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Hyeyoung Lee, Seung-Muk Yi, Thomas M Holsen, Yong-Seok Seo, Eunhwa Choi
Climate-relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration were compared using three methods: making use of CO2 concentration data, converting O2 concentration and waste characteristic data, and using a mass balance method following Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. For the first two methods, CO2 and O2 concentrations were measured continuously from 24 to 86 days. The O2 conversion method in comparison to the direct CO2 measurement method had a 4.8% mean difference in daily CO2 emissions for four incinerators where analyzed waste composition data were available...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
Kihong Kim
We study the mode conversion and resonant absorption phenomena occurring in a slab of a stratified anisotropic medium, optical axes of which are tilted with respect to the direction of inhomogeneity, using the invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation. When the tilt angle is zero, mode conversion occurs if the longitudinal component of the permittivity tensor, which is the one in the direction of inhomogeneity in the non-tilted case, varies from positive to negative values within the medium, while the transverse component plays no role...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Moritz Kuehnel, Erwin Reisner
Photocatalytic reforming of lignocellulosic biomass is an emerging approach to produce renewable H2. This process combines photo-oxidation of aqueous biomass with photocatalytic hydrogen evolution at ambient temperature and pressure. Biomass conversion is less energy demanding than water splitting and generates high-purity H2 without O2 production. Direct photoreforming of raw, unprocessed biomass has the potential to provide affordable, clean energy across the globe from locally sourced materials.
December 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Dorri Halbertal, Moshe Ben Shalom, Aviram Uri, Kousik Bagani, Alexander Y Meltzer, Ido Marcus, Yuri Myasoedov, John Birkbeck, Leonid S Levitov, Andre K Geim, Eli Zeldov
Conversion of electric current into heat involves microscopic processes that operate on nanometer length scales and release minute amounts of power. Although central to our understanding of the electrical properties of materials, individual mediators of energy dissipation have so far eluded direct observation. Using scanning nanothermometry with submicrokelvin sensitivity, we visualized and controlled phonon emission from individual atomic-scale defects in graphene. The inferred electron-phonon "cooling power spectrum" exhibits sharp peaks when the Fermi level comes into resonance with electronic quasi-bound states at such defects...
December 8, 2017: Science
Hye-Youn Kim, Huyen Trang Ha Thi, Suntaek Hong
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies and is associated with high mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapeutic targets. In this study, we demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 2 and 3 (IMP2 and IMP3) are specifically overexpressed in TNBC and cooperate to promote cell migration and invasion. Downregulation of both IMP2 and IMP3 in TNBC cells was found to produce a synergistic effect in suppressing cell invasion and invadopodia formation, whereas overexpression of IMP2 and IMP3 in luminal subtype cells enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
Li Wang, Siping Wei, Xianchao Pan, Pingxian Liu, Xi Du, Chun Zhang, Lin Pu, Qin Wang
A randomized library is constructed based on pET30a-CYP119-T214V plasmid. This library of random mutants of P450 119 T214V was screened by the reduced CO-difference spectra and the epoxidation of styrene. By using the directed evolution, a new P450119 quadruple mutant S148P/I161T/K199E/T214V is constructed, expressed and purified. This quadruple mutant is found to significantly increase the turnover rate and conversion for the asymmetric epoxidation of styrene and its derivatives. The kcat value of cis-beta-methylstyrene epoxidation catalysed by the quadruple mutant exhibits approximately 10-fold increase relative to the previously reported T213M mutant under the same conditions...
December 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Kyle H Vining, Jacob C Scherba, Alaina M Bever, Morgan R Alexander, Adam D Celiz, David J Mooney
Dental disease annually affects billions of patients, and while regenerative dentistry aims to heal dental tissue after injury, existing polymeric restorative materials, or fillings, do not directly participate in the healing process in a bioinstructive manner. There is a need for restorative materials that can support native functions of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), which are capable of regenerating dentin. A polymer microarray formed from commercially available monomers to rapidly identify materials that support DPSC adhesion is used...
December 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jheng-Yi Li, Chia-Hsiang Hung, Chia-Yun Chen
Metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) has been widely employed for the fabrication of regular silicon (Si) nanowire arrays. These features were originated from the directional etching of Si preferentially along <100> orientations through the catalytic assistance of metals, which could be gold, silver, platinum or palladium. In this study, the dramatic modulation of etching profiles toward pyramidal architectures was undertaken by utilizing copper as catalysts through a facile one-step etching process, which paved the exceptional way on the texturization of Si for advanced photovoltaic applications...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yusuke Mii, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Ritsuko Takada, Shuji Mizumoto, Makoto Matsuyama, Shuhei Yamada, Shinji Takada, Masanori Taira
Wnt proteins direct embryonic patterning, but the regulatory basis of their distribution and signal reception remain unclear. Here, we show that endogenous Wnt8 protein is distributed in a graded manner in Xenopus embryo and accumulated on the cell surface in a punctate manner in association with "N-sulfo-rich heparan sulfate (HS)," not with "N-acetyl-rich HS". These two types of HS are differentially clustered by attaching to different glypicans as core proteins. N-sulfo-rich HS is frequently internalized and associated with the signaling vesicle, known as the Frizzled/Wnt/LRP6 signalosome, in the presence of Wnt8...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
David A Hume, Evi Wollscheid-Lengeling, Rocio Rojo, Clare Pridans
The Csf1r locus encodes the receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which controls the proliferation, differentiation and survival of macrophages. The 300 bp Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE), within the second intron of Csf1r, is necessary and sufficient to direct macrophage-specific transcription. We have analysed the conservation and divergence of the FIRE DNA sequence in vertebrates. FIRE is present in the same location in the Csf1r locus in reptile, avian and mammalian genomes. Nearest neighbor analysis based upon this element alone largely recapitulates phylogenies inferred from much larger genomic sequence datasets...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Eri Chatani, Naoki Yamamoto
Amyloid fibrils are supramolecular protein assemblies with a fibrous morphology and cross-β structure. The formation of amyloid fibrils typically follows a nucleation-dependent polymerization mechanism, in which a one-step nucleation scheme has widely been accepted. However, a variety of oligomers have been identified in early stages of fibrillation, and a nucleated conformational conversion (NCC) mechanism, in which oligomers serve as a precursor of amyloid nucleation and convert to amyloid nuclei, has been proposed...
