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GiulianoFrancesco Timossi, Antonio Fornieri, Federico Paolucci, Claudio Puglia, Francesco Giazotto
A fundamental aspect of electronics is the ability to distribute a charge current among different terminals. On the other hand, despite the great interest in dissipation, storage and conversion of heat in solid state structures, the control of thermal currents at the nanoscale is still in its infancy. Here, we show the experimental realization of a phase-tunable thermal router able to control the spatial distribution of an incoming heat current, thus providing the possibility of tuning the electronic temperatures of two output terminals...
February 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Yanqi Qiao, Yajun Peng, Yuanlin Zheng, Fangwei Ye, Xianfeng Chen
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is always a significant frequency conversion process in nonlinear optics for many great applications but can be limited when broadband spectral laser sources are involved, e.g., femtosecond pulses. The conversion efficiency can be high, but the spectral control is hard because of the phase-matching (PM) limitation. Recently, a random quasi-phase-matching (QPM) scheme was proposed to make use of highly nonlinear materials that are difficult to be phase matched under traditional configurations...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mingji Zhang, Siu Wing Or
A novel gradient-type magnetoelectric (ME) current sensor operating in magnetic field gradient (MFG) detection and conversion mode is developed based on a pair of ME composites that have a back-to-back capacitor configuration under a baseline separation and a magnetic biasing in an electrically-shielded and mechanically-enclosed housing. The physics behind the current sensing process is the product effect of the current-induced MFG effect associated with vortex magnetic fields of current-carrying cables (i...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Myriam Hayder, Matteo Garzoni, Davide Bochicchio, Anne-Marie Caminade, François Couderc, Varravaddheay Ong-Meang, Jean-Luc Davignon, Cédric-Olivier Turrin, Giovanni M Pavan, Remy Poupot
Dendrimers are nanosized, non-linear, hyperbranched polymers whose overall three-dimensional shape is key for their biological activity. Poly(PhosphorHydrazone) (PPH) dendrimers capped with aza-bisphosphonate (ABP) end groups are known to have anti-inflammatory properties enabling the control of inflammatory diseases in different mouse models. Here we screen the anti-inflammatory activity of a series of PPH bearing between 2 and 16 ABP end groups in a mouse model of arthritis, and confront the biological results with atomistic simulations of the dendrimers...
February 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Qingming Ma, Hao Yuan, Yang Song, Youchuang Chao, Sze Yi Mak, Ho Cheung Shum
Partitioning refers to the distribution of solute molecules in the two immiscible phases of a mixture of two solutions, such as an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The partitioning of RNA and peptide has been adjusted in situ to facilitate their assembly into intracellular membraneless organelles. Despite the immense potential of this approach in artificial systems, a partitioning-dependent assembly of macromolecules has been limited, due to the sophisticated processing associated with their in situ modification...
