keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cellular reprograming

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474929/multi-posttranscriptional-regulations-lessen-the-repressive-effect-of-srpk1-on-brown-adipogenesis
#1
Jung-Chun Lin
Alternative splicing has been widely demonstrated to function as pivotal regulation in specifying cellular fates and biological functions. The relative expression or cellular localization of a splicing factor constitutes an important mechanism in spatiotemporal programming of cell- and stage-specific splicing profiles. In this study, results of deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses first revealed the reprogrammed splicing profile and reduced expression of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) throughout the development of brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474864/a-crucial-role-of-rock-for-alleviation-of-senescence-associated-phenotype
#2
Joon Tae Park, Hyun Tae Kang, Chi Hyun Park, Young-Sam Lee, Kyung A Cho, Sang Chul Park
In our previous study, we uncovered a novel mechanism in which amelioration of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) phenotype is mediated by mitochondrial functional recovery upon rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition. However, it remains elusive whether this mechanism is also applied to the amelioration of normal aging cells. In this study, we used Y-27632 and fasudil as effective ROCK inhibitors, and examined their role in senescence. We found that ROCK inhibition induced the functional recovery of the mitochondria as well as the metabolic reprogramming, which are two salient features that are altered in normal aging cells...
February 20, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473905/the-in-vitro-effects-of-enzymatic-digested-gliadin-on-the-functionality-of-the-autophagy-process
#3
Federico Manai, Alberto Azzalin, Fabio Gabriele, Carolina Martinelli, Martina Morandi, Marco Biggiogera, Mauro Bozzola, Sergio Comincini
Gliadin, the alcohol-soluble protein fraction of wheat, contains the factor toxic for celiac disease (CD), and its toxicity is not reduced by digestion with gastro-pancreatic enzymes. Importantly, it is proved that an innate immunity to gliadin plays a key role in the development of CD. The immune response induces epithelial stress and reprograms intraepithelial lymphocytes into natural killer (NK)-like cells, leading to enterocyte apoptosis and an increase in epithelium permeability. In this contribution, we have reported that in Caco-2 cells the administration of enzymatically digested gliadin (PT-gliadin) reduced significantly the expression of the autophagy-related marker LC3-II...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472703/suppression-of-the-erk-srf-axis-facilitates-somatic-cell-reprogramming
#4
Sejong Huh, Hwa-Ryung Song, Geuk-Rae Jeong, Hyejin Jang, Nan-Hee Seo, Ju-Hyun Lee, Ji-Yeun Yi, Byongsun Lee, Hyun Woo Choi, Jeong Tae Do, Jin-Su Kim, Soo-Hong Lee, Jae-Won Jung, Taekyu Lee, Jaekyung Shim, Myung-Kwan Han, Tae-Hee Lee
The molecular mechanism underlying the initiation of somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has not been well described. Thus, we generated single-cell-derived clones by using a combination of drug-inducible vectors encoding transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc) and a single-cell expansion strategy. This system achieved a high reprogramming efficiency after metabolic and epigenetic remodeling. Functional analyses of the cloned cells revealed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was downregulated at an early stage of reprogramming and that its inhibition was a driving force for iPSC formation...
February 23, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471358/eif4a-alleviates-the-translational-repression-mediated-by-classical-secondary-structures-more-than-by-g-quadruplexes
#5
Joseph A Waldron, Farheen Raza, John Le Quesne
Increased activity of the mRNA helicase eIF4A drives cellular malignancy by reprogramming cellular translation, and eIF4A activity is the direct or indirect target of many emerging cancer therapeutics. The enriched presence of (GGC)4 motifs, which have the potential to fold into two-layered G-quadruplexes, within the 5'UTRs of eIF4A-dependent mRNAs suggests that eIF4A is required for the unwinding of these structures within these eIF4A-controlled mRNAs. However, the existence of folded G-quadruplexes within cells remains controversial, and G-quadruplex folding is in direct competition with classical Watson-Crick based secondary structures...
