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G Pestel, K Fukui, M Higashi, I Schmidtmann, C Werner
An ideal non-invasive monitoring system should provide accurate and reproducible measurements of clinically relevant variables that enables clinicians to guide therapy accordingly. The monitor should be rapid, easy to use, readily available at the bedside, operator-independent, cost-effective and should have a minimal risk and side effect profile for patients. An example is the introduction of pulse oximetry, which has become established for non-invasive monitoring of oxygenation worldwide. A corresponding non-invasive monitoring of hemodynamics and perfusion could optimize the anesthesiological treatment to the needs in individual cases...
May 22, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Francesca E Ciraldo, Elena Boccardi, Virginia Melli, Fabian Westhauser, Aldo R Boccaccini
Bioactive glasses (BGs) are being increasingly considered for biomedical applications in bone and soft tissue replacement approaches thanks to their ability to form strong bonding with tissues. However, due to their high reactivity once in contact with water-based solutions BGs rapidly exchange ions with the surrounding environment leading in most cases to an undesired increase of the pH under static in vitro conditions (due to alkaline ion "burst release"), making difficult or even impossible to perform cell culture studies...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
S K Ram, L R Kumar, R D Tyagi, P Drogui
This study used the technical, economic analysis tool, SuperPro designer in evaluating a novel technology for simultaneous production of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and biodiesel using crude glycerol and secondary sludge. As renewable energy sources are depleting, the process utilizes municipal sewage sludge for production of EPS and biodiesel along with crude glycerol, which is a waste byproduct of biodiesel industry providing an alternate way for disposal of municipal sludge and crude glycerol...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Joya D Pickett, Elizabeth Bridges, Patricia A Kritek, JoAnne D Whitney
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluid boluses are administered to patients in shock to improve tissue hypoperfusion. However, fluid boluses result in clinically significant stroke volume increases in only about 50% of patients. Hemodynamic responses to passive leg raising measured with invasive and minimally invasive methods are accurate predictors of fluid responsiveness. However, few studies have used noninvasive blood pressure measurement to evaluate responses to passive leg raising. OBJECTIVE: To determine if passive leg raising-induced increases in pulse pressure or systolic blood pressure can be used to predict clinically significant increases in stroke volume index in healthy volunteers...
May 2018: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
A Ozan Bicen, Leanne L West, Liliana Cesar, Omer T Inan
Intravenous (IV) therapy is prevalent in hospital settings, where fluids are typically delivered with an IV into a peripheral vein of the patient. IV infiltration is the inadvertent delivery of fluids into the extravascular space rather than into the vein (and requires urgent treatment to avoid scarring and severe tissue damage), for which medical staff currently needs to check patients periodically. In this paper, the performance of two non-invasive sensing modalities, electrical bioimpedance (EBI), and skin strain sensing, for the automatic detection of IV infiltration was investigated in an animal model...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Jens Bongard, Marian Lorenz, Ingrid R Vetter, Patricia Stege, Arthur T Porfetye, Anna Laura Schmitz, Farnusch Kaschani, Alex Wolf, Uwe Koch, Peter Nussbaumer, Bert Klebl, Markus Kaiser, Michael Ehrmann
Covalent modifications of nonactive site lysine residues by small molecule probes has recently evolved into an important strategy for interrogating biological systems. Here, we report the discovery of a class of bioreactive compounds that covalently modify lysine residues in DegS, the rate limiting protease of the essential bacterial outer membrane stress response pathway. These modifications lead to an allosteric activation and allow the identification of novel residues involved in the allosteric activation circuit...
April 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
X Shang, Y Chen, N Wang, W Niu, J Guo
We report a strategy to introduce a reactive electrophile into proteins through the conversion of a chemically inert group into a bioreactive group in response to an inducer molecule. This strategy was demonstrated by oxidation-induced and proximity-enhanced protein-protein crosslinking in the presence of a large excess of free nucleophile.
