs from WT and miR-21-KO mouse gingiva. Flow cytometric analysis and immunocytofluorescense staining were used to identify the GMSCs acquired from WT and miR-21-KO mice...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154781/eucalyptus-globulus-extract-protects-against-uvb-induced-photoaging-by-enhancing-collagen-synthesis-via-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signals-and-attenuation-of-ap-1
#3
Bom Park, Eunson Hwang, Seul A Seo, Jin-Gyeong Cho, Jung-Eun Yang, Tae-Hoo Yi
UV irradiation triggers the overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases and collagen degradation, which in turn causes increased pigmentation, dryness, and deep wrinkling of the skin. These chronic symptoms are collectively referred to as photoaging. Eucalyptus globulus is an evergreen tree that is widely used in cosmetics because of its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of 50% ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus globulus on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were treated with Eucalyptus globulus at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL after UVB or non-UVB irradiation...
November 14, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152561/targeted-modulation-of-tropoelastin-structure-and-assembly
#4
Giselle C Yeo, Clair Baldock, Steven G Wise, Anthony S Weiss
Tropoelastin, as the monomer unit of elastin, assembles into elastic fibers that impart strength and resilience to elastic tissues. Tropoelastin is also widely used to manufacture versatile materials with specific mechanical and biological properties. The assembly of tropoelastin into elastic fibers or biomaterials is crucially influenced by key submolecular regions and specific residues within these domains. In this work, we identify the functional contributions of two rarely occurring negatively charged residues, glutamate 345 in domain 19 and glutamate 414 in domain 21, in jointly maintaining the native conformation of the tropoelastin hinge, bridge and foot regions...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148548/acrylate-based-materials-for-heart-valve-scaffold-engineering
#5
Rosaria Santoro, Seshasailam Venkateswaran, Francesco Amadeo, Rong Zhang, Maura Brioschi, Anthony Callanan, Marco Agrifoglio, Cristina Banfi, Mark Bradley, Maurizio Pesce
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most frequent cardiac valve pathology. Its standard treatment consists of surgical replacement either with mechanical (metal made) or biological (animal tissue made) valve prostheses, both of which have glaring deficiencies. In the search for novel materials to manufacture artificial valve tissue, we have conducted a high-throughput screening with subsequent up-scaling to identify non-degradable polymer substrates that promote valve interstitial cells (VICs) adherence/growth and, at the same time, prevent their evolution toward a pro-calcific phenotype...
November 17, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135319/crosslinking-enzyme-lysyl-oxidase-modulates-scleral-remodeling-in-form-deprivation-myopia
#6
Ying Yuan, Min Li, Qingzhong Chen, Rao Me, Yunjie Yu, Qing Gu, Guangsen Shi, Bilian Ke
PURPOSE: Scleral remodeling causes the excessive ocular elongation that underlies myopia. Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a copper-containing amine oxidase, can catalyze collagen and elastin crosslinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of LOX in scleral remodeling in form-deprivation myopia (FDM). METHODS: Seventy-five guinea pigs were randomly divided into five groups as follows: a normal control group, an FDM group, an FDM plus β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) group, an FDM plus TGF-β1 (TGF-β1) group, and an FDM plus vehicle group...
November 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135252/neo-clerodane-diterpenoids-from-salvia-polystachya-stimulate-the-expression-of-extracellular-matrix-components-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#7
Elihú Bautista, Naytzé Ortiz-Pastrana, Guillermo Pastor-Palacios, Angélica Montoya-Contreras, Rubén A Toscano, Jesús Morales-Jiménez, Luis A Salazar-Olivo, Alfredo Ortega
Eleven neo-clerodane diterpenoids (1-11) including the new analogues 1, 2, and 10, and 3',5,6,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (12) were isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia polystachya. Polystachyne G (1) and 15-epi-polystachyne G (2) were isolated as an epimeric mixture, containing a 5-hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one unit in the side chain at C-12 of the neo-clerodane framework. Polystachyne H (10) contains a 1(10),2-diene moiety and a tertiary C-4 hydroxy group. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of their NMR spectroscopic and MS spectrometric data...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134471/the-impact-of-heat-treatment-on-porcine-heart-valve-leaflets
#8
R Glenn Hepfer, Peng Chen, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Alyce L Jones, Amanda K Burnette, Zhen Chen, Elizabeth D Greene, Lia H Campbell, Hai Yao
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of elevated temperature exposure in tissue banking on soft tissues. A secondary objective was to determine the relative ability of various assays to detect changes in soft tissues due to temperature deviations. Porcine pulmonary heart valve leaflets exposed to 37 °C were compared with those incubated at 52 and 67 °C for 10, 30 and 100 min. The analytical methods consisted of (1) viability assessment using the resazurin assay, (2) collagen content using the Sircol assay, and (3) permeability assessment using an electrical conductivity assay...
