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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340000/effects-of-feeding-original-xpc%C3%A2-to-broilers-with-a-live-coccidiosis-vaccine-under-industry-conditions-part-1-growth-performance-and-salmonella-inhibition
#1
S M Roto, S H Park, S I Lee, P Kaldhone, H O Pavlidis, S B Frankenbach, D R McIntyre, K Striplin, L Brammer, S C Ricke
Supplementation of poultry diets with Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC) has been proposed as a means to ameliorate the commonly observed loss of appetite and depression of growth in birds given a live coccidiosis vaccine. A study was conducted to compare the effects on bird performance of a live coccidiosis vaccine in broilers, with and without the dietary inclusion of XPC (1.25 g/kg). Ross 708 male broilers (n = 1,280) were allocated to one of 4 feed treatments: cocci-vaccine (T1), cocci-vaccine + XPC (T2), cocci-vaccine + salinomycin in the grower diet only, (T3), and cocci-vaccine + salinomycin in the grower diet + XPC (T4)...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339742/topiramate-modulates-post-infarction-inflammation-primarily-by-targeting-monocytes-or-macrophages
#2
Zhaohui Wang, Shiyuan Huang, Yuling Sheng, Xu Peng, Hui Liu, Nan Jin, Jun Cai, Yanwen Shu, Ting Li, Ping Li, Cheng Fan, Xiaofan Hu, Wenyong Zhang, Rui Long, Ya You, Caihong Huang, Yi Song, Chunhua Xiang, Jue Wang, Yong Yang, Kun Liu
Aims: Monocytes/macrophages response plays a key role in post-infarction inflammation that contributes greatly to post-infarction ventricular remodeling and cardiac rupture. Therapeutic targeting of the GABAA receptor, which is enriched in monocytes/macrophages but not expressed in the myocardium, may be possible after myocardial infarction. Methods and results: After MI was induced by ligation of the coronary artery, C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally administered with one specific agonist or antagonist of the GABAA receptor (topiramate or bicuculline), in the setting of presence or depletion of monocytes/macrophages...
February 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338289/a-sodium-ion-conducting-direct-formate-fuel-cell-generating-electricity-and-producing-base
#3
Yinshi Li, Ying Feng, Xianda Sun, Yaling He
A barrier that limits the development of the conventional cation-exchange membrane direct liquid fuel cells (CEM-DLFCs) is that the CEM-DLFCs need additional base to offer both alkaline environment and charge carriers. Herein, we propose a Na(+) -conducting direct formate fuel cell (Na-DFFC) that is operated in the absence of added base. A proof-of-concept Na-DFFC yields a peak power density of 33 mW cm(-2) at 60 °C, mainly because the hydrolysis of sodium formate provides enough OH(-) and Na(+) ions, proving the conceptual feasibility...
March 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338003/directional-phonon-suppression-function-as-a-tool-for-the-identification-of-ultralow-thermal-conductivity-materials
#4
Giuseppe Romano, Alexie M Kolpak
Boundary-engineering in nanostructures has the potential to dramatically impact the development of materials for high- efficiency conversion of thermal energy directly into electricity. In particular, nanostructuring of semiconductors can lead to strong suppression of heat transport with little degradation of electrical conductivity. Although this combination of material properties is promising for thermoelectric materials, it remains largely unexplored. In this work, we introduce a novel concept, the directional phonon suppression function, to unravel boundary-dominated heat transport in unprecedented detail...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337977/remarkably-enhanced-photovoltaic-effects-and-first-principles-calculations-in-neodymium-doped-bifeo3
#5
Yi-Ting Peng, Shan-Haw Chiou, Ching-Hung Hsiao, Chuenhou Hao Ouyang, Chi-Shun Tu
Remarkably enhanced photovoltaic effects have been observed in the heterostructures of p-type A-site Nd(3+)-doped BiFeO3 (Bi0.9375Nd0.0625)FeO3 (or BFONd) polycrystalline ceramics and the n-type ITO thin film. The maximum power conversion is ~0.82%, which is larger than 0.015% in BiFeO3 (BFO) under blue-ultraviolet irradiation of wavelength λ = 405 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve suggests a p-n junction interface between the ITO thin film and BFO (or BFONd) ceramics. The band gaps calculated from first-principles for BFO and BFONd are respectively 2...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337906/fates-of-chemical-elements-in-biomass-during-its-pyrolysis
#6
Wu-Jun Liu, Wen-Wei Li, Hong Jiang, Han-Qing Yu
Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated...
