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Cellular Reprogramming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922662/metabolic-reprogramming-and-ampk%C3%AE-1-pathway-activation-by-caulerpin-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#1
Hua Yu, Huiqin Zhang, Mingjun Dong, Zhou Wu, Zhonglei Shen, Yangyang Xie, Zhenfang Kong, Xiaoyu Dai, Binbin Xu
Caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunctions. In this study, the anticancer property of caulerpin was assessed in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that caulerpin inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and facilitated an early intervention of the mitochondrial function, via inhibiting mitochondrial complex I, accompanied by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and a surge of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919263/derivation-of-chicken-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-tolerant-to-newcastle-disease-virus-induced-lysis-through-multiple-rounds-of-infection
#2
Leonardo Susta, Ying He, Jessica M Hutcheson, Yangqing Lu, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice, Ping Yu, Zaid Abdo, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV-caused disease. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology allows adult cells to be reprogrammed into an embryonic stem cell-like state capable of contributing to live offspring and passing on unique traits in a number of species...
December 5, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918060/effect-of-small-molecules-on-cell-reprogramming
#3
REVIEW
M Baranek, A Belter, M Z Naskręt-Barciszewska, M Stobiecki, W T Markiewicz, J Barciszewski
The essential idea of regenerative medicine is to fix or replace tissues or organs with alive and patient-specific implants. Pluripotent stem cells are able to indefinitely self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of the body which makes them a potent substantial player in regenerative medicine. The easily accessible source of induced pluripotent stem cells may allow obtaining and cultivating tissues in vitro. Reprogramming refers to regression of mature cells to its initial pluripotent state. One of the approaches affecting pluripotency is the usage of low molecular mass compounds that can modulate enzymes and receptors leading to the formation of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
December 5, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917895/small-molecules-increase-direct-neural-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts
#4
Ulrich Pfisterer, Fredrik Ek, Stefan Lang, Shamit Soneji, Roger Olsson, Malin Parmar
The generation of human induced neurons (hiNs) via exogenous delivery of neural transcription factors represents a novel technique to obtain disease and patient specific neurons. These cells have the potential to be used for disease modeling, diagnostics and drug screening, and also to be further developed for brain repair. In the present study, we utilized hiNs to develop an unbiased screening assay for small molecules that increase the conversion efficiency. Using this assay, we screened 307 compounds from five annotated libraries and identified six compounds that were very potent in potentiating the reprogramming process...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916001/sirtuins-in-metabolism-dna-repair-and-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Zhen Mei, Xian Zhang, Jiarong Yi, Junjie Huang, Jian He, Yongguang Tao
The mammalian sirtuin family has attracted tremendous attention over the past few years as stress adaptors and post-translational modifier. They have involved in diverse cellular processes including DNA repair, energy metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Notably, genomic instability and metabolic reprogramming are two of characteristic hallmarks in cancer. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the functions of sirtuins mainly regarding DNA repair and energy metabolism, and further discuss the implication of sirtuins in cancer specifically by regulating genome integrity and cancer-related metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915033/survivin-controls-biogenesis-of-microrna-in-smokers-a-link-to-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Karin M E Andersson, Minna Turkkila, Malin C Erlandsson, Apostolos Bossios, Sofia Töyrä Silfverswärd, Dan Hu, Linda Ekerljung, Carina Malmhäll, Howard L Weiner, Bo Lundbäck, Maria I Bokarewa
MicroRNAs (miRs) represent a part of epigenetic control of autoimmunity gaining increasing attention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since cigarette smoking plays important role in RA pathogenesis and reprograms transcriptional profile of miRNAs, we ask if the onco-protein survivin, a novel biomarker of RA, may provide a link between smoking and miRNA. Studying survivin expression in leukocytes of 144 female RA patients we observed that smoking patients had higher survivin transcription and a remarkable spreading of survivin isoforms...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906098/direct-reprogramming-of-urine-derived-cells-with-inducible-myod-for-modeling-human-muscle-disease
#7
Ellis Y Kim, Patrick Page, Lisa M Dellefave-Castillo, Elizabeth M McNally, Eugene J Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Cellular models of muscle disease are taking on increasing importance with the large number of genes and mutations implicated in causing myopathies and the concomitant need to test personalized therapies. Developing cell models relies on having an easily obtained source of cells, and if the cells are not derived from muscle itself, a robust reprogramming process is needed. Fibroblasts are a human cell source that works well for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, which can then be differentiated into cardiomyocyte lineages, and with less efficiency, skeletal muscle-like lineages...
