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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110217/induced-dopaminergic-neurons-a-new-promise-for-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Zhimin Xu, Xingkun Chu, Houbo Jiang, Haley Schilling, Shengdi Chen, Jian Feng
Motor symptoms that define Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by the selective loss of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Cell replacement therapy for PD has been focused on midbrain DA neurons derived from human fetal mesencephalic tissue, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Recent development in the direct conversion of human fibroblasts to induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons offers new opportunities for transplantation study and disease modeling in PD. The iDA neurons are generated directly from human fibroblasts in a short period of time, bypassing lengthy differentiation process from human pluripotent stem cells and the concern for potentially tumorigenic mitotic cells...
January 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110068/a-photoresponsive-soft-interface-reversibly-controls-wettability-and-cell-adhesion-by-conformational-changes-in-a-spiropyran-conjugated-amphiphilic-block-copolymer
#2
Di He, Yoshinori Arisaka, Kenichi Masuda, Mitsuya Yamamoto, Naoya Takeda
: The functionalities of soft interfaces including cell adhesion can be enhanced by dynamic conversion of polymer properties and movement via external stimuli. Light is a superior stimulus, and various surfaces modified with photoreactive molecules have been prepared. However, in most of these studies, the surface properties are irreversibly changed due to photo-degradation, and reversible adhesion and collection of cells is not feasible. In this study, we developed a photoresponsive polymer soft interface that was able to spatiotemporally control wettability, cell adhesion, and detachment in a reversible manner...
January 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107653/re-assessing-acalculia-distinguishing-spatial-and-purely-arithmetical-deficits-in-right-hemisphere-damaged-patients
#3
S Benavides-Varela, D Piva, F Burgio, L Passarini, G Rolma, F Meneghello, C Semenza
Arithmetical deficits in right-hemisphere damaged patients have been traditionally considered secondary to visuo-spatial impairments, although the exact relationship between the two deficits has rarely been assessed. The present study implemented a voxelwise lesion analysis among 30 right-hemisphere damaged patients and a controlled, matched-sample, cross-sectional analysis with 35 cognitively normal controls regressing three composite cognitive measures on standardized numerical measures. The results showed that patients and controls significantly differ in Number comprehension, Transcoding, and Written operations, particularly subtractions and multiplications...
December 26, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107625/gold-nanoshell-mediated-remote-myotube-activation
#4
Attilio Marino, Satoshi Arai, Yanyan Hou, Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Valentina Cappello, Barbara Mazzolai, Young-Tae Chang, Virgilio Mattoli, Madoka Suzuki, Gianni Ciofani
Mild heat stimulation of muscle cells within the physiological range represents an intriguing approach for the modulation of their functions. In this work, photothermal conversion was exploited to remotely stimulate striated muscle cells by using gold nanoshells (NS) in combination with near-infrared (NIR) radiation. Temperature increments of approximately 5°C were recorded by using an intracellular fluorescent molecular thermometer and were demonstrated to efficiently induce myotube contraction. The mechanism at the base of this phenomenon was thoroughly investigated and was observed to be a Ca2+-independent event directly involving actin-myosin interactions...
January 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106790/contributions-of-letter-speech-sound-learning-and-visual-print-tuning-to-reading-improvement-evidence-from-brain-potential-and-dyslexia-training-studies
#5
REVIEW
Gorka Fraga González, Gojko Žarić, Jurgen Tijms, Milene Bonte, Maurits W van der Molen
We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS) associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170) predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure...
January 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106707/association-study-between-polymorphisms-of-the-p53-and-lymphotoxin-alpha-lta-genes-and-the-risk-of-proliferative-vitreoretinopathy-retinal-detachment-in-a-mexican-population
#6
Natalia Quiroz-Casian, David Lozano-Giral, Antonio Miranda-Duarte, Ivan Garcia-Montalvo, Jose L Rodriguez-Loaiza, Juan C Zenteno
PURPOSE: To report the results of an association study between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the p53 and LTA genes and the risk of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)/retinal detachment (RD) in a Mexican cohort. METHODS: A total of 380 unrelated subjects were studied, including 98 patients with primary rhegmatogenous RD without PVR, 82 patients with PVR after RD surgery, and 200 healthy, ethnically matched subjects. Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1042522 (p53 gene) and rs2229094 (LTA gene) was performed by direct nucleotide sequencing...
