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Cellular Reprogramming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346164/the-nuclear-receptor-nor-1-is-a-pleiotropic-regulator-of-exercise-induced-adaptations
#1
Michael A Pearen, George E O Muscat
Exercise induces various physical and metabolic changes in skeletal muscle that adaptively reprograms this tissue to current physiological and environmental demands. Underlying these changes are broad modifications to gene expression. We postulate that the nuclear hormone receptor, Nor-1, is activated following exercise and this transcription factor modifies gene expression to drive the molecular and cellular adaptations associated with contractile reorganization.
January 15, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345000/cell-death-under-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-control-in-prostate-cancer-therapeutic-response
#2
REVIEW
Diane Begemann, Harry Anastos, Natasha Kyprianou
Prostate cancer is a widespread problem among men, with >160 000 new cases in 2017 alone. Androgen deprivation therapy is commonly used in prostate cancer treatment to block androgens required for cancer growth, but disease relapse after androgen deprivation therapy is both common and severe. Changes in androgen receptor signaling from androgen deprivation therapy have been linked to therapeutic resistance and tumor progression. Resistant cells can become reprogrammed to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a phenotypic switch from benign, epithelial cells to a mobile cell with mesenchymal traits...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342871/interferons-reprogramming-the-metabolic-network-against-viral-infection
#3
REVIEW
Kavita Raniga, Chen Liang
Viruses exploit the host and induce drastic metabolic changes to ensure an optimal environment for replication and the production of viral progenies. In response, the host has developed diverse countermeasures to sense and limit these alterations to combat viral infection. One such host mechanism is through interferon signaling. Interferons are cytokines that enhances the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) whose products are key players in the innate immune response to viral infection...
January 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339820/histone-variant-macroh2a1-plays-an-isoform-specific-role-in-suppressing-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#4
Dayle Q Hodge, Jihong Cui, Matthew J Gamble, Wenjun Guo
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a biological program that plays key roles in various developmental and pathological processes. Although much work has been done on signaling pathways and transcription factors regulating EMT, the epigenetic regulation of EMT remains not well understood. Histone variants have been recognized as a key group of epigenetic regulators. Among them, macroH2A1 is involved in stem cell reprogramming and cancer progression. We postulated that macroH2A1 may play a role in EMT, a process involving reprogramming of cellular states...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335749/diversity-among-pou-transcription-factors-in-chromatin-recognition-and-cell-fate-reprogramming
#5
REVIEW
Vikas Malik, Dennis Zimmer, Ralf Jauch
The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) protein family is an evolutionary ancient group of transcription factors (TFs) that bind specific DNA sequences to direct gene expression programs. The fundamental importance of POU TFs to orchestrate embryonic development and to direct cellular fate decisions is well established, but the molecular basis for this activity is insufficiently understood. POU TFs possess a bipartite 'two-in-one' DNA binding domain consisting of two independently folding structural units connected by a poorly conserved and flexible linker...
January 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335068/imprinted-gene-zinc-finger-protein-127-is-a-novel-regulator-of-master-pluripotency-transcription-factor-oct4
#6
Yoo-Wook Kwon, Hyo-Suk Ahn, Joo-Young Park, Han-Mo Yang, Hyun-Jai Cho, Hyo-Soo Kim
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show great promise for replacing current stem cell therapies in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the original method for cellular reprogramming, involving four exogenous transcription factors, is characterized by low efficiency. Here, we focused on using epigenetic modifications to enhance the reprogramming efficiency. We hypothesized that there would be a new reprogramming factor involved in DNA demethylation, acting on the promoters of pluripotency-related genes...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334121/the-multipotency-to-commitment-transition-mct-in-c-elegans-implications-for-reprogramming-from-cells-to-organs
#7
REVIEW
Erik A Spickard, Pradeep M Joshi, Joel H Rothman
In animal embryos, cells transition from a multipotential state, with the capacity to adopt multiple fates, into an irreversible, committed state of differentiation. This multipotency-to-commitment transition (MCT) is evident from experiments in which cell fate is reprogrammed by transcription factors for cell-type-specific differentiation, as has been observed extensively in C. elegans. Although factors that direct differentiation into each of the three germ layer types cannot generally reprogram cells after the MCT in this animal, transcription factors for endoderm development are able to do so in multiple differentiated cell types...