March 24, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337629/an-innovative-application-of-extended-exergy-analysis-into-an-industrial-park
#7
Yupeng Fan, Qi Qiao, Lin Fang
Exergy is a thermodynamic term used to account all possible useful work theoretically throughout one process when it is brought into equilibrium with its environment. It however cannot directly incorporate non-physical flows, which can be accounted by extensions of the exergy consumption method. Extended exergy, which builds a bridge between thermal and anthropic dimensions, can both measure resource consumption and economic system. In this study, we applied extended exergy analysis to analyze an industrial park, including material consumption, social investment, and environmental influence...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337154/the-reciprocal-relationship-between-suicidality-and-stigma
#8
REVIEW
Bernardo Carpiniello, Federica Pinna
INTRODUCTION: Although suicidality is frequently the cause of stigma, it is conversely true that stigma may be the cause of suicidality. The present paper focuses on the complex relationships that exist between suicidal behavior and stigmatizing attitudes. METHODS: A narrative review of the topic will be presented on the basis of the relevant literature collected from an electronic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases, using stigma, public stigma, structural stigma, perceived stigma, self-stigma, suicide, attempted suicide, and suicidality as key words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336863/a-high-power-frequency-tunable-colloidal-quantum-dot-cdse-zns-laser
#9
Saradh Prasad, Hanan Saleh AlHesseny, Mohamad S AlSalhi, Durairaj Devaraj, Vadivel Masilamai
Tunable lasers are essential for medical, engineering and basic science research studies. Most conventional solid-state lasers are capable of producing a few million laser shots, but limited to specific wavelengths, which are bulky and very expensive. Dye lasers are continuously tunable, but exhibit very poor chemical stability. As new tunable, efficient lasers are always in demand, one such laser is designed with various sized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. They were used as a colloid in tetrahydrofuran to produce a fluorescent broadband emission from 520 nm to 630 nm...
January 30, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336179/control-of-dna-end-resection-by-yeast-hmo1p-affects-efficiency-of-dna-end-joining
#10
Arvind Panday, LiJuan Xiao, Ashish Gupta, Anne Grove
The primary pathways for DNA double strand break (DSB) repair are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The choice between HR and NHEJ is influenced by the extent of DNA end resection, as extensive resection is required for HR but repressive to NHEJ. Conversely, association of the DNA end-binding protein Ku, which is integral to classical NHEJ, inhibits resection. In absence of key NHEJ components, a third repair pathway is exposed; this alternative-end joining (A-EJ) is a highly error-prone process that uses micro-homologies at the breakpoints and is initiated by DNA end resection...
March 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336066/construction-of-protein-based-biosensors-using-ligand-directed-chemistry-for-detecting-analyte-binding
#11
Kei Yamaura, Shigeki Kiyonaka, Itaru Hamachi
Protein-based fluorescent biosensors are powerful tools for quantitative detection of biomolecules or drugs with high sensitivity under physiological conditions. However, conventional methods for construction of biosensors require structural data with high resolution or amino acid sequence information in most cases, which hampers applicability of this method to structurally complicated receptor proteins. To sidestep such limitations, we recently developed a new method that employs ligand-directed chemistry coupled with a bimolecular fluorescence quenching and recovery system, which enabled the conversion of various kinds of membrane-bound receptors to "turn-on" type fluorescent sensors...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335966/a-concentration-dependent-multicolor-conversion-strategy-for-ultrasensitive-colorimetric-immunoassay-with-the-naked-eye
#12
Yingshuai Liu, Zeying Zhang, Jie Yu, Jin Xie, Chang Ming Li
Colorimetric immunoassays have been attracting more attention for use in practical applications, especially in point-of-care diagnostics. In comparison with a single color immunoassay, the dose-dependent multicolor strategy greatly improves the detection resolution and accuracy of visual inspection. In the current study, a concentration-dependent multicolor conversion strategy was developed based on gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-mediated copper deposition for signal amplification and Prussian blue for color generation...