January 18, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106388/mechanistic-studies-of-single-step-styrene-production-using-a-rhodium-i-catalyst
#7
Benjamin A Vaughan, Sarah K Khani, J Brannon Gary, James D Kammert, Michael S Webster-Gardiner, Bradley A McKeown, Robert J Davis, Thomas R Cundari, T Brent Gunnoe
The direct and single-step conversion of benzene, ethylene, and a Cu(II) oxidant to styrene using the Rh(I) catalyst ((Fl)DAB)Rh(TFA)(η(2)-C2H4) [(Fl)DAB = N,N'-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA = trifluoroacetate] has been reported to give quantitative yields (with Cu(II) as the limiting reagent) and selectivity combined with turnover numbers >800. This report details mechanistic studies of this catalytic process using a combined experimental and computational approach. Examining catalysis with the complex ((Fl)DAB)Rh(OAc)(η(2)-C2H4) shows that the reaction rate has a dependence on catalyst concentration between first- and half-order that varies with both temperature and ethylene concentration, a first-order dependence on ethylene concentration with saturation at higher concentrations of ethylene, and a zero-order dependence on the concentration of Cu(II) oxidant...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106280/erk1-directly-interacts-with-jnk1-leading-to-regulation-of-jnk1-c-jun-activity-and-cell-transformation
#8
Bong Seok Kang, Yoon Jin Hwang, Zigang Dong
ERK1 and ERK2 share a great deal of homology and have been presumed to have similar functions. Available antibodies recognize both isoforms making the elucidation of functional differences challenging. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase networks are commonly depicted in the literature as linear and sequential phosphorylation cascades; however, the activation of these pathways is not mutually exclusive. Little doubt exists that MAP kinases engage in crosstalk, but the extent or the direct effect of these "conversations" is unclear...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105607/tailoring-the-mesoscopic-tio2-layer-concomitant-parameters-for-enabling-high-performance-perovskite-solar-cells
#9
Taehyun Hwang, Sangheon Lee, Jinhyun Kim, Jaewon Kim, Chunjoong Kim, Byungha Shin, Byungwoo Park
Architectural control over the mesoporous TiO2 film, a common electron-transport layer for organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, is conducted by employing sub-micron sized polystyrene beads as sacrificial template. Such tailored TiO2 layer is shown to induce asymmetric enhancement of light absorption notably in the long-wavelength region with red-shifted absorption onset of perovskite, leading to ~20% increase of photocurrent and ~10% increase of power conversion efficiency. This enhancement is likely to be originated from the enlarged CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) grains residing in the sub-micron pores rather than from the effect of reduced perovskite-TiO2 interfacial area, which is supported from optical bandgap change, haze transmission of incident light, and one-diode model parameters correlated with the internal surface area of microporous TiO2 layers...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105149/t-14-18-q32-q21-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients-report-of-two-cases-and-a-literature-review
#10
Weifeng Chen, Yi Miao, Rong Wang, Yujie Wu, Hairong Qiu, Wei Xu, Jianyong Li, Lei Fan, Xin Xu
The chromosomal abnormality t(14;18)(q32;q21) is most commonly associated with germinal center-derived B-cell lymphomas, particularly follicular lymphoma (FL). Generally, it is considered a hallmark of FL. The t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation is rare in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and its prognostic significance remains unclear. In the present study, two cases of CLL with t(14;18)(q32;q21) were diagnosed using conventional cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Both patients presented with leukemia and the morphological features and immunophenotypes were typical of CLL...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104789/a-novel-humanized-mouse-model-of-huntington-disease-for-preclinical-development-of-therapeutics-targeting-mutant-huntingtin-alleles
#11
Amber L Southwell, Niels H Skotte, Erika B Villanueva, Michael E Østergaard, Xiaofeng Gu, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Chris Kay, Daphne Cheung, Yuanyun Xie, Sabine Waltl, Louisa Dal Cengio, Hailey Findlay-Black, Crystal N Doty, Eugenia Petoukhov, Diepiriye Iworima, Ramy Slama, Jolene Ooi, Mahmoud A Pouladi, William X Yang, Eric E Swayze, Punit P Seth, Michael R Hayden
Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. HTT is a large protein, interacts with many partners and is involved in many cellular pathways, which are perturbed in HD. Therapies targeting HTT directly are likely to provide the most global benefit. Thus there is a need for preclinical models of HD recapitulating human HTT genetics. We previously generated a humanized mouse model of HD, Hu97/18, by intercrossing BACHD and YAC18 mice with knockout of the endogenous mouse HD homolog (Hdh)...