September 15, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895033/molecular-pathways-deciphering-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-macrophage-targeted-therapies
#8
Daniela F Quail, Johanna A Joyce
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major cellular component of numerous tumor types. TAM-targeted therapies include depletion strategies, inhibiting their effector functions, or reprogramming towards an anti-tumorigenic phenotype, with varying degrees of efficacy. Here we review preclinical and clinical strategies to target macrophages in cancer, and discuss potential explanations for why some strategies are effective while other approaches have shown limited success.
November 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893464/the-h3k9-dimethyltransferases-ehmt1-2-protect-against-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy
#9
Bernard Thienpont, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Emma Louise Robinson, Hanneke Okkenhaug, Elena Loche, Arianna Ferrini, Patrick Brien, Kanar Alkass, Antonio Tomasso, Asmita Agrawal, Olaf Bergmann, Ivar Sjaastad, Wolf Reik, Hywel Llewelyn Roderick
Cardiac hypertrophic growth in response to pathological cues is associated with reexpression of fetal genes and decreased cardiac function and is often a precursor to heart failure. In contrast, physiologically induced hypertrophy is adaptive, resulting in improved cardiac function. The processes that selectively induce these hypertrophic states are poorly understood. Here, we have profiled 2 repressive epigenetic marks, H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, which are involved in stable cellular differentiation, specifically in cardiomyocytes from physiologically and pathologically hypertrophied rat hearts, and correlated these marks with their associated transcriptomes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893223/intervention-with-the-mother-infant-relationship-reduces-cell-proliferation-in-the-locus-coeruleus-of-female-rat-pups
#10
Elisa Cristiana Winkelmann Duarte, Márcia Scherem de Azevedo, Gabriela Augusta Mateus Pereira, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Aldo Bolten Lucion
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a noradrenergic nucleus involved in several neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. During the neonatal period, the LC is critical for olfactory learning. Full development occurs during the early postnatal period. Environmental interventions after birth may affect neurogenesis. In rats, the neonatal handling procedure has been used as a model to analyze the effects of environmental intervention early in life. It has been related to several long-lasting behavioral and neuroendocrine changes...
November 28, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890924/cellular-plasticity-in-kidney-injury-and-repair
#11
REVIEW
Monica Chang-Panesso, Benjamin D Humphreys
Terminally differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency or directly to another differentiated cell type in vitro, a capacity termed cellular plasticity. Plasticity is not limited to in vitro manipulations but rather represents an important aspect of the regenerative response to injury in organs. Differentiated adult cells retain the capacity to dedifferentiate, adopting a progenitor-like phenotype after injury or, alternatively, to transdifferentiate, directly converting to a different mature cell type...
November 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890797/3-bromopyruvate-treatment-induces-alterations-of-metabolic-and-stress-related-pathways-in-glioblastoma-cells
#12
Davide Chiasserini, Magdalena Davidescu, Pier Luigi Orvietani, Federica Susta, Lara Macchioni, Maya Petricciuolo, Emilia Castigli, Rita Roberti, Luciano Binaglia, Lanfranco Corazzi
: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumours of adults. The metabolic phenotype of GBM cells is highly dependent on glycolysis; therefore, therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with glycolytic pathways are under consideration. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a potent antiglycolytic agent, with a variety of targets and possible effects on global cell metabolism. Here we analyzed the changes in protein expression on a GBM cell line (GL15 cells) caused by 3BP treatment using a global proteomic approach...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888287/wnt-signaling-and-cellular-metabolism-in-osteoblasts
#13
REVIEW
Courtney M Karner, Fanxin Long
The adult human skeleton is a multifunctional organ undergoing continuous remodeling. Homeostasis of bone mass in a healthy adult requires an exquisite balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts; disturbance of such balance is the root cause for various bone disorders including osteoporosis. To develop effective and safe therapeutics to modulate bone formation, it is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing osteoblast differentiation and activity. Due to their specialized function in collagen synthesis and secretion, osteoblasts are expected to consume large amounts of nutrients...
