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Cellular reprograming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432132/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-epigenome-a-dynamic-vehicle-for-transmitting-and-recording-cytokine-signaling
#1
John L Johnson, Golnaz Vahedi
CD4(+) T cells are critical for the elimination of an immense array of microbial pathogens. Although there are aspects of helper T-cell differentiation that can be modeled as a classic cell-fate commitment, CD4(+) T cells also maintain considerable flexibility in their transcriptional program. Here, we present an overview of chromatin biology during cellular reprogramming and, within this context, envision how the scope of cellular reprogramming may be expanded to further our understanding of the controversy surrounding CD4(+) T lymphocyte plasticity or determinism...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429769/gene-and-mutation-independent-therapy-via-crispr-cas9-mediated-cellular-reprogramming-in-rod-photoreceptors
#2
Jie Zhu, Chang Ming, Xin Fu, Yaou Duan, Duc Anh Hoang, Jeffrey Rutgard, Runze Zhang, Wenqiu Wang, Rui Hou, Daniel Zhang, Edward Zhang, Charlotte Zhang, Xiaoke Hao, Wenjun Xiong, Kang Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427897/boosters-and-barriers-for-direct-cardiac-reprogramming
#3
REVIEW
Mahmood Talkhabi, Elmira Rezaei Zonooz, Hossein Baharvand
Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs...
April 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427560/stress-adaptive-response-in-ovarian-cancer-drug-resistance-role-of-trap1-in-oxidative-metabolism-driven-inflammation
#4
Maria Rosaria Amoroso, Danilo Swann Matassa, Ilenia Agliarulo, Rosario Avolio, Francesca Maddalena, Valentina Condelli, Matteo Landriscina, Franca Esposito
Metabolic reprogramming is one of the most frequent stress-adaptive response of cancer cells to survive environmental changes and meet increasing nutrient requirements during their growth. These modifications involve cellular bioenergetics and cross talk with surrounding microenvironment, in a dynamic network that connect different molecular processes, such as energy production, inflammatory response, and drug resistance. Even though the Warburg effect has long been considered the main metabolic feature of cancer cells, recent reports identify mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as a driving force for tumor growth in an increasing number of cellular contexts...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427343/loss-of-pericyte-smoothened-activity-in-mice-with-genetic-deficiency-of-leptin
#5
Guanhua Xie, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Mark L Jewell, Mariana Verdelho Machado, Gregory A Michelotti, Richard T Premont, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with multiple diseases, but it is unclear how obesity promotes progressive tissue damage. Recovery from injury requires repair, an energy-expensive process that is coupled to energy availability at the cellular level. The satiety factor, leptin, is a key component of the sensor that matches cellular energy utilization to available energy supplies. Leptin deficiency signals energy depletion, whereas activating the Hedgehog pathway drives energy-consuming activities...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426686/reactive-oxygen-species-are-required-for-driving-efficient-and-sustained-aerobic-glycolysis-during-cd4-t-cell-activation
#6
Dana M Previte, Erin C O'Connor, Elizabeth A Novak, Christina P Martins, Kevin P Mollen, Jon D Piganelli
The immune system is necessary for protecting against various pathogens. However, under certain circumstances, self-reactive immune cells can drive autoimmunity, like that exhibited in type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4+ T cells are major contributors to the immunopathology in T1D, and in order to drive optimal T cell activation, third signal reactive oxygen species (ROS) must be present. However, the role ROS play in mediating this process remains to be further understood. Recently, cellular metabolic programs have been shown to dictate the function and fate of immune cells, including CD4+ T cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424352/chromatin-module-inference-on-cellular-trajectories-identifies-key-transition-points-and-poised-epigenetic-states-in-diverse-developmental-processes
#7
Sushmita Roy, Rupa Sridharan
Changes in chromatin state play important roles in cell fate transitions. Current computational approaches to analyze chromatin modifications across multiple cell types do not model how the cell types are related on a lineage or over time. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a method called CMINT (Chromatin Module INference on Trees), a probabilistic clustering approach to systematically capture chromatin state dynamics across multiple cell types. Compared to existing approaches, CMINT can handle complex lineage topologies, capture higher quality clusters, and reliably detect chromatin transitions between cell types...
