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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719269/the-influence-of-household-and-community-level-sanitation-and-fecal-sludge-management-on-urban-fecal-contamination-in-households-and-drains-and-enteric-infection-in-children
#1
David Berendes, Amy Kirby, Julie A Clennon, Suraja Raj, Habib Yakubu, Juan Leon, Katharine Robb, Arun Kartikeyan, Priya Hemavathy, Annai Gunasekaran, Ben Ghale, J Senthil Kumar, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Gagandeep Kang, Christine Moe
AbstractUrban sanitation necessitates management of fecal sludge inside and outside the household. This study examined associations between household sanitation, fecal contamination, and enteric infection in two low-income neighborhoods in Vellore, India. Surveys and spatial analysis assessed the presence and clustering of toilets and fecal sludge management (FSM) practices in 200 households. Fecal contamination was measured in environmental samples from 50 households and household drains. Enteric infection was assessed from stool specimens from children under 5 years of age in these households...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718353/a-multiyear-assessment-of-public-response-to-a-statewide-drug-take-back-and-disposal-campaign-2010-to-2012
#2
Itzhak Yanovitzky
This study is the first to analyze public response to a drug take-back program, the American Medicine Chest Challenge, in a single state over a period of 3 years (2010-2012). The study utilized a three-wave repeated cross-sectional design and an annual phone survey conducted with a representative sample of adults ( N = 906 in 2010, N = 907 in 2011, and N = 906 in 2012), which assessed exposure to the campaign, drug disposal behaviors, possible mediators of campaign effects (risk appraisal, personal agency, normative influence, and interpersonal talk), and potential confounders...
August 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716904/intracellular-zinc-activates-kcnq-channels-by-reducing-their-dependence-on-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate
#3
Haixia Gao, Aurélien Boillat, Dongyang Huang, Ce Liang, Chris Peers, Nikita Gamper
M-type (Kv7, KCNQ) potassium channels are proteins that control the excitability of neurons and muscle cells. Many physiological and pathological mechanisms of excitation operate via the suppression of M channel activity or expression. Conversely, pharmacological augmentation of M channel activity is a recognized strategy for the treatment of hyperexcitability disorders such as pain and epilepsy. However, physiological mechanisms resulting in M channel potentiation are rare. Here we report that intracellular free zinc directly and reversibly augments the activity of recombinant and native M channels...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716198/herd-specific-interventions-to-reduce-antimicrobial-usage-in-pig-production-without-jeopardising-technical-and-economic-performance
#4
L Collineau, C Rojo-Gimeno, A Léger, A Backhans, S Loesken, E Okholm Nielsen, M Postma, U Emanuelson, E Grosse Beilage, M Sjölund, E Wauters, K D C Stärk, J Dewulf, C Belloc, S Krebs
Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage in order to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Herd-level intervention is needed to achieve national and European reduction targets. Alternative, especially preventive measures, have to be implemented to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments. However, little is known about the feasibility, effectiveness and return on investment of such measures. The objective of this study was to assess, across four countries, the technical and economic impact of herd-specific interventions aiming at reducing antimicrobial usage in pig production while implementing alternative measures...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716040/the-communication-between-patient-relatives-and-physicians-in-intensive-care-units
#5
Faruk Cicekci, Numan Duran, Bunyamin Ayhan, Sule Arican, Omur Ilban, Iskender Kara, Melda Turkoglu, Fatma Yildirim, Ismail Hasirci, Adnan Karaibrahimoglu, Inci Kara
BACKGROUND: Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are often physically unable to communicate with their physicians. Thus, the sharing of information about the on-going treatment of the patients in ICUs is directly related to the communication attitudes governing a patient's relatives and the physician. This study aims to analyze the attitudes displayed by the relatives of patients and the physician with the purpose of determining the communication between the two parties. METHODS: For data collection, two similar survey forms were created in context of the study; one for the relatives of the patients and one for the ICU physicians...
July 17, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715091/strongly-enhanced-photovoltaic-performance-and-defect-physics-of-air-stable-bismuth-oxyiodide-bioi
#6
Robert L Z Hoye, Lana C Lee, Rachel C Kurchin, Tahmida N Huq, Kelvin H L Zhang, Melany Sponseller, Lea Nienhaus, Riley E Brandt, Joel Jean, James Alexander Polizzotti, Ahmed Kursumović, Moungi G Bawendi, Vladimir Bulović, Vladan Stevanović, Tonio Buonassisi, Judith L MacManus-Driscoll
Bismuth-based compounds have recently gained increasing attention as potentially nontoxic and defect-tolerant solar absorbers. However, many of the new materials recently investigated show limited photovoltaic performance. Herein, one such compound is explored in detail through theory and experiment: bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI). BiOI thin films are grown by chemical vapor transport and found to maintain the same tetragonal phase in ambient air for at least 197 d. The computations suggest BiOI to be tolerant to antisite and vacancy defects...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715026/exchangeable-proton-endor-as-a-probe-of-the-redox-active-iron-center-in-activated-bleomycin-and-ferric-bleomycin
#7
Richard M Burger, Vladimir M Grigoryants, Charles P Scholes
Activated bleomycin (ABLM) is a drug-Fe(iii)-hydroperoxide complex kinetically competent in DNA attack (via H4' abstraction). This intermediate is relatively stable, but its spontaneous conversion to ferric bleomycin (Fe(iii)·BLM) is poorly characterized because no observable intermediate product accumulates. The Fe(iii)·BLM formed cryophotolytically from ABLM and kept at 77 K was remarkably similar by EPR and ENDOR criteria to Fe(iii)·BLM formed from Fe(iii) + BLM solution. The notable ENDOR criteria were the ENDOR frequencies and features of orientation-selected, strongly hyperfine-coupled, exchangeable protons associated with the environs of the iron within <3...