February 14, 2018: Soft Matter
Shelby Shrigley, Karolina Pircs, Roger A Barker, Malin Parmar, Janelle Drouin-Ouellet
Induced neurons (iNs), the product of somatic cells directly converted to neurons, are a way to obtain patient-derived neurons from tissue that is easily accessible. Through this route, mature neurons can be obtained in a matter of a few weeks. Here, we describe a straightforward and rapid one-step protocol to obtain iNs from dermal fibroblasts obtained through biopsy samples from adult human donors. We explain each step of the process, including the maintenance of the dermal fibroblasts, the freezing procedure to build a stock of the cell line, seeding of the cells for reprogramming, as well as the culture conditions during the conversion process...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, Ho Lam Tang
Anastasis (Greek for "rising to life") is a recently discovered cell recovery phenomenon whereby dying cells can reverse late-stage cell death processes that are generally assumed to be intrinsically irreversible. Promoting anastasis could in principle rescue or preserve injured cells that are difficult to replace such as cardiomyocytes or neurons, thereby facilitating tissue recovery. Conversely, suppressing anastasis in cancer cells, undergoing apoptosis after anti-cancer therapies, may ensure cancer cell death and reduce the chances of recurrence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rachel R Romeo, Julia A Leonard, Sydney T Robinson, Martin R West, Allyson P Mackey, Meredith L Rowe, John D E Gabrieli
Children's early language exposure impacts their later linguistic skills, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement, and large disparities in language exposure are associated with family socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is little evidence about the neural mechanisms underlying the relation between language experience and linguistic and cognitive development. Here, language experience was measured from home audio recordings of 36 SES-diverse 4- to 6-year-old children. During a story-listening functional MRI task, children who had experienced more conversational turns with adults-independently of SES, IQ, and adult-child utterances alone-exhibited greater left inferior frontal (Broca's area) activation, which significantly explained the relation between children's language exposure and verbal skill...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Peter J Collins, Ulrike Hahn, Ylva von Gerber, Erik J Olsson
Much of what we believe we know, we know through the testimony of others (Coady, 1992). While there has been long-standing evidence that people are sensitive to the characteristics of the sources of testimony, for example in the context of persuasion, researchers have only recently begun to explore the wider implications of source reliability considerations for the nature of our beliefs. Likewise, much remains to be established concerning what factors influence source reliability. In this paper, we examine, both theoretically and empirically, the implications of using message content as a cue to source reliability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lai Man Natalie Wu, Yaqi Deng, Jincheng Wang, Chuntao Zhao, Jiajia Wang, Rohit Rao, Lingli Xu, Wenhao Zhou, Kwangmin Choi, Tilat A Rizvi, Marc Remke, Joshua B Rubin, Randy L Johnson, Thomas J Carroll, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, Jianqiang Wu, Yi Zheng, Mei Xin, Nancy Ratner, Q Richard Lu
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive Schwann cell (SC)-lineage-derived sarcomas. Molecular events driving SC-to-MPNST transformation are incompletely understood. Here, we show that human MPNSTs exhibit elevated HIPPO-TAZ/YAP expression, and that TAZ/YAP hyperactivity in SCs caused by Lats1/2 loss potently induces high-grade nerve-associated tumors with full penetrance. Lats1/2 deficiency reprograms SCs to a cancerous, progenitor-like phenotype and promotes hyperproliferation...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Matteo Lostaglio
We discuss the role of contextuality within quantum fluctuation theorems, in the light of a recent no-go result by Perarnau-Llobet et al. We show that any fluctuation theorem reproducing the two-point-measurement scheme for classical states either admits a notion of work quasiprobability or fails to describe protocols exhibiting contextuality. Conversely, we describe a protocol that smoothly interpolates between the two-point-measurement work distribution for projective measurements and Allahverdyan's work quasiprobability for weak measurements, and show that the negativity of the latter is a direct signature of contextuality...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
D Goltzman
Vitamin D, synthesized in the skin or absorbed from the diet, undergoes multi-step enzymatic conversion to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D], followed by interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), to modulate target gene expression. Loss-of function mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes regulating these processes, or in the VDR, result in human diseases, which have demonstrated the paramount role of 1,25(OH) 2 D in mineral and skeletal homeostasis. Mouse genetics has been used to create disease phenocopies which have produced considerable insight into the mechanisms of 1,25(OH) 2 D regulation of mineral and skeletal metabolism...
February 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jinyun Yuan, Wenhua Zhang, Xingxing Li, Jinlong Yang
Employing first principles calculations, we show a two-step reaction mechanism for direct methane oxidation to methanol over a single atom Co-embedded graphene (Gr) catalyst, with N2O as the O-donor molecule. C-H activation is the rate-limiting step. The high reaction activity and selectivity under mild conditions were predicted for this catalyst.
