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Nicola J Rutherford, Jess-Karan S Dhillon, Cara J Riffe, Jasie K Howard, Mieu Brooks, Benoit I Giasson
Parkinson's disease is one of many neurodegenerative diseases termed synucleinopathies, neuropathologically defined by inclusions containing aggregated α-synuclein. α-synuclein gene (SNCA) mutations can directly cause autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. In vitro studies demonstrated that SNCA missense mutations may either enhance or diminish α-synuclein aggregation but cross seeding of mutant and wild-type α-synuclein proteins appear to reduce aggregation efficiency. Here we extended these studies by assessing the effects of seeded α-synuclein aggregation in α-synuclein transgenic mice through intracerebral or peripheral injection of various mutant α-synuclein fibrils...
September 27, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Stefan Abrahamczyk, Sissi Lozada-Gobilard, Markus Ackermann, Eberhard Fischer, Vera Krieger, Almut Redling, Maximilian Weigend
Pollination syndromes and their predictive power regarding actual plant-animal interactions have been controversially discussed in the past. We investigate pollination syndromes in Balsaminaceae, utilizing quantitative respectively categorical data sets of flower morphometry, signal and reward traits for 86 species to test for the effect of different types of data on the test patterns retrieved. Cluster Analyses of the floral traits are used in combination with independent pollinator observations. Based on quantitative data we retrieve seven clusters, six of them corresponding to plausible pollination syndromes and one additional, well-supported cluster comprising highly divergent floral architectures...
2017: PloS One
Chu Kion Yao, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Breath hydrogen tests are popular, noninvasive tests for the assessment of carbohydrate fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD). There is limited information regarding the utility of breath hydrogen and methane tests in IBS and FD patients in East and Southeast Asia. This review aims to summarize current literature about common indications of breath testing in this region, the genesis of functional gastrointestinal symptoms by provocative breath testing and provide suggestions for correct use...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Janelle Drouin-Ouellet, Karolina Pircs, Roger A Barker, Johan Jakobsson, Malin Parmar
Direct neuronal reprogramming, by which a neuron is formed via direct conversion from a somatic cell without going through a pluripotent intermediate stage, allows for the possibility of generating patient-derived neurons. A unique feature of these so-called induced neurons (iNs) is the potential to maintain aging and epigenetic signatures of the donor, which is critical given that many diseases of the CNS are age related. Here, we review the published literature on the work that has been undertaken using iNs to model human brain disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kimberly G Kallianos, Emily M Webb, Miles Conrad, Bren Ahearn, David M Naeger
PURPOSE: Integrated interventional radiology (IR) residencies recently underwent their second year in the match, the first year of which involved only a limited number of programs. Now that students can choose to enter IR directly, student perceptions of IR vs diagnostic radiology (DR) are of paramount importance. METHODS: We surveyed first- through fourth-year medical students and radiology residents regarding interest in IR vs DR. RESULTS: Students considering a radiological career expressed more interest in IR than DR...
August 24, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
A Qamar, K LeBlanc, O Semeniuk, A Reznik, J Lin, Y Pan, A Moewes
We investigated the electronic structure of Lead Oxide (PbO) - one of the most promising photoconductor materials for direct conversion x-ray imaging detectors, using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy. Two structural configurations of thin PbO layers, namely the polycrystalline and the amorphous phase, were studied, and compared to the properties of powdered α-PbO and β-PbO samples. In addition, we performed calculations within the framework of density functional theory and found an excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured absorption and emission spectra, which indicates high accuracy of our structural models...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Eva Alisic, Shaminka Gunaratnam, Anna Barrett, Rowena Conroy, Helen Jowett, Silvia Bressan, Franz E Babl, Roderick McClure, Vicki Anderson, Matthias R Mehl
BACKGROUND: While talking about traumatic experiences is considered central to psychological recovery, little is known about how these conversations occur in daily life. OBJECTIVE: We investigated spontaneous injury talk among parents and children in the aftermath of a child's hospitalisation due to physical trauma, and its relationship with children's socioemotional functioning. METHODS: In a prospective naturalistic observation study, we audio-sampled the daily life of 71 families with the Electronically Activated Recorder after their child (3-16 years old) was discharged from hospital...