July 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714304/enhanced-thermochemical-stability-of-ch3nh3pbi3-perovskite-films-on-zinc-oxides-via-new-precursors-and-surface-engineering
#8
Fei Qin, Wei Meng, Jiacheng Fan, Chang Ge, Bangwu Luo, Ru Ge, Lin Hu, Fangyuan Jiang, Tiefeng Liu, Youyu Jiang, Yinhua Zhou
Hydroxyl groups on the surface of ZnO films lead to chemical decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films during thermal annealing, which limits the application of ZnO as a facile electron-transporting layer in perovskite solar cells. In this work, we report a new recipe that leads to substantially reduced hydroxyl groups on the surface of the resulting ZnO films by employing polyethylenimine (PEI) to replace generally-used ethanolamine in the precursor solutions. Films derived from the PEI-containing precursors are denoted as P-ZnO and those from the ethanoamine-containing precursors as E-ZnO...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714085/neural-control-of-sweat-secretion-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Y Hu, C Converse, M C Lyons, W H Hsu
Humans have 4 million exocrine sweat glands, which can be classified into two types: eccrine and apocrine glands. Sweat secretion is a constitutive feature, which is directly involved in thermoregulation and metabolism. Sweat secretion is regulated by both the central nervous system(1) and autonomic nervous system.(2) In peripheral areas, the ANS, especially the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), mediates the transmission of neurotransmitters to sweat glands. Two principal chemical mediators, acetylcholine and noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), are released by the SNS, which stimulate sweat secretion...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713933/mir%C3%A2-146b%C3%A2-5p-promotes-the-neural-conversion-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-targeting-smad4
#10
Nianping Zhang, Ying Lyu, Xuebing Pan, Liping Xu, Aiguo Xuan, Xiaosong He, Wandan Huang, Dahong Long
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are regarded as potential sources that provide specific neural cells for cell therapy in some nervous system diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the neural differentiation of PSCs remain largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of small non‑pro-tein-coding RNAs that act as critical regulatory molecules in many cellular processes. In this study, we found that miR‑146b‑5p expression was markedly increased following the neural induction of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced PSCs (iPSCs)...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713885/synergistic-effect-of-au-ag-nano-alloying-intense-seira-and-enhanced-catalysis
#11
Manoj Verma, M Boazbou Newmai, P Senthil Kumar
The well-known AuAg nanohybrid system was effectively synthesized, utilizing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a multiple metal precursor reducing agent (based solely on their reduction potentials), thereby drastically decreasing their activation energy of diffusion and readily facilitating the homogenous alloy nanoparticle formation, duly confirmed by Vegard's law. Furthermore, the crucial parameters in determining the local electric field enhancement in the vicinity of the alloy nanoparticles such as the quality factor Q, dephasing time, T2 and the homogenous line width Γ were also evaluated in a systematic manner, in correlation with their unique visible optical absorption spectra...