April 19, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423341/glutathione-primes-t-cell-metabolism-for-inflammation
#8
Tak W Mak, Melanie Grusdat, Gordon S Duncan, Catherine Dostert, Yannic Nonnenmacher, Maureen Cox, Carole Binsfeld, Zhenyue Hao, Anne Brüstle, Momoe Itsumi, Christian Jäger, Ying Chen, Olaf Pinkenburg, Bärbel Camara, Markus Ollert, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Chiara Gorrini, Philipp A Lang, Michael Lohoff, Isaac S Harris, Karsten Hiller, Dirk Brenner
Activated T cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which trigger the antioxidative glutathione (GSH) response necessary to buffer rising ROS and prevent cellular damage. We report that GSH is essential for T cell effector functions through its regulation of metabolic activity. Conditional gene targeting of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc) blocked GSH production specifically in murine T cells. Gclc-deficient T cells initially underwent normal activation but could not meet their increased energy and biosynthetic requirements...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423332/caught-in-the-crossfire-gsh-controls-t-cell-metabolic-reprogramming
#9
Ramon I Klein Geltink, David O'Sullivan, Erika L Pearce
T cell activation and proliferation critical for protective immunity depend on appropriate rewiring of cellular metabolism. In this issue of Immunity, Mak et al. (2017) show that the antioxidant gluthathione (GSH) controls reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent engagement of metabolic signaling pathways that lead to protective T cell responses.
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421074/immunometabolic-phenotype-alterations-associated-with-the-induction-of-disease-tolerance-and-persistent-asymptomatic-infection-of-salmonella-in-the-chicken-intestine
#10
REVIEW
Michael H Kogut, Ryan J Arsenault
The adaptation of Salmonella enterica to the eukaryotic host is a key process that enables the bacterium to survive in a hostile environment. Salmonella have evolved an intimate relationship with its host that extends to their cellular and molecular levels. Colonization, invasion, and replication of the bacteria in an appropriate host suggest that modification of host functions is central to pathogenesis. Intuitively, this subversion of the cell must be a complex process, since hosts are not inherently programmed to provide an environment conducive to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416533/capturing-in-vivo-rna-transcriptional-dynamics-from-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#11
Heather J Painter, Manuela Carrasquilla, Manuel Llinás
To capture the transcriptional dynamics within proliferating cells, methods to differentiate nascent transcription from pre-existing mRNAs are desired. One approach is to label newly synthesized mRNA transcripts in vivo through the incorporation of modified pyrimidines. However, the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is incapable of pyrimidine salvage for mRNA biogenesis. To capture cellular mRNA dynamics during Plasmodium development, we engineered parasites that can salvage pyrimidines through the expression of a single bifunctional yeast fusion gene, cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (FCU)...
April 17, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414815/isolation-of-human-explant-derived-cardiac-stem-cells-from-cryopreserved-heart-tissue
#12
Robyn Jackson, Seth Mount, Bin Ye, Audrey E Mayfield, Vincent Chan, Munir Boodhwani, Ross A Davies, Haissam Haddad, Darryl R Davis
The value of preserving high quality bio specimens for fundamental research is significant as linking cellular and molecular changes to clinical and epidemiological data has fueled many recent advances in medicine. Unfortunately, storage of traditional biospecimens is limited to fixed samples or isolated genetic material. Here, we report the effect of cryopreservation of routine myocardial biopsies on explant derived cardiac stem cell (EDC) culture outcomes. We demonstrate that immediate cryopreservation or delayed cryopreservation after suspension within cardioplegia for 12 hours did not alter EDC yields, proliferative capacity, antigenic phenotype or paracrine signature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413444/functional-photosystem-i-maintains-proper-energy-balance-during-nitrogen-depletion-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-promoting-triacylglycerol-accumulation
#13
Mahmoud Gargouri, Philip D Bates, Jeong-Jin Park, Helmut Kirchhoff, David R Gang
BACKGROUND: Nutrient deprivation causes significant stress to the unicellular microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which responds by significantly altering its metabolic program. Following N deprivation, the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerols (TAGs) is significantly altered following massive reprogramming of cellular metabolism. One protein that was found to change dramatically and early to this stress was TAB2, a photosystem I (PSI) translation initiation factor, whose transcript and protein levels increased significantly after only 30 min of N deprivation...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413006/generation-of-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-64year-old-male-patient-with-multiple-schwannoma
#14
Shaokun Zhang, Zhenshan Lv, Yang Hu, Lidi Liu, Weiquan Gong, Qiao Li, Hong Wu
Peripheral blood was collected from a clinically diagnosed 64-year old male multiple schwannoma patient. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KMOS reprogramming factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC line showed pluripotency verified by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers, and the iPSC line was able to differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This in vitro cellular model will be useful for further pathological studies of multiple schwannoma...