December 6, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck, Jacopo Catalano, Mette Birch Kristensen, Anders Bentien
This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC) which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017) [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A) the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B) the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Cintia Miranda Dos Santos, Jaqueline Ferreira Campos, Helder Freitas Dos Santos, José Benedito Perrella Balestieri, Denise Brentan Silva, Kely de Picoli Souza, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG) included di- and trigalloyl and phenylpropanyl heteroside derivatives, flavanones, diterpenes, and triterpenes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jason T Ku, Wiwik Simanjuntak, Ethan I Lan
Background: n-Butyraldehyde is a high-production volume chemical produced exclusively from hydroformylation of propylene. It is a versatile chemical used in the synthesis of diverse C4-C8 alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, and amines. Its high demand and broad applications make it an ideal chemical to be produced from biomass. Results: An Escherichia coli strain was engineered to produce n-butyraldehyde directly from glucose by expressing a modified Clostridium CoA-dependent n-butanol production pathway with mono-functional Coenzyme A-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) instead of the natural bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Kyle Sander, Keiji G Asano, Deepak Bhandari, Gary J Van Berkel, Steven D Brown, Brian Davison, Timothy J Tschaplinski
Background: Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum are prominent candidate biocatalysts that, together, can enable the direct biotic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. The imbalance and suboptimal turnover rates of redox cofactors are currently hindering engineering efforts to achieve higher bioproductivity in both organisms. Measuring relevant intracellular cofactor concentrations will help understand redox state of these cofactors and help identify a strategy to overcome these limitations; however, metabolomic determinations of these labile metabolites have historically proved challenging...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Stephanie N Hurwitz, Mujeeb R Cheerathodi, Dingani Nkosi, Sara B York, David G Meckes
The tetraspanin protein CD63 has been recently described as a key factor in extracellular vesicle (EV) production and endosomal cargo sorting. In the context of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, CD63 is required for the efficient packaging of the major viral oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) into exosomes and other EV populations, and acts as a negative regulator of LMP1 intracellular signaling. Accumulating evidence has also pointed to intersections of the endosomal and autophagy pathways in maintaining cellular secretory processes, and as sites for viral assembly and replication...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
Zohra M Kakall, Paul M Pilowsky, Melissa Mj Farnham
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intermittent hypoxia causes a persistent increase in sympathetic activity, which progresses to hypertension in chronic conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an excitatory neurotransmitter that causes long-lasting sympathetic excitation. We aimed to determine if intermittent activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) causes PACAP-mediated elevation of sympathetic nerve activity (sSNA), termed sympathetic long-term facilitation (sLTF)...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Lijun Hu, Kuan Sun, Ming Wang, Wei Chen, Bo Yang, Jiehao Fu, Zhuang Xiong, Xinyi Li, Xiaosheng Tang, Zhigang Zang, Shupeng Zhang, Lidong Sun, Meng Li
The performance of inverted perovskite solar cells is highly dependent on hole extraction and surface properties of hole transport layers. To highlight the important role of hole transport layers, a facile and simple method is developed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The average power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells prepared on NaCl-doped PEDOT:PSS is 17.1% with negligible hysteresis, compared favorably to the control devices (15...
December 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marcos Daniel Septimio Lanza, Marcello Rubens Barsi Andreeta, Thiago Amadei Pegoraro, Luiz Fernando Pegoraro, Ricardo Marins De Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Due to increasing of aesthetic demand, ceramic crowns are widely used in different situations. However, to obtain long-term prognosis of restorations, a good conversion of resin cement is necessary. To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of one light-cure and two dual-cure resin cements under a simulated clinical cementation of ceramic crowns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prepared teeth were randomly split according to the ceramic's material, resin cement and curing protocol...
November 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Mohamed Saeed, Ahmed Hamed, Zhenxing Wang, Mehrdad Shaygan, Daniel Neumaier, Renato Negra
This work demonstrates a design approach which enables the fabrication of fully integrated radio frequency (RF) and millimetre-wave frequency direct-conversion graphene receivers by adapting the frontend architecture to exploit the state-of-the-art performance of the recently reported wafer-scale CVD metal-insulator-graphene (MIG) diodes. As a proof-of-concept, we built a fully integrated microwave receiver in the frequency range 2.1-2.7 GHz employing the strong nonlinearity and the high responsivity of MIG diodes to successfully receive and demodulate complex, digitally modulated communication signals at 2...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale
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