November 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134291/local-distribution-of-collagen-fibers-determines-crack-initiation-site-and-its-propagation-direction-during-aortic-rupture
#9
Shukei Sugita, Takeo Matsumoto
Although elucidation of the mechanism of aortic aneurysm rupture is important, the characteristics of crack initiation and propagation sites remain unknown. To determine the microscopic properties of these sites, the characteristics of local strains and constituents at crack initiation and propagation sites were investigated during biaxial stretching of porcine thoracic aortas (PTAs). PTAs were sliced into approximately 50-[Formula: see text]-thick sections, and the center of the sections was made especially thin using our previously developed technique...
November 13, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129841/genetic-risk-assessment-of-elastin-gene-polymorphisms-with-intracranial-aneurysm-in-koreans
#10
Jin Pyeong Jeon, Eun Pyo Hong, Jeong Eun Kim, Eun Jin Ha, Won-Sang Cho, Young-Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Chang Wan Oh
Elastin encoded by elastin gene (ELN) is a crucial extracellular matrix protein responsible for arterial resilience. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ELN gene susceptible to intracranial aneurysm (IA) in Korean population. Two SNPs of ELN gene, rs2071307 (Gly422Ser) and rs2856728 (intron), were genotyped in 90 patients with IA and 90 age and frequency matched controls. Fisher's exact test was conducted to evaluate allelic association with IA. Of the two SNPs in ELN gene, T allele of rs2856728 (intron) showed statistically significant association with increased development of IA (odds ratio [OR]: 2...
November 10, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128090/crocus-sativus-l-aqueous-extract-reduces-atherogenesis-increases-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-and-improves-glucose-control-in-diabetic-atherosclerotic-animals
#11
Ei Christodoulou, N P E Kadoglou, M Stasinopoulou, O A Konstandi, C Kenoutis, Z I Kakazanis, A Rizakou, N Kostomitsopoulos, G Valsami
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to evaluate a possible atheroprotective effect of saffron aqueous extract (SFE), and its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms, in apoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. METHODS: Fifty male, ApoE(-/-) mice, fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, were randomized into 5 groups: (1) baseline group, euthanatized, without intervention, (2) three saffron groups, receiving HFD and 30,60,90 mg/kg/day of SFE, respectively, for four weeks, per os through gavage, after reconstitution in water for injection (WFI), (3) control group (COG), receiving daily HFD and the same volume of WFI (four weeks)...
November 1, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127553/identification-of-histidine-303-as-the-catalytic-base-of-lysyl-oxidase-via-site-directed-mutagenesis
#12
Rachel N Oldfield, Kathryn A Johnston, Jeanette Limones, Caitlin Ghilarducci, Karlo M Lopez
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent amine oxidase enzyme that catalyzes the formation of crosslinkages of collagen and elastin in connective tissues by oxidative deamination of lysine. Using site-directed mutagenesis, Histidine 303 has been shown to be a key residue that acts as the necessary catalytic base for this enzyme to function properly. Histidine 303 was mutated to isoleucine to remove catalytic activity and to aspartate and glutamate, respectively, in order to provide alternate residues that could act as a general base that could maintain catalytic activity...
November 10, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126035/histomorphological-and-biochemical-properties-of-plantar-soft-tissue-in-diabetes
#13
Yak-Nam Wang, Kara Lee, Jane B Shofer, William R Ledoux
BACKGROUND: Diabetes results in pathophysiological changes, leading to tissue that is unable to withstand and adapt to the same loads, resulting in breakdown. Certain locations are more susceptible to breakdown, yet differences between locations are largely not well understood. The authors performed a histological and biochemical analysis of isolated plantar adipose tissue at six relevant locations. METHODS: Tissue from six plantar locations (hallux, first, third and fifth metatarsal heads, lateral midfoot and calcaneus) was taken from fresh cadaveric feet of older diabetic and older non-diabetic intact donors...