October 13, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Dena Schulman-Green, Cardinale B Smith, Jenny J Lin, Shelli Feder, Nina A Bickell
CONTEXT: While recommendations are for goals of care (GoC) conversations to happen early and often, their timing and content over the disease course remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To describe perceptions of the timing and content of GoC conversations among oncologists and patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with oncologists and patients at four hospitals in New York and Connecticut. We analyzed data using interpretive description...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Qi Chen, Sooyoun Yu, Nosang Myung, Wilfred Chen
Enzymatic fuel cells have received considerable attention because of their potential for direct conversion of abundant raw materials such as cellulose to electricity. The use of multi-enzyme cascades is particularly attractive as they offer the possibility of achieving a series of complex reactions at higher efficiencies. Here we reported the use of a DNA-guided approach to assemble a five-component enzyme cascade for direct conversion of cellulose to gluconic acid and H2O2. Site-specific co-localization of β-glucosidase and glucose oxidase resulted in over 11-fold improvement in H2O2 production from cellobiose, highlighting the benefit of substrate channeling...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Sarah D Brooks, Daniel C O Thornton
The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gasphase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
Isabelle Arnulf, Ginevra Uguccioni, Frederick Gay, Etienne Baldayrou, Jean-Louis Golmard, Frederique Gayraud, Alain Devevey
Objectives: Speech is a complex function in humans, but the linguistic characteristics of sleep talking are unknown. We analyzed sleep-associated speech in adults, mostly (92%) during parasomnias. Methods: The utterances recorded during night-time video-polysomnography were analyzed for number of words, propositions and speech episodes, frequency, gaps and pauses (denoting turn-taking in the conversation), lemmatization, verbosity, negative/imperative/interrogative tone, first/second person, politeness and abuse...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
Aaron M Coffey, Roman V Shchepin, Bibo Feng, Raul D Colon, Ken Wilkens, Kevin W Waddell, Eduard Y Chekmenev
Applications of parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) often warrant conversion of the chemically-synthesized singlet-state spin order into net heteronuclear magnetization. In order to obtain optimal yields from the overall hyperpolarization process, catalytic hydrogenation must be tightly synchronized to subsequent radiofrequency (RF) transformations of spin order. Commercial NMR consoles are designed to synchronize applied waves on multiple channels and consequently are well-suited as controllers for these types of hyperpolarization experiments that require tight coordination of RF and non-RF events...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Zhao Yuqing, Xing Yi, Li Lihua, Ma Juanjuan
Optical sensing for cysteine (Cys) recognition is an interesting topic due to Cys biological participation. In this paper, two rhodamine-based chemosensors were designed for Cys optical sensing. For chemosensor photostability improvement, up-conversion nanocrystals were synthesized and used as excitation host. These nanocrystals were modified with a phase transfer reagent α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) to improve their compatibility with chemosensors. An efficient energy transfer from these nanocrystals to chemosensors under 980nm radiation was observed and confirmed by spectral match analysis, energy transfer radius calculation and emission decay lifetime comparison...
October 4, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Derek R Johnson, Julie B Guerin, Caterina Giannini, Jonathan M Morris, Lawrence J Eckel, Timothy J Kaufmann
Radiologists play a key role in brain tumor diagnosis and management and must stay abreast of developments in the field to advance patient care and communicate with other health care providers. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an update to its brain tumor classification system that included numerous significant changes. Several previously recognized brain tumor diagnoses, such as oligoastrocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and gliomatosis cerebri, were redefined or eliminated altogether...
October 13, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Nemal S Gobalasingham, Jon E Carlé, Frederik C Krebs, Barry C Thompson, Eva Bundgaard, Martin Helgesen
Continuous flow methods are utilized in conjunction with direct arylation polymerization (DArP) for the scaled synthesis of the roll-to-roll compatible polymer, poly[(2,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)phenylene)-alt-(4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole)] (PPDTBT). PPDTBT is based on simple, inexpensive, and scalable monomers using thienyl-flanked benzothiadiazole as the acceptor, which is the first β-unprotected substrate to be used in continuous flow via DArP, enabling critical evaluation of the suitability of this emerging synthetic method for minimizing defects and for the scaled synthesis of high-performance materials...
October 13, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Alexander K Popov, Sergey A Myslivets
We propose metamaterial (MM) that supports a mixture of three or more normal and backward electromagnetic modes with equal co-directed phase velocities and mutually contra-directed energy fluxes. This enables extraordinary three-wave mixing, greatly enhanced optical parametric amplification, and frequency-changing generation of entangled photons in the reflection direction. Proof-of-principle numerical simulation of such processes is presented based on the particular example of the wave-guided terahertz waves contra-propagating in the MM made of carbon nanotubes...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Anne M Benneker, Hans David Wendt, Rob G H Lammertink, Jeffery A Wood
Charge selective asymmetric nanochannels are used for a variety of applications, such as nanofluidic sensing devices and energy conversion applications. In this paper, we numerically investigate the influence of an applied temperature difference over tapered nanochannels on the resulting charge transport and flow behavior. Using a temperature-dependent formulation of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations, various nanochannel geometries are investigated. Temperature has a large influence on the total ion transport, as the diffusivity of ions and viscosity of the solution are strongly affected by temperature...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Takor B Arrey-Mbi, Seth M Klusewitz, Todd C Villines
Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is a highly accurate test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), with its use guided by numerous contemporary appropriate use criteria and clinical guidelines. Unique among non-invasive tests for CAD, coronary CTA provides direct visualization of coronary atherosclerosis for the assessment of angiographic stenosis, as well as validated measures of plaque vulnerability. Long-term studies now clearly demonstrate that the absence of CAD on coronary CTA identifies a patient that is at very low risk for future cardiovascular events...
October 12, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Lu Liu, Huanxian Cui, Ruiqi Fu, Maiqing Zheng, Ranran Liu, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
BACKGROUND: The lipid from egg yolk is largely consumed in supplying the energy for embryonic growth until hatching. The remaining lipid in the yolk sac is transported into the hatchling's tissues. The gene expression profiles of fast- and slow-growing chickens, Arbor Acres (AA) and Beijing-You (BJY), were determined to identify global differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways related to lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major at hatching. RESULTS: Between these two breeds, the absolute and weight-specific amounts of total yolk energy (TYE) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in pectoralis major of fast-growing chickens were significantly higher (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Zhen Li, Ning Chen, Jigang Wang, Peishen Li, Ming Guo, Qiang Wang, Chunhong Li, Changzheng Wang, Tao Guo, Shaowei Chen
Zirconium phosphide (ZrP) powders were synthesized by elemental combination method via the direct reaction of zirconium powders with red phosphorus, and characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS, XRF, SAED and TEM measurements. The obtained ZrP powders were found to exhibit apparent activity in the ready eliminateion of nitric oxide (NO) via facile redox reactions, and the elimination dynamics was evaluated within the context of various important experimental parameters, such as reaction temperature and gas concentration...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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