November 26, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884981/tissue-damage-and-senescence-provide-critical-signals-for-cellular-reprogramming-in-vivo
#14
Lluc Mosteiro, Cristina Pantoja, Noelia Alcazar, Rosa M Marión, Dafni Chondronasiou, Miguel Rovira, Pablo J Fernandez-Marcos, Maribel Muñoz-Martin, Carmen Blanco-Aparicio, Joaquin Pastor, Gonzalo Gómez-López, Alba De Martino, Maria A Blasco, María Abad, Manuel Serrano
Reprogramming of differentiated cells into pluripotent cells can occur in vivo, but the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. Senescence is a cellular response to damage, characterized by abundant production of cytokines and other secreted factors that, together with the recruitment of inflammatory cells, result in tissue remodeling. Here, we show that in vivo expression of the reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC (OSKM) in mice leads to senescence and reprogramming, both coexisting in close proximity...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881075/modelling-microbial-metabolic-rewiring-during-growth-in-a-complex-medium
#15
Marco Fondi, Emanuele Bosi, Luana Presta, Diletta Natoli, Renato Fani
BACKGROUND: In their natural environment, bacteria face a wide range of environmental conditions that change over time and that impose continuous rearrangements at all the cellular levels (e.g. gene expression, metabolism). When facing a nutritionally rich environment, for example, microbes first use the preferred compound(s) and only later start metabolizing the other one(s). A systemic re-organization of the overall microbial metabolic network in response to a variation in the composition/concentration of the surrounding nutrients has been suggested, although the range and the entity of such modifications in organisms other than a few model microbes has been scarcely described up to now...
November 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879349/ncam1-polysialylation-the-prion-protein-s-elusive-reason-for-being
#16
REVIEW
Mohadeseh Mehrabian, Herbert Hildebrandt, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms
Much confusion surrounds the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). It is, however, anticipated that knowledge of its function will shed light on its contribution to neurodegenerative diseases and suggest ways to interfere with the cellular toxicity central to them. Consequently, efforts to elucidate its function have been all but exhaustive. Building on earlier work that uncovered the evolutionary descent of the prion founder gene from an ancestral ZIP zinc transporter, we recently investigated a possible role of PrP(C) in a morphogenetic program referred to as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876670/a-model-of-dynamic-stability-of-h3k9me3-heterochromatin-to-explain-the-resistance-to-reprogramming-of-differentiated-cells
#17
Charly Jehanno, Gilles Flouriot, Pascale Le Goff, Denis Michel
Despite their dynamic nature, certain chromatin marks must be maintained over the long term. This is particulary true for histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) trimethylation, that is involved in the maintenance of healthy differentiated cellular states by preventing inappropriate gene expression, and has been recently identified as the most efficient barrier to cellular reprogramming in nuclear transfer experiments. We propose that the capacity of the enzymes SUV39H1/2 to rebind to a minor fraction of their products, either directly or via HP1α/β, contributes to the solidity of this mark through (i) a positive feedback involved in its establishment by the mutual enforcement of H3K9me3 and SUV39H1/2 and then (ii) a negative feedback sufficient to strongly stabilize H3K9me3 heterochromatin in post-mitotic cells by generating local enzyme concentrations capable of counteracting transient bursts of demethylation...
November 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875275/histone-chaperone-aplf-regulates-induction-of-pluripotency-in-murine-fibroblasts
#18
Khaja Mohieddin Syed, Sunu Joseph, Ananda Mukherjee, Aditi Majumder, Jose M Teixeira, Debasree Dutta, Madhavan Radhakrishna Pillai
Induction of pluripotency in differentiated cells by the exogenous expression of transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc, involves reprogramming at the epigenetic level. Histones and their metabolism governed by histone chaperones constitute a significant aspect of epigenetics. We hypothesized that histone chaperones might facilitate or inhibit the course of reprogramming. For the first time, we report here that the downregulation of histone chaperone Aprataxin PNK-like factor (APLF) promotes reprogramming by augmenting the expression of E-cadherin (Cdh1), implicated in mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) involved in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873277/the-use-of-chromatin-precipitation-coupled-to-dna-sequencing-chip-seq-for-the-analysis-of-zta-binding-to-the-human-and-ebv-genome
#19
Anja Godfrey, Sharada Ramasubramanyan, Alison J Sinclair
Determining which components of the transcription machinery associate with the viral and cellular genome, and how this changes at specific stages of the viral life cycle is paramount to understanding how the distinct transcriptional programs associated with primary infection, latency, and disease are established and how they are reprogrammed during initiation and execution of the viral lytic replication cycle. Chromatin precipitations linked to next generation DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) allow for the interactions of proteins with DNA to be mapped across both viral and cellular genomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872710/linc-ror-and-its-spliced-variants-2-and-4-are-significantly-up-regulated-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Reza Sahebi, Mahshid Malakootian, Baharak Balalaee, Alireza Shahryari, Masoud Khoshnia, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Abdolvahab Moradi, Seyed Javad Mowla
OBJECTIVES: Similar characteristics of molecular pathways between cellular reprogramming events and tumorigenesis have been accentuated in recent years. Reprogramming-related transcription factors, also known as Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC), are also well-known oncogenes promoting cancer initiation, progression, and cellular transformation into cancer stem cells. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a major class of RNA molecules with emerging roles in stem cell pluripotency, cellular reprogramming, cellular transformation, and tumorigenesis...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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