April 9, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Llinos A Roberts, Hua Zen Ling, Liona Poon, Kypros H Nicolaides, Nikos A Kametas
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether in a cohort of patients with small for gestational age (SGA) foetuses with estimated fetal weight ≤10th percentile, maternal hemodynamics, fetal biometry and Dopplers at presentation, can predict the subsequent development of abnormal fetal Dopplers or delivery with birthweight <3rd percentile. METHODS: The study population comprised of 86 singleton pregnancies with SGA fetuses presenting at a median gestational age of 32 (range 26-35) weeks...
April 1, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Nanxi Wang, Bing Yang, Caiyun Fu, He Zhu, Feng Zheng, Tomonori Kobayashi, Jun Liu, Shanshan Li, Cheng Ma, Peng George Wang, Qian Wang, Lei Wang
Introducing new chemical reactivity into proteins in living cells would endow innovative covalent bonding ability to proteins for research and engineering in vivo. Latent bioreactive unnatural amino acids (Uaas) can be incorporated into proteins to react with target natural amino acid residues via proximity-enabled reactivity. To expand the diversity of proteins amenable to such reactivity in vivo, a chemical functionality that is biocompatible and able to react with multiple natural residues under physiologi-cal conditions is highly desirable...
March 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sandra Sanchez-Salcedo, Gianluca Malavasi, Antonio J Salinas, Gigliola Lusvardi, Luca Rigamonti, Ledi Menabue, Maria Vallet-Regi
Beneficial effects in bone cell growth and antibacterial action are currently attributed to Ga3+ ions. Thus, they can be used to upgrade mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), investigated for tissue engineering, whenever they released therapeutic amounts of gallium ions to the surrounding medium. Three gallium-enriched MBGs with composition (in mol %) x SiO₂- y CaO- z P₂O₅-5Ga₂O₃, being x = 70, y = 15, z = 10 for Ga_1 ; x = 80, y = 12, z = 3 for Ga_2 ; and x = 80, y = 15, z = 0 for Ga_3 , were investigated and compared with the gallium-free 80SiO₂-15CaO-5P₂O₅ MBG ( B )...
March 2, 2018: Materials
Shengli Mi, Xiaoman Yi, Zhichang Du, Yuanyuan Xu, Wei Sun
The liver is one of the main metabolic organs, and nearly all ingested drugs will be metabolized by the liver. Only a small fraction of drugs are able to come onto the market during drug development, and hepatic toxicity is a major cause for drug failure. Since drug development is costly in both time and materials, an in vitro liver model that can accelerate bioreactions in the liver and reduce drug consumption is imperative in the pharmaceutical industry. The liver on a chip is an ideal alternative for its controllable environment and tiny size, which means constructing a more biomimetic model, reducing material consumption as well as promoting drug diffusion and reaction...
February 20, 2018: Biofabrication
Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Ruei-Hao Shie, Chia-Pin Chio, Tzu-Hsuen Yuan, Jui-Huan Lee, Chang-Chuan Chan
This study evaluated associations between the bioreactivity of PM2.5 in vitro and emission sources in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex in Taiwan. The average PM2.5 was 30.2 μg/m3 from 9 February to 23 March 2016, and the PM2.5 was clustered in long-range transport (with major local source) (12.8 μg/m3 ), and major (17.3 μg/m3 ) and minor industrial emissions (4.7 μg/m3 ) using a k-means clustering model. A reduction in cell viability and increases in the cytotoxicity-related lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), oxidative stress-related 8-isoprostane, and inflammation-related interleukin (IL)-6 occurred due to PM2...
May 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yuki Mori, Fumiya Kinoshita, Hiroki Takada
OBJECTIVES: Contingent negative variation (CNV) is an event-related potential proportional to vigilance degree. A CNV graph shows an inverted U-shape, and this bioreaction disappears after falling below a threshold of vigilance degree. Previous studies have shown that the event-related potential gained with time decreases with sleep deprivation, and a decrease in the vigilance degree has been confirmed using Flicker values (FV) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) score. The minimum integrated value was recorded 24 h after the onset of sleep deprivation...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Yunlu Dai, Zhen Yang, Siyuan Cheng, Zhongliang Wang, Ruili Zhang, Guizhi Zhu, Zhantong Wang, Bryant C Yung, Rui Tian, Orit Jacobson, Can Xu, Qianqian Ni, Jibin Song, Xiaolian Sun, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Engineering functional nanomaterials with high therapeutic efficacy and minimum side effects has increasingly become a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Herein, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhanced combination chemotherapy platform is designed via a biocompatible metal-polyphenol networks self-assembly process by encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX) and platinum prodrugs in nanoparticles. Both DOX and platinum drugs can activate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, generating superoxide radicals (O2 •- )...