April 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335751/exploring-community-participation-in-project-design-application-of-the-community-conversation-approach-to-improve-maternal-and-newborn-health-in-zambia
#13
Wilbroad Mutale, Chisala Masoso, Bisalom Mwanza, Cindy Chirwa, Lasidah Mwaba, Zumbe Siwale, Barbara Lamisa, Dennis Musatwe, Roma Chilengi
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has adopted an approach entitled Community Conversation (CC) to improve community engagement in addressing health challenges. CCs are based on Paulo Freire's transformative communication approach, in which communities pose problems and critically examine their everyday life experiences through discussion. We adopted this approach to engage communities in maternal and newborn health discussions in three rural districts of Zambia, with the aim of developing community-generated interventions...
March 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335562/virus-bacteria-interactions-an-emerging-topic-in-human-infection
#14
REVIEW
Erin A Almand, Matthew D Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334857/co-cultures-with-stem-cell-derived-human-sensory-neurons-reveal-regulators-of-peripheral-myelination
#15
Alex J Clark, Malte S Kaller, Jorge Galino, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi, David L H Bennett
Effective bidirectional signalling between axons and Schwann cells is essential for both the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve function. We have established conditions by which human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons can be cultured with rat Schwann cells, and have produced for the first time long-term and stable myelinating co-cultures with human neurons. These cultures contain the specialized domains formed by axonal interaction with myelinating Schwann cells, such as clustered voltage-gated sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and Shaker-type potassium channel (Kv1...
February 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334779/targeted-gene-knock-in-by-homology-directed-genome-editing-using-cas9-ribonucleoprotein-and-aav-donor-delivery
#16
Thomas Gaj, Brett T Staahl, Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Prajit Limsirichai, Freja K Ekman, Jennifer A Doudna, David V Schaffer
Realizing the full potential of genome editing requires the development of efficient and broadly applicable methods for delivering programmable nucleases and donor templates for homology-directed repair (HDR). The RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease can be introduced into cells as a purified protein in complex with a single guide RNA (sgRNA). Such ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) can facilitate the high-fidelity introduction of single-base substitutions via HDR following co-delivery with a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide...
March 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334673/presence-of-the-%C3%AE-triketone-herbicide-tefuryltrione-in-drinking-water-sources-and-its-degradation-product-in-drinking-waters
#17
Motoyuki Kamata, Mari Asami, Yoshihiko Matsui
Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1...
March 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334024/opposite-effects-of-5-ht-akh-and-octopamine-on-the-crop-contractions-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-evidence-of-a-double-brain-gut-serotonergic-circuitry
#18
Paolo Solari, Nicholas Rivelli, Francescaelena De Rose, Lorenzo Picciau, Ludovico Murru, John G Stoffolano, Anna Liscia
This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar-either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop-had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332673/hierarchical-porous-nico2o4-nanosheet-arrays-directly-grown-on-carbon-cloth-with-superior-lithium-storage-performance
#19
Li Zhao, Lei Wang, Peng Yu, Chungui Tian, He Feng, Zhongwei Diao, Honggang Fu
Binary metal oxides have been explored as advanced candidates in lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes due to their high specific capacity. Herein, the hierarchical structures of porous NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly grown on a conductive carbon cloth substrate (3D NCO-PSA/CC) were obtained by a facile in situ synthetic strategy. When applied as a binder-free LIB anode, it exhibited satisfactory performance with a high discharge capacity (a first discharge capacity of 2090.8 mA h g(-1) and a stable capacity of 1687...
March 23, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332621/evolution-analysis-of-euv-radiation-from-laser-produced-tin-plasmas-based-on-a-radiation-hydrodynamics-model
#20
M G Su, Q Min, S Q Cao, D X Sun, P Hayden, G O'Sullivan, C Z Dong
One of fundamental aims of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is to maximize brightness or conversion efficiency of laser energy to radiation at specific wavelengths from laser produced plasmas (LPPs) of specific elements for matching to available multilayer optical systems. Tin LPPs have been chosen for operation at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. For an investigation of EUV radiation of laser-produced tin plasmas, it is crucial to study the related atomic processes and their evolution so as to reliably predict the optimum plasma and experimental conditions...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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