June 7, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125768/self-assembling-elastin-like-hydrogels-for-timolol-delivery-development-of-an-ophthalmic-formulation-against-glaucoma
#14
Alicia Fernández-Colino, Daniela A Quinteros, Daniel A Allemandi, Alessandra Girotti, Santiago D Palma, F Javier Arias
This work focuses on improving the effectiveness of current therapies against glaucoma by incorporating self-assembled polymers into the ophthalmic formulation. To that end, we first studied the influence of the dispersing medium on the mechanical performance of self-assembling elastin-like (EL) and silk-elastin-like (SEL) hydrogels by conducting rheological tests. These polymers were subsequently incorporated into the antiglaucoma formulation, which contains timolol maleate (TM) as active ingredient, and in vivo tests, namely adhesion tests and intraocular pressure measurements (IOP), were performed in New Zealand rabbits...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124551/mechanical-characterization-and-material-modeling-of-diabetic-aortas-in-a-rabbit-model
#15
Jianhua Tong, F Yang, X Li, X Xu, G X Wang
Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6-2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123158/inhibition-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinease-suppresses-formation-and-progression-of-experimental-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#16
Jing Yu, Rui Liu, Jianhua Huang, Lixin Wang, Wei Wang
Accumulating evidence suggests an important role of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinease (PI3K) pathway in inflammatory cells infiltration. Given  the essential role of inflammatory cells infiltration during the formation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), to investigate the possibility of preventing AAA formation and progression via targeting PI3K is anticipated. Here, experimental AAAs was created in rats by transient intraluminal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) infusion into the infrarenal aorta firstly...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122839/fgf-receptors-control-alveolar-elastogenesis
#17
Rongbo Li, John C Herriges, Lin Chen, Robert P Mecham, Xin Sun
Alveologenesis is the final step of lung development characterized by the formation of millions of alveolar septa which constitute the vast gas-exchange surface area. The genetic network driving alveologenesis is poorly understood compared to those in earlier steps of lung development. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling through the FGF receptors, Fgfr3 and Fgfr4 (hereafter Fgfr3;4), is critical for alveologenesis. However, the mechanisms through which they mediate this process remain unclear. Here we show that in Fgfr3;4 global mutant mice, alveolar simplification is first observed at the onset of alveologenesis at postnatal day (P) 3...
November 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120326/the-liquid-structure-of-elastin
#18
Sarah Rauscher, Régis Pomès
The protein elastin imparts extensibility, elastic recoil, and resilience to tissues including arterial walls, skin, lung alveoli, and the uterus. Elastin and elastin-like peptides are hydrophobic, disordered, and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation upon self-assembly. Despite extensive study, the structure of elastin remains controversial. We use molecular dynamics simulations on a massive scale to elucidate the structural ensemble of aggregated elastin-like peptides. Consistent with the entropic nature of elastic recoil, the aggregated state is stabilized by the hydrophobic effect...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118355/decoy-wnt-receptor-slrp6e1e2-expressing-adenovirus-induces-anti-fibrotic-effect-via-inhibition-of-wnt-and-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#19
Won Jai Lee, Jung-Sun Lee, Hyo Min Ahn, Youjin Na, Chae Eun Yang, Ju Hee Lee, JinWoo Hong, Chae-Ok Yun
Aberrant activation of the canonical Wingless type (Wnt) signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of hypertrophic scars and keloids, and this aberrant activation of Wnt pathway can be a potential target for the development of novel anti-fibrotic agents. In this study, we evaluated the anti-fibrotic potential of a soluble Wnt decoy receptor (sLRP6E1E2)-expressing non-replicating adenovirus (Ad; dE1-k35/sLRP6E1E2) on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), keloid fibroblasts (KFs), and keloid tissue explants...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110601/drug-release-from-porous-matrixes-based-on-natural-polymers
#20
B Kaczmarek, A Sionkowska
BACKGROUND: This review provides a report on recent advances in the field of drug release from matrixes made of natural polymers. Such matrixes have attracted not only academic but also practical attention in the case of several biopolymers since these can be used for biomedical purposes due to their interesting properties. Herein, the properties of natural polymers such as proteins and polysaccharides are discussed in general. Selected detailed examples of drug release profiles from biopolymer matrixes have also been collected from scientific literature and practical work, and commented on...
November 3, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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