January 15, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330295/epigenetic-reprogramming-of-pericentromeric-satellite-dna-in-premalignant-and-malignant-lesions
#8
Nadine H Brueckmann, Christina B Pedersen, Henrik J Ditzel, Morten F Gjerstorff
Repression of repetitive DNA is important for maintaining genomic stability, but is often perturbed in cancer. For instance, the megabase satellite domain at chromosome 1q12 is a common site of genetic rearrangements, such as translocations and deletions. Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins can be observed as large subnuclear domains called polycomb bodies, the composition and cellular function of which has remained elusive. This study, demonstrates that polycomb bodies are canonical subunits of the multiprotein polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) deposited on 1q12 pericentromeric satellite DNA, which are normally maintained as constitutive heterochromatin by other mechanisms...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329077/nano-hydroxyapatite-blasted-titanium-surface-creates-a-biointerface-able-to-govern-src-dependent-osteoblast-metabolism-as-prerequisite-to-ecm-remodeling
#9
Célio J C Fernandes, Fábio Bezerra, Marcel R Ferreira, Amanda F C Andrade, Thais Silva Pinto, Willian F Zambuzzi
Over the last several years, we have focused on the importance of intracellular signaling pathways in dynamically governing the biointerface between pre-osteoblast and surface of biomaterial. Thus, this study investigates the molecular hallmarks involved in the pre-osteoblast relationship with different topography considering Machined (Mc), Dual Acid-Etching (DAE), and nano hydroxyapatite-blasted (nHA) groups. There was substantial differences in topography of titanium surface, considering Atomic Force Microscopy and water contact angle (Mc = 81...
December 28, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328911/western-diet-triggers-nlrp3-dependent-innate-immune-reprogramming
#10
Anette Christ, Patrick Günther, Mario A R Lauterbach, Peter Duewell, Debjani Biswas, Karin Pelka, Claus J Scholz, Marije Oosting, Kristian Haendler, Kevin Baßler, Kathrin Klee, Jonas Schulte-Schrepping, Thomas Ulas, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Vinod Kumar, Min Hi Park, Leo A B Joosten, Laszlo A Groh, Niels P Riksen, Terje Espevik, Andreas Schlitzer, Yang Li, Michael L Fitzgerald, Mihai G Netea, Joachim L Schultze, Eicke Latz
Long-term epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells in response to microbes, also termed "trained immunity," causes prolonged altered cellular functionality to protect from secondary infections. Here, we investigated whether sterile triggers of inflammation induce trained immunity and thereby influence innate immune responses. Western diet (WD) feeding of Ldlr-/- mice induced systemic inflammation, which was undetectable in serum soon after mice were shifted back to a chow diet (CD). In contrast, myeloid cell responses toward innate stimuli remained broadly augmented...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328783/signaling-to-and-from-the-rna-polymerase-iii-transcription-and-processing-machinery
#11
Ian M Willis, Robyn D Moir
RNA polymerase (Pol) III has a specialized role in transcribing the most abundant RNAs in eukaryotic cells, transfer RNAs (tRNAs), along with other ubiquitous small noncoding RNAs, many of which have functions related to the ribosome and protein synthesis. The high energetic cost of producing these RNAs and their central role in protein synthesis underlie the robust regulation of Pol III transcription in response to nutrients and stress by growth regulatory pathways. Downstream of Pol III, signaling impacts posttranscriptional processes affecting tRNA function in translation and tRNA cleavage into smaller fragments that are increasingly attributed with novel cellular activities...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321478/reprogramming-of-pro-inflammatory-human-macrophages-to-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype-by-bile-acids
#12
Marianne Wammers, Anna-Kathrin Schupp, Johannes G Bode, Christian Ehlting, Stephanie Wolf, René Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Dieter Häussinger, Dirk Graf
Cholestasis is caused by autoimmune reactions, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, viral infections of the liver and the obstruction of bile ducts by tumours or gallstones. Cholestatic conditions are associated with impaired innate and adaptive immunity, including alterations of the cellular functions of monocytes, macrophages, NK cells and T-cells. Bile acids act as signalling molecules, affecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine expression in primary human macrophages. The present manuscript investigates the impact of bile acids, such as taurolithocholic acid (TLC), on the transcriptome of human macrophages in the presence or absence of LPS...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321332/erk-is-a-critical-regulator-of-jc-polyomavirus-infection
#13
Jeanne K DuShane, Michael P Wilczek, Colleen L Mayberry, Melissa S Maginnis
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population worldwide and presents as an asymptomatic, persistent infection in the kidney. In individuals who are immunocompromised, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause a lytic infection in the central nervous system resulting in the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection is initiated by interactions between the capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1) and the α2,6-linked sialic acid on LSTc, while JCPyV internalization is facilitated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptors (5-HT2Rs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321322/dengue-virus-selectively-annexes-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-translation-machinery-as-a-strategy-for-co-opting-host-cell-protein-synthesis
#14
David W Reid, Rafael K Campos, Jessica R Child, Tianli Zheng, Kitti Wing Ki Chan, Shelton S Bradrick, Subhash G Vasudevan, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Christopher V Nicchitta
A primary question in Dengue virus (DENV) biology is the molecular strategy for recruitment of host cell protein synthesis machinery. Here we combined cell fractionation, ribosome profiling, and RNA-seq to investigate the subcellular organization of viral genome translation and replication as well as host cell translation and its response to DENV infection. We report that throughout the viral life cycle, DENV (+) and (-) strand RNAs were highly partitioned to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), identifying the ER as the primary site of DENV translation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320890/chimeric-antigen-receptors-in-different-cell-types-new-vehicles-join-the-race
#15
Dennis C Harrer, Jan Dörrie, Niels Schaft
Adoptive cellular therapy has evolved into a powerful force in the battle against cancer, holding promise for curative responses in patients with advanced and refractory tumors. Autologous T cells, reprogrammed to target malignant cells via the expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) represent the frontrunner in this approach. Tremendous clinical regressions have been achieved using CAR-T cells against a variety of cancers both in numerous preclinical studies and in several clinical trials, most notably against ALL, and resulted in a very recent FDA-approval of the first CAR-T-cell therapy...