January 18, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104772/the-elusive-progenitor-cell-in-cardiac-regeneration-slip-slidin-away
#12
REVIEW
Chen-Leng Cai, Jeffery D Molkentin
The adult human heart is unable to regenerate after various forms of injury, suggesting that this organ lacks a biologically meaningful endogenous stem cell pool. However, injecting the infarcted area of the adult mammalian heart with exogenously prepared progenitor cells of various types has been reported to create new myocardium by the direct conversion of these progenitor cells into cardiomyocytes. These reports remain controversial because follow-up studies from independent laboratories failed to observe such an effect...
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104700/inhibition-of-4ebp-phosphorylation-mediates-the-cytotoxic-effect-of-mtor-kinase-inhibitors-in-aggressive-b-cell-lymphomas
#13
Chengfeng Bi, Xuan Zhang, Ting Lu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xianhuo Wang, Bin Meng, Huilai Zhang, Ping Wang, Julie M Vose, Wing C Chan, Timothy W McKeithan, Kai Fu
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central integrator of nutrient and growth factor inputs that controls cell growth in eukaryotes. The second generation of mTOR kinase inhibitors (TORKi), directly targeting the mTOR catalytic site, are more effective than rapamycin and its analogs in cancer treatment, particularly in inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effect of TORKi remains elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that TORKi-induced apoptosis is predominantly dependent on loss of mTORC1-mediated 4EBP activation...
January 19, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103551/ultrasound-flow-mapping-for-the-investigation-of-crystal-growth
#14
Norman Thieme, Paul Bonisch, Dagmar Meier, Richard Nauber, Lars Buttner, Kaspars Dadzis, Olf Patzold, Lamine Sylla, Jurgen Czarske
A high energy conversion and cost efficiency are keys for the transition to renewable energy sources, e.g. solar cells. The efficiency of multi-crystalline solar cells can be improved by enhancing the understanding of its crystallization process, especially the directional solidification. In this paper, a novel measurement system for the characterization of flow phenomena and solidification processes in low-temperature model experiments on the basis of ultrasound Doppler velocimetry is described. It captures turbulent flow phenomena in two planes with a frame rate of 3...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102356/unlocking-the-potential-of-sns2-transition-metal-catalyzed-utilization-of-reversible-conversion-and-alloying-reactions
#15
Zhi Xiang Huang, Ye Wang, Bo Liu, Dezhi Kong, Jun Zhang, Tupei Chen, Hui Ying Yang
The alloying-dealloying reactions of SnS2 proceeds with the initial conversion reaction of SnS2 with lithium that produces Li2S. Unfortunately, due to the electrochemical inactivity of Li2S, the conversion reaction of SnS2 is irreversible, which significantly limit its potential applications in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, a systematic understanding of transition metal molybdenum (Mo) as a catalyst in SnS2 anode is presented. It is found that Mo catalyst is able to efficiently promote the reversible conversion of Sn to SnS2...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100270/pro-inflammation-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-triggers-a-positive-feedback-via-enhancing-cholesterol-accumulation-in-liver-cancer-cells
#16
Mingyan He, Wenhui Zhang, Yinying Dong, Lishun Wang, Tingting Fang, Wenqing Tang, Bei Lv, Guanglang Chen, Biwei Yang, Peixin Huang, Jinglin Xia
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in a complex microenvironment characterized by chronic inflammation. In recent years, cholesterol metabolic abnormalities have been implicated the importance in cancer cell physiology. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between inflammation and cholesterol accumulation in HCC cells. METHODS: Human HCC cells HepG2 and Huh7 were cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100048/unanticipated-stickiness-of-%C3%AE-pinene