February 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471209/genetic-engineering-of-host-organisms-for-pharmaceutical-synthesis
#6
REVIEW
Joseph H Collins, Eric M Young
Pharmaceutical production hosts may be derived from almost any organism, from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines to isolated actinomycetes. Each host can be improved, historically only through adaptive evolution. Recently, the maturation of organism engineering has expanded the available models, methods, and tools for altering host phenotypes. New tools like CRISPR-associated endonucleases promise to enable precise cellular reprogramming and to access previously intractable hosts. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in engineering several types of pharmaceutical production hosts...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467236/hematopoietic-stem-cells-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-considering-the-role-of-microrna-as-a-cell-differentiation-regulator
#7
REVIEW
Aline F Ferreira, George A Calin, Virgínia Picanço-Castro, Simone Kashima, Dimas T Covas, Fabiola A de Castro
Although hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) therapy for hematological diseases can lead to a good outcome from the clinical point of view, the limited number of ideal donors, the comorbidity of patients and the increasing number of elderly patients may limit the application of this therapy. HSCs can be generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which requires the understanding of the bone marrow and liver niches components and function in vivo iPSCs have been extensively applied in several studies involving disease models, drug screening and cellular replacement therapies...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467007/enhanced-glycolysis-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis
#8
Ru-Tao Liu, Min Zhang, Chun-Lin Yang, Peng Zhang, Na Zhang, Tong Du, Meng-Ru Ge, Long-Tao Yue, Xiao-Li Li, Heng Li, Rui-Sheng Duan
BACKGROUND: With the recognition of the key roles of cellular metabolism in immunity, targeting metabolic pathway becomes a new strategy for autoimmune disease treatment. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration. These inflammatory cells, including activated macrophages, Th1 cells, and Th17 cells, generally undergo metabolic reprogramming and rely mainly on glycolysis to exert functions...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466856/enhanced-cellular-ablation-by-attenuating-hypoxia-status-and-reprogramming-tumor-associated-macrophages-via-nir-light-responsive-upconversion-nanocrystals
#9
Bengang Xing, Xiangzhao Ai, Ming Hu, Zhimin Wang, Linna Lyu, Wenmin Zhang, Jun Lin, Juan Li, Huang-Hao Yang
Near-infrared (NIR) light-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) especially based on lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs), have been extensively investigated as a promising strategy for effective cellular ablation owing to their unique optical properties to convert NIR light excitation into multiple short-wavelength emissions. Despite the deep tissue penetration of NIR light in living systems, the therapeutic efficiency is greatly restricted by insufficient oxygen supply in hypoxic tumor microenvironment...
February 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466729/a-cell-intrinsic-interferon-like-response-links-replication-stress-to-cellular-aging-caused-by-progerin
#10
Ray Kreienkamp, Simona Graziano, Nuria Coll-Bonfill, Gonzalo Bedia-Diaz, Emily Cybulla, Alessandro Vindigni, Dale Dorsett, Nard Kubben, Luis Francisco Zirnberger Batista, Susana Gonzalo
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease caused by a truncated lamin A protein (progerin) that drives cellular and organismal decline. HGPS patient-derived fibroblasts accumulate genomic instability, but its underlying mechanisms and contribution to disease remain poorly understood. Here, we show that progerin-induced replication stress (RS) drives genomic instability by eliciting replication fork (RF) stalling and nuclease-mediated degradation. Rampant RS is accompanied by upregulation of the cGAS/STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway and activation of a robust STAT1-regulated interferon (IFN)-like response...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466368/untargeted-metabolomics-reveals-distinct-metabolic-reprogramming-in-endothelial-cells-co-cultured-with-csc-and-non-csc-prostate-cancer-cell-subpopulations
#11
Anusha Jayaraman, Praveen Kumar, Silvia Marin, Pedro de Atauri, Francesca Mateo, Timothy M Thomson, Josep J Centelles, Stewart F Graham, Marta Cascante
Tumour angiogenesis is an important hallmark of cancer and the study of its metabolic adaptations, downstream to any cellular change, can reveal attractive targets for inhibiting cancer growth. In the tumour microenvironment, endothelial cells (ECs) interact with heterogeneous tumour cell types that drive angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study we aim to characterize the metabolic alterations in ECs influenced by the presence of tumour cells with extreme metastatic abilities. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to different microenvironmental conditions, such as the presence of highly metastatic PC-3M and highly invasive PC-3S prostate cancer cell lines, in addition to the angiogenic activator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), under normoxia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463907/acid-and-the-basis-for-cellular-plasticity-and-reprogramming-in-gastric-repair-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
José B Sáenz, Jason C Mills
Subjected to countless daily injuries, the stomach still functions as a remarkably efficient digestive organ and microbial filter. In this Review, we follow the lead of the earliest gastroenterologists who were fascinated by the antiseptic and digestive powers of gastric secretions. We propose that it is easiest to understand how the stomach responds to injury by stressing the central role of the most important gastric secretion, acid. The stomach follows two basic patterns of adaptation. The superficial response is a pattern whereby the surface epithelial cells migrate and rapidly proliferate to repair erosions induced by acid or other irritants...
February 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462562/exosome-mediated-ultra-effective-direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-into-neural-progenitor-like-cells
#13
Yong Seung Lee, Woon Yong Jung, Hyejung Heo, Min Geun Park, Seung-Hun Oh, Byong-Gon Park, Soonhag Kim
Exosomes, naturally secreted nanoparticles, have been introduced as vehicles for horizontal transfer of genetic material. We induced autologous exosomes containing a cocktail of reprogramming factors ("reprosomes") to convert fibroblasts into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). The fibroblasts were treated with ultrasound and subsequently cultured in neural stem cell medium for 1 day to induce the release of reprosomes composed of reprogramming factors associated with chromatin remodeling and neural lineage-specific factors...