March 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413004/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-79year-old-sporadic-male-parkinson-s-disease-patient
#15
Shaokun Zhang, Lidi Liu, Yang Hu, Zhenshan Lv, Qiao Li, Weiquan Gong, Hui Sha, Hong Wu
Peripheral blood was collected from a clinically diagnosed 79-year old male sporadic Parkinson's disease patient. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KMOS reprogramming factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC line showed pluripotency verified by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers, and the iPSC line was able to differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This in vitro cellular model can be used to study the mechanism of sporadic Parkinson's disease and to test new drugs...
March 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413002/characterization-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-72year-old-male-patient-with-later-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Shaokun Zhang, Zhenshan Lv, Songyuan Zhang, Lidi Liu, Qiao Li, Weiquan Gong, Hui Sha, Hong Wu
Peripheral blood was collected from a clinically diagnosed 72-year old male patient with later onset Alzheimer's disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KMOS reprogramming factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC line showed pluripotency verified by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers, and the iPSC line was able to differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This in vitro cellular model will be useful for studying the pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease...
March 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413001/development-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-60year-old-female-patient-with-multiple-schwannoma
#17
Shaokun Zhang, Zhenshan Lv, Yan Liu, Qiao Li, Weiquan Gong, Lidi Liu, Hong Wu
Peripheral blood was collected from a clinically diagnosed 60-year old female patient with multiple schwannoma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KMOS reprogramming factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC line showed pluripotency verified by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers, and the iPSC line was able to differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This in vitro cellular model will be useful for further pathological studies of multiple schwannoma...
March 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412744/mitochondrial-vdac1-based-peptides-attacking-oncogenic-properties-in-glioblastoma
#18
Anna Shteinfer-Kuzmine, Tasleem Arif, Yakov Krelin, Shambhoo Sharan Tripathi, Avijit Paul, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a primary brain malignancy characterized by high morbidity, invasiveness, proliferation, relapse and mortality, is resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies and lacks effective treatment. GBM tumors undergo metabolic reprograming and develop anti-apoptotic defenses. We targeted GBM with a peptide derived from the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a key component of cell energy, metabolism and apoptosis regulation. VDAC1-based cell-penetrating peptides perturbed cell energy and metabolic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in several GBM and GBM-derived stem cell lines...
February 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408750/transcriptional-regulatory-networks-underlying-the-reprogramming-of-spermatogonial-stem-cells-to-multipotent-stem-cells
#19
Hoe-Su Jeong, Jinhyuk Bhin, Hyung Joon Kim, Daehee Hwang, Dong Ryul Lee, Kye-Seong Kim
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are germline stem cells located along the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules in testes. Recently, SSCs were shown to be reprogrammed into multipotent SSCs (mSSCs). However, both the key factors and biological networks underlying this reprogramming remain elusive. Here, we present transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) that control cellular processes related to the SSC-to-mSSC reprogramming. Previously, we established intermediate SSCs (iSSCs) undergoing the transition to mSSCs and generated gene expression profiles of SSCs, iSSCs and mSSCs...
April 14, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406185/knockdown-of-stem-cell-regulator-oct4a-in-ovarian-cancer-reveals-cellular-reprogramming-associated-with-key-regulators-of-cytoskeleton-extracellular-matrix-remodelling
#20
Chantel Samardzija, David W Greening, Ruth Escalona, Maoshan Chen, Maree Bilandzic, Rodney Luwor, George Kannourakis, Jock K Findlay, Nuzhat Ahmed
Oct4A is a master regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. It is a well-established marker for cancer stem cell (CSC) in malignancies. Recently, using a loss of function studies, we have demonstrated key roles for Oct4A in tumor cell survival, metastasis and chemoresistance in in vitro and in vivo models of ovarian cancer. In an effort to understand the regulatory role of Oct4A in tumor biology, we employed the use of an ovarian cancer shRNA Oct4A knockdown cell line (HEY Oct4A KD) and a global mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis to investigate novel biological targets of Oct4A in HEY samples (cell lysates, secretomes and mouse tumor xenografts)...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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