#17
Hilary M Chase, Junming Ho, Mary Alice Upshur, Regan J Thomson, Victor S Batista, Franz M Geiger
Hilary M. Chase1#, Junming Ho2#, Mary Alice Upshur1, Regan J. Thomson1, Victor S. Batista3, Franz M. Geiger1* 1Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. 60208, United States; 2 Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way #16-16 Connexis North, Singapore 138632; 3Department of Chemistry, Yale University, P.O. Box 208107, New Haven, CT. 06520, United States # These authors contributed equally to this work. *corresponding author: geigerf@chem...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099929/modeling-the-phenotype-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-by-the-direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-to-motor-neurons
#18
Qi-Jie Zhang, Jin-Jing Li, Xiang Lin, Ying-Qian Lu, Xin-Xin Guo, En-Lin Dong, Miao Zhao, Jin He, Ning Wang, Wan-Jin Chen
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal autosomal recessive neurological disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. In recent years, the development of cellular reprogramming technology has provided an alternative and effective method for obtaining patient-specific neurons in vitro. In the present study, we applied this technology to the field of SMA to acquire patient-specific induced motor neurons that were directly converted from fibroblasts via the forced expression of 8 defined transcription factors...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099419/genomic-deletion-of-malic-enzyme-2-confers-collateral-lethality-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
Prasenjit Dey, Joelle Baddour, Florian Muller, Chia Chin Wu, Huamin Wang, Wen-Ting Liao, Zangdao Lan, Alina Chen, Tony Gutschner, Yaan Kang, Jason Fleming, Nikunj Satani, Di Zhao, Abhinav Achreja, Lifeng Yang, Jiyoon Lee, Edward Chang, Giannicola Genovese, Andrea Viale, Haoqiang Ying, Giulio Draetta, Anirban Maitra, Y Alan Wang, Deepak Nagrath, Ronald A DePinho
The genome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) frequently contains deletions of tumour suppressor gene loci, most notably SMAD4, which is homozygously deleted in nearly one-third of cases. As loss of neighbouring housekeeping genes can confer collateral lethality, we sought to determine whether loss of the metabolic gene malic enzyme 2 (ME2) in the SMAD4 locus would create cancer-specific metabolic vulnerability upon targeting of its paralogous isoform ME3. The mitochondrial malic enzymes (ME2 and ME3) are oxidative decarboxylases that catalyse the conversion of malate to pyruvate and are essential for NADPH regeneration and reactive oxygen species homeostasis...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098970/strong-enhancement-of-photoelectric-conversion-efficiency-of-co-hybridized-polymer-solar-cell-by-silver-nanoplates-and-core-shell-nanoparticles
#20
Wenfei Shen, Jianguo Tang, Yao Wang, Jixian Liu, Linjun Huang, Weichao Chen, Lanlan Yang, Wei Wang, Yanxin Wang, Renqiang Yang, Jungheum Yun, Laurence A Belfiore
A new way was meticulously designed to utilize the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect and the light scattering effect of silver nanoplate (Ag-nPl) and core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2-NPs) to enhance the photovoltaic performances of polymer solar cells (PSCs). To prevent direct contact between silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and photo-active materials which will cause electrons quenching, bare Ag-nPl were spin-coated on indium tin oxide and silica capsulated Ag-NPs were incorporated to PBDTTT-C-T:PC71BM active layer...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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