February 22, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462363/a-gene-regulatory-network-for-cellular-reprogramming-in-plant-regeneration
#14
Momoko Ikeuchi, Michitaro Shibata, Bart Rymen, Akira Iwase, Anne-Maarit Bågman, Lewis Watt, Duncan Coleman, David S Favero, Tatsuya Takahashi, Sebastian E Ahnert, Siobhan M Brady, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding triggers organ regeneration in many plant species, and application of plant hormones, such as auxin and cytokinin, enhances their regenerative capacities in tissue culture. Recent studies have identified several key players mediating wound- and/or plant hormone-induced cellular reprogramming, but the global architecture of gene regulatory relationships underlying plant cellular reprogramming is still far from clear. In this study, we uncovered a gene regulatory network (GRN) associated with plant cellular reprogramming by using an enhanced yeast one-hybrid (eY1H) screen systematically to identify regulatory relationships between 252 transcription factors (TFs) and 48 promoters...
February 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460922/cellular-plasticity-and-the-neuroendocrine-phenotype-in-prostate-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Alastair H Davies, Himisha Beltran, Amina Zoubeidi
The success of next-generation androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors, such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, in treating prostate cancer has been hampered by the emergence of drug resistance. This acquired drug resistance is driven, in part, by the ability of prostate cancer cells to change their phenotype to adopt AR-independent pathways for growth and survival. Around one-quarter of resistant prostate tumours comprise cells that have undergone cellular reprogramming to become AR-independent and to acquire a continuum of neuroendocrine characteristics...
February 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459894/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-aging-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cellular-bioenergetics
#16
REVIEW
Daniel C Zank, Marta Bueno, Ana L Mora, Mauricio Rojas
At present, the etiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains elusive. Over the past two decades, however, researchers have identified and described the underlying processes that result in metabolic dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming, and mitochondrial dysfunction observed in the cells of IPF lungs. Metabolic changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in IPF include decreased efficiency of electron transport chain function with increasing production of reactive oxygen species, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis, and impaired mitochondrial macroautophagy, a key pathway for the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458371/mechanisms-of-rapid-cancer-cell-reprogramming-initiated-by-targeted-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-and-inherent-therapeutic-vulnerabilities
#17
REVIEW
Emily K Kleczko, Lynn E Heasley
Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways serve as frequent oncogene drivers in solid cancers and small molecule and antibody-based inhibitors have been developed as targeted therapeutics for many of these oncogenic RTKs. In general, these drugs, when delivered as single agents in a manner consistent with the principles of precision medicine, induce tumor shrinkage but rarely complete tumor elimination. Moreover, acquired resistance of treated tumors is nearly invariant such that monotherapy strategies with targeted RTK drugs fail to provide long-term control or cures...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455645/pyruvate-kinase-m2-fuels-multiple-aspects-of-cancer-cells-from-cellular-metabolism-transcriptional-regulation-to-extracellular-signaling
#18
REVIEW
Ming-Chuan Hsu, Wen-Chun Hung
Originally identified as a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP in the glycolytic pathway, pyruvate kinase M2-type (PKM2) has been shown to exhibit novel biological activities in the nucleus and outside the cells. Although cell-based studies reveal new non-canonical functions of PKM2 in gene transcription, epigenetic modulation and cell cycle progression, the importance of these non-canonical functions in PKM2-mediated tumorigenesis is still under debate because studies in genetically modified mice do not consistently echo the findings observed in cultured cancer cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451682/metabolic-regulation-of-leukocyte-motility-and-migration
#19
REVIEW
Federica M Marelli-Berg, Maryam Jangani
Dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton is essential for numerous cellular processes including leukocyte migration. This process presents a substantial bioenergetic challenge to migrating cells as actin polymerization is dependent on ATP hydrolysis. Hence, migrating cells must increase ATP production to meet the increased metabolic demands of cytoskeletal reorganization. Despite this long-standing evidence, the metabolic regulation of leukocyte motility and trafficking has only recently begun to be investigated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451559/linking-chromatin-dynamics-cell-fate-plasticity-and-tissue-homeostasis-in-adult-mouse-hair-follicle-stem-cells
#20
Jayhun Lee, Tudorita Tumbar
Cellular plasticity for fate acquisition is associated with distinct chromatin states, which include histone modifications, dynamic association of chromatin factors with the DNA, and global chromatin compaction and nuclear organization. While embryonic stem cell (ESC) plasticity in vitro and its link with chromatin states have been characterized in depth, little is known about tissue stem cell plasticity in vivo , during adult tissue homeostasis. Recently, we reported a distinct globally low level of histone H3 K4/9/27me3 in mouse hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) during quiescence...
July 2017: Mol Life
keyword
keyword
14725
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"