February 2018: Advanced Materials
Pengkang Jin, Xuan Shi, Guangxi Sun, Lei Yang, Yixiao Cai, Xiaochang C Wang
Distribution characteristics and biodiversity of microbial communities were studied in a 1200 m pilot sewer system. Results showed that the dominant microorganisms, fermentation bacteria (FB), hydrogen-producing acetogen (HPA), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) changed significantly along the sewer systems, from start to the end. The distribution of the functional microorganisms could induce substrate transformation and lead to the accumulation of micromolecular organics (i.e., acetic acid, propionic acid and amino acid)...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Gong Cheng, Xiao-Hui Han, Si-Jie Hao, Merisa Nisic, Si-Yang Zheng
Remote and noninvasive modulation of protein activity is essential for applications in biotechnology and medicine. Optical control has emerged as the most attractive approach owing to its high spatial and temporal resolutions; however, it is challenging to engineer light responsive proteins. In this work, a near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive graphene-silica-trypsin (GST) nanoreactor is developed for modulating the bioactivity of trypsin molecules. Biomolecules are spatially confined and protected in the rationally designed compartment architecture, which not only reduces the possible interference but also boosts the bioreaction efficiency...
January 31, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tomohiko Sato, Mizuki Morisasa, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Keiko Kashiwagi, Yuki Sugiura, Eiji Sugiyama, Makoto Suematsu, Tsukasa Mori
Thyroid hormones are not only responsible for thermogenesis and energy metabolism in animals, but also have an important role in cell differentiation and development. Amphibian metamorphosis provides an excellent model for studying the remodeling of the body. This metamorphic organ remodeling is induced by thyroid hormones, and a larval body is thus converted into an adult one. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry (MS) imaging technology is expected to be a suitable tool for investigating small bioreactive molecules...
February 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Lee S Nguyen, Pierre Squara
Critically ill patients require close hemodynamic monitoring to titrate treatment on a regular basis. It allows administering fluid with parsimony and adjusting inotropes and vasoactive drugs when necessary. Although invasive monitoring is considered as the reference method, non-invasive monitoring presents the obvious advantage of being associated with fewer complications, at the expanse of accuracy, precision, and step-response change. A great many methods and devices are now used over the world, and this article focuses on several of them, providing with a brief review of related underlying physical principles and validation articles analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Jamie Sharp, Tim Wgm Spitters, Patrick Vermette
Few studies report whole pancreatic tissue culture, as it is a difficult task using traditional culture methods. Here, a factorial design was used to investigate the singular and combinational effects of flow, dissolved oxygen concentration (D.O.) and pulsation on whole mechanically disrupted rat pancreata in a perfusion bioreactor. Whole rat pancreata were cultured for 72 h under defined bioreactor process conditions. Secreted insulin was measured and histological (haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)) as well as immunofluorescent insulin staining were performed and quantified...
November 29, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
E Halevas, O Tsave, M Yavropoulou, J G Yovos, A Hatzidimitriou, V Psycharis, A Salifoglou
The advent of Zn(II) metallodrugs in metabolic syndrome pathologies generates a strong challenge toward synthetic endeavors targeting well-defined, atoxic and biologically active binary/ternary species of Zn(II). Proper formulation of that metal ion's coordination sphere sets the stage for construction of appropriately configured Schiff ligands based on tromethamine and variably modified vanillin core components. The arising Schiff ligands react with Zn(II) in a defined stoichiometry, thereby delivering new binary Zn(II)-L species with defined physicochemical properties...
December 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
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