January 10, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319503/synthesizing-artificial-devices-that-redirect-cellular-information-at-will
#16
Yuchen Liu, Jianfa Li, Zhicong Chen, Weiren Huang, Zhiming Cai
Natural signaling circuits could be rewired to reprogram cells with pre-determined procedures. However, it is difficult to link cellular signals at will. Here, we describe signal-connectors-a series of RNA devices-that connect one signal to another signal at the translational level. We use them to either repress or enhance the translation of target genes in response to signals. Application of these devices allows us to construct various logic gates and to incorporate feedback loops into gene networks. They have also been used to rewire a native signaling pathway and even to create novel pathways...
January 10, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317762/carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1c-regulates-cancer-cell-senescence-through-mitochondria-associated-metabolic-reprograming
#17
Yongtao Wang, Yixin Chen, Lihuan Guan, Huizheng Zhang, Yaoyao Huang, Caroline H Johnson, Zeming Wu, Frank J Gonzalez, Aiming Yu, Peng Huang, Ying Wang, Shouhui Yang, Pan Chen, Xiaomei Fan, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Cellular senescence is a fundamental biological process that has profound implications in cancer development and therapeutics, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), an enzyme that catalyzes carnitinylation of fatty acids for transport into mitochondria for β-oxidation, plays a major role in the regulation of cancer cell senescence through mitochondria-associated metabolic reprograming. Metabolomics analysis suggested alterations in mitochondria activity, as revealed by the marked decrease in acylcarnitines in senescent human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells, indicating low CPT1C activity...
January 9, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316787/reprogramming-one-carbon-metabolic-pathways-to-decouple-l-serine-catabolism-from-cell-growth-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#18
Yun Zhang, Xiuling Shang, Shujuan Lai, Yu Zhang, Qitiao Hu, Xin Chai, Bo Wang, Shuwen Liu, Tingyi Wen
L-Serine, the principal one-carbon source for DNA biosynthesis, is difficult for microorganisms to accumulate due to the coupling of L-serine catabolism and microbial growth. Here, we reprogrammed the one-carbon unit metabolic pathways in Corynebacterium glutamicum to decouple L-serine catabolism from cell growth. In silico model-based simulation showed a negative influence on glyA-encoding serine hydroxymethyltransferase flux with L-serine productivity. Attenuation of glyA transcription resulted in increased L-serine accumulation, and a decrease in purine pools, poor growth and longer cell shapes...
January 9, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316264/heme-oxygenase-1-affects-generation-and-spontaneous-cardiac-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Jacek Stepniewski, Tomasz Pacholczak, Aniela Skrzypczyk, Maciej Ciesla, Agata Szade, Krzysztof Szade, Romain Bidanel, Agnieszka Langrzyk, Radoslaw Grochowski, Felix Vandermeeren, Neli Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Mateusz Jez, Grazyna Drabik, Mahito Nakanishi, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak
Cellular stress can influence efficiency of iPSCs generation and their differentiation. However, the role of intracellular cytoprotective factors in these processes is still not well known. Therefore, we investigated the effect of HO-1 (Hmox1) or Nrf2 (Nfe2l2), two major cytoprotective genes. Hmox1-/- fibroblasts demonstrated decreased reprogramming efficiency in comparison to Hmox1+/+ cells. Reversely, pharmacological enhancement of HO-1 resulted in higher number of iPSCs colonies. Importantly, elevated level of both p53 and p53-regulated miR-34a and 14-3-3σ was observed in HO-1-deficient fibroblasts whereas downregulation of p53 in these cells markedly increased their reprogramming efficiency...
January 9, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314018/how-to-make-a-tumour-cell-type-specific-dissection-of-ustilago-maydis-induced-tumour-development-in-maize-leaves
#20
Alexandra Matei, Corinna Ernst, Markus Günl, Björn Thiele, Janine Altmüller, Virginia Walbot, Björn Usadel, Gunther Doehlemann
The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes smut disease on maize (Zea mays), which is characterized by immense plant tumours. To establish disease and reprogram organ primordia to tumours, U. maydis deploys effector proteins in an organ-specific manner. However, the cellular contribution to leaf tumours remains unknown. We investigated leaf tumour formation at the tissue- and cell type-specific levels. Cytology and metabolite analysis were deployed to understand the cellular basis for tumourigenesis. Laser-capture microdissection was performed to gain a cell type-specific transcriptome of U...
January 4, 2018: New Phytologist
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