July 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713384/intact-cd100-cd72-interaction-necessary-for-tcr-induced-t-cell-proliferation
#12
Xiaojun Jiang, Niklas K Björkström, Espen Melum
Targeting CD100 by antibody blockade is a potential therapeutic strategy for cancers, but the functional effects on T cells following blockade of this immune activating molecule are rarely considered. Indeed, CD100 is highly expressed in T cells and anti-CD100 antibodies play a role during T cell proliferation; however, the outcome varies from different studies and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To address this, monoclonal antibody clones directed against CD100 were evaluated. In their soluble form, four of these antibodies significantly reduced the expansion of T cells in the presence of bead-bound anti-CD3/CD28, either in total peripheral blood mononuclear cell or purified T cell culture systems...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713301/understanding-the-impact-of-expertise-in-joint-and-solo-improvisation
#13
Johann Issartel, Mathieu Gueugnon, Ludovic Marin
Joint-improvisation is not only an open-ended creative action that two or more people perform together in the context of an artistic performance (e.g., theatre, music or dance). Joint-improvisation also takes place in daily life activities when humans take part in collective performance such as toddlers at play or adults engaged in a conversation. In the context of this article, joint-improvisation has been looked at from a social motor coordination perspective. In the literature, the nature of the social motor coordination characteristics of joint-improvisation for either the creative aspect or daily life features of this motor performance remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712086/pilot-study-investigating-ambient-air-toxics-emissions-near-a-canadian-kraft-pulp-and-paper-facility-in-pictou-county-nova-scotia
#14
Emma Hoffman, Judith R Guernsey, Tony R Walker, Jong Sung Kim, Kate Sherren, Pantelis Andreou
Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711830/low-energy-liquid-plasma-for-direct-reduction-and-formation-of-rgo-aminopyridine-hybrid-for-electrical-and-environmental-applications
#15
Jaganathan Senthilnathan, Masahiro Yoshimura
The present works demonstrate the formation of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) and aminopyridine (r-GO-(AmPy)n) hybrid by submerged liquid plasma process. Raman spectra shows the ID/IG ratio of GO, r-GO and r-GO-(AmPy)n are 2.2, 1.91 and 2.0, respectively. The decrease in ID/IG ratio of r-GO clearly indicate the reduction of oxygen functional groups and restoration of sp(2) network in r-GO domain. The pyridinic and pyrrolic functional group present in rGO-(AmPy)n hybrids shows a distinct redox peaks in cyclic voltameter at the scan rates of 5, 10 and 25mV/s...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711120/from-efficacy-to-global-impact-lessons-learned-about-what-not-to-do-in-translating-our-research-to-reach
#16
Carolyn B Becker
Although members of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies have made significant strides toward the collective goals outlined in our mission statement, we routinely acknowledge that our ability to develop empirically supported treatments exceeds our success in improving dissemination and implementation of said interventions. Further, as noted by Kazdin and Blase (2011), even if we succeeded in having every clinician worldwide administer our best treatments with excellent competency, we still would be unsuccessful in markedly impacting the worldwide burden of mental illness because most treatments require intensive labor by expensive providers...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710872/gacs-gaca-activates-pyoluteorin-biosynthesis-through-gac-rsm-rsme-cascade-and-rsma-rsme-driven-feedback-loop-in-pseudomonas-protegens-h78
#17
Zheng Wang, Xianqing Huang, Yujie Liu, Guohuan Yang, Yang Liu, Xuehong Zhang
The Gac/Rsm regulatory pathway in Pseudomonas spp. activates the production of various secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, siderophores, and exoenzymes. However, the biosynthesis of antifungal compound pyoluteorin (Plt) in Pseudomonas protegens H78 is almost entirely inhibited by double deletion of two csrA/rsmA family genes, namely, rsmA and rsmE. Here, we investigated the complicated regulatory mechanism of RsmA and RsmE in Plt biosynthesis in P. protegens H78. RsmE negatively regulated Plt biosynthesis and pltLABCDEFG expression by directly interacting with the mRNA leaders of pltR and pltAB...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710073/zinc-mediates-the-srebp-scd-axis-to-regulate-lipid-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Jing-Jing Zhang, Jun-Jun Hao, Yu-Ru Zhang, Yan-Li Wang, Ming-Yi Li, Hui-Lai Miao, Xiao-Ju Zou, Bin Liang
Maintenance of lipid homeostasis is crucial for cells in response to lipid requirements or surplus. The SREBPs transcription factors play essential roles in regulating lipid metabolism and are associated with many metabolic diseases. However, SREBP regulation of lipid metabolism is still less understood. Here, we show that reduction of SBP-1, the only homologue of SREBPs in C. elegans, surprisingly leads to high level of zinc. On the contrary, zinc reduction by mutation of sur-7, encoding a member of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family, restores the fat accumulation and fatty acid profile of sbp-1(ep79) mutant...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708866/a-new-index-for-characterizing-micro-bead-motion-in-a-flow-induced-by-ciliary-beating-part-ii-modeling
#19
Mathieu Bottier, Marta Peña Fernández, Gabriel Pelle, Daniel Isabey, Bruno Louis, James B Grotberg, Marcel Filoche
Mucociliary clearance is one of the major lines of defense of the human respiratory system. The mucus layer coating the airways is constantly moved along and out of the lung by the activity of motile cilia, expelling at the same time particles trapped in it. The efficiency of the cilia motion can experimentally be assessed by measuring the velocity of micro-beads traveling through the fluid surrounding the cilia. Here we present a mathematical model of the fluid flow and of the micro-beads motion. The coordinated movement of the ciliated edge is represented as a continuous envelope imposing a periodic moving velocity boundary condition on the surrounding fluid...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708765/distinct-behavioral-responses-evoked-by-selective-optogenetic-stimulation-of-the-major-trpv1-and-mrgd-subsets-of-c-fibers
#20
Hélène Beaudry, Ihab Daou, Ariel R Ase, Alfredo Ribeiro-da-Silva, Philippe Séguéla
Primary C-fiber nociceptors are broadly divided into peptidergic and non-peptidergic afferents. TRPV1 is a thermosensitive cation channel mainly localized in peptidergic nociceptors whereas MrgD is a sensory G protein-coupled receptor expressed in most non-peptidergic nociceptive afferents. TRPV1 and MrgD fibers have been reported to be primarily involved in thermal and mechanical nociception, respectively. Yet, their functional assessment in somatosensory transmission relied on ablation strategies that do not account for compensatory mechanisms...
July 12, 2017: Pain
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