February 13, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ri-Su Na, Cong Ma, Qiao-Rui Liu, Li-Ming Wu, Xu-Lei Zheng, Zhi-Wen Liu
The primarily metabolic abnormality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the defect in gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Itraconazole (ITCZ) is a traditional azole drug with anti-fungal and anticancer properties. However, limited attention has been directed towards the contribution of ITCZ to hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake in T2DM. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of ITCZ on hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake as well as the underlying mechanisms. No obvious change in cell viability was detected by MTT assay in HepG2 cells with ITCZ treatment at gradually increasing concentrations...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, David S Pisetsky, Christoph Kolling, Beat A Michel, Renate E Gay, Astrid Jüngel, Steffen Gay
Extracellular vesicles (EV) can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Prawpan Inpota, Kamil Strzelak, Robert Koncki, Wisaroot Sripumkhai, Wutthinan Jeamsaksiri, Nuanlaor Ratanawimarnwong, Prapin Wilairat, Nathawut Choengchan, Rattikan Chantiwas, Duangjai Nacapricha
A microfluidic method with front-face fluorometric detection was developed for the determination of total inorganic iodine in drinking water. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device was employed in conjunction with the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, in which iodide catalyzed the redox reaction between Ce(IV) and As(III). Direct alignment of an optical fiber attached to a spectrofluorometer was used as a convenient detector for remote front-face fluorometric detection. Trace inorganic iodine (IO3- and I-) present naturally in drinking water was measured by on-line conversion of iodate to iodide for determination of total inorganic iodine...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Ravi Maheswaran, Mark Strong, Phil Clifford, Louise Brewins
BACKGROUND: Evidence linking selective migration (the situation where people in good health move from deprived to affluent areas, whilst people in poor health move in the opposite direction) within local areas to mortality is inconclusive. METHODS: Mortality in within-city migrants was examined using a Sheffield population cohort, adjusted for moves to care homes. The cohort comprised 310 894 people aged 25+ years in 2001 followed up for 9.18 years, with 42 252 (13...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
L M Du Plessis, M H McLachlan, S E Drimie
BACKGROUND: Breede Valley is a sub-district of the Cape Winelands district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The administrative capital of the district is situated in the semi-rural town Worcester. Findings of a baseline survey in Worcester revealed poor infant feeding practices and childhood under- and overnutrition, with particular concern over high levels of stunting and low dietary diversity. Maternal overweight and obesity was high. These characteristics made the site suitable to study multi-sectoral arrangements for infant and young child nutrition (IYCN)...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Yan Bing Tan, Tsuyoshi Kawai, Junpei Yuasa
This work demonstrates that ligand-to-ligand interactions between achiral bis-β-diketonate (BTP) and chiral bis(4-phenyl-2-oxazolinyl)pyridine [(R)- or (S)-Ph-Pybox] are successfully directed to the fabrication of a D2-symmetrical alternating circular helicate with the general formula [(R)- or (S)-Ph-Pybox]4(LnIII)4(BTP)6. The lanthanide(III) LnIII assemblies (LnIII4-RRRR and LnIII4-SSSS) have a nanometer-size square-like grid (interatomic distances > 10 Å). X-ray structure analysis revealed that the circular helicate contains two double helicate LnIII2L2 units, where both show (M)-helicity for LnIII4-RRRR and (P)-helicity for LnIII4-SSSS, where π-π stacking interaction is present between the side arm of (R)-Ph-Pybox (Ph1) and the adjacent BTP ligand around the EuIII metal center (dππ = 3...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ji Hyun Youn, Tae-Woo Kim, Se-Hwan Joo, Seung-Hyun Son, Jeehee Roh, Sunyoung Kim, Tae-Wuk Kim, Seong-Ki Kim
DWARF1 (DWF1) is a sterol C-24 reductase that catalyzes the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol (24-MCHR) to campesterol (CR) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A loss-of-function mutant, dwf1, showed similar phenotypic abnormalities to brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutants. These abnormalities were reversed in the wild-type phenotype by exogenous application of each castasterone (CS) and brassinolide (BL), but not dolichosterone (DS). Accumulation of DS and decreased CS were found in quantitative analysis of endogenous BRs in dwf1...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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