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Sandra Sanchez-Salcedo, Gianluca Malavasi, Antonio J Salinas, Gigliola Lusvardi, Luca Rigamonti, Ledi Menabue, Maria Vallet-Regi
Beneficial effects in bone cell growth and antibacterial action are currently attributed to Ga3+ ions. Thus, they can be used to upgrade mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), investigated for tissue engineering, whenever they released therapeutic amounts of gallium ions to the surrounding medium. Three gallium-enriched MBGs with composition (in mol %) x SiO₂- y CaO- z P₂O₅-5Ga₂O₃, being x = 70, y = 15, z = 10 for Ga_1 ; x = 80, y = 12, z = 3 for Ga_2 ; and x = 80, y = 15, z = 0 for Ga_3 , were investigated and compared with the gallium-free 80SiO₂-15CaO-5P₂O₅ MBG ( B )...
March 2, 2018: Materials
Shengli Mi, Xiaoman Yi, Zhichang Du, Yuanyuan Xu, Wei Sun
The liver is one of the main metabolic organs, and nearly all ingested drugs will be metabolized by the liver. Only a small fraction of drugs are able to come onto the market during drug development, and hepatic toxicity is a major cause for drug failure. Since drug development is costly in both time and materials, an in vitro liver model that can accelerate bioreactions in the liver and reduce drug consumption is imperative in the pharmaceutical industry. The liver on a chip is an ideal alternative for its controllable environment and tiny size, which means constructing a more biomimetic model, reducing material consumption as well as promoting drug diffusion and reaction...
February 20, 2018: Biofabrication
Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Ruei-Hao Shie, Chia-Pin Chio, Tzu-Hsuen Yuan, Jui-Huan Lee, Chang-Chuan Chan
This study evaluated associations between the bioreactivity of PM2.5in vitro and emission sources in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex in Taiwan. The average PM2.5 was 30.2 μg/m3 from 9 February to 23 March 2016, and the PM2.5 was clustered in long-range transport (with major local source) (12.8 μg/m3), and major (17.3 μg/m3) and minor industrial emissions (4.7 μg/m3) using a k-means clustering model. A reduction in cell viability and increases in the cytotoxicity-related lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), oxidative stress-related 8-isoprostane, and inflammation-related interleukin (IL)-6 occurred due to PM2...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yuki Mori, Fumiya Kinoshita, Hiroki Takada
OBJECTIVES: Contingent negative variation (CNV) is an event-related potential proportional to vigilance degree. A CNV graph shows an inverted U-shape, and this bioreaction disappears after falling below a threshold of vigilance degree. Previous studies have shown that the event-related potential gained with time decreases with sleep deprivation, and a decrease in the vigilance degree has been confirmed using Flicker values (FV) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) score. The minimum integrated value was recorded 24 h after the onset of sleep deprivation...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Yunlu Dai, Zhen Yang, Siyuan Cheng, Zhongliang Wang, Ruili Zhang, Guizhi Zhu, Zhantong Wang, Bryant C Yung, Rui Tian, Orit Jacobson, Can Xu, Qianqian Ni, Jibin Song, Xiaolian Sun, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Engineering functional nanomaterials with high therapeutic efficacy and minimum side effects has increasingly become a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Herein, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhanced combination chemotherapy platform is designed via a biocompatible metal-polyphenol networks self-assembly process by encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX) and platinum prodrugs in nanoparticles. Both DOX and platinum drugs can activate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, generating superoxide radicals (O2•- )...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Pengkang Jin, Xuan Shi, Guangxi Sun, Lei Yang, Yixiao Cai, Xiaochang C Wang
Distribution characteristics and biodiversity of microbial communities were studied in a 1200-m pilot sewer system. Results showed that the dominant microorganisms, fermentation bacteria (FB), hydrogen-producing acetogen (HPA), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) changed significantly along the sewer systems, from start to the end. The distribution of the functional microorganisms could induce substrate transformation and lead to the accumulation of micromolecular organics (i.e., acetic acid, propionic acid and amino acid)...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Gong Cheng, Xiaohui Han, Si-Jie Hao, Merisa Nisic, Si-Yang Zheng
Remote and noninvasive modulation of protein activity is essential for applications in biotechnology and medicine. Optical control has emerged as the most attractive approach owing to its high spatial and temporal resolutions; however, it is challenging to engineer light responsive proteins. In this work, a near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive graphene-silica-trypsin (GST) nanoreactor is developed for modulating the bioactivity of trypsin molecules. Biomolecules are spatially confined and protected in the rationally designed compartment architecture, which not only reduces the possible interference but also boosts the bioreaction efficiency...
January 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tomohiko Sato, Mizuki Morisasa, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Keiko Kashiwagi, Yuki Sugiura, Eiji Sugiyama, Makoto Suematsu, Tsukasa Mori
Thyroid hormones are not only responsible for thermogenesis and energy metabolism in animals, but also have an important role in cell differentiation and development. Amphibian metamorphosis provides an excellent model for studying the remodeling of the body. This metamorphic organ remodeling is induced by thyroid hormones, and a larval body is thus converted into an adult one. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry (MS) imaging technology is expected to be a suitable tool for investigating small bioreactive molecules...
December 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Lee S Nguyen, Pierre Squara
Critically ill patients require close hemodynamic monitoring to titrate treatment on a regular basis. It allows administering fluid with parsimony and adjusting inotropes and vasoactive drugs when necessary. Although invasive monitoring is considered as the reference method, non-invasive monitoring presents the obvious advantage of being associated with fewer complications, at the expanse of accuracy, precision, and step-response change. A great many methods and devices are now used over the world, and this article focuses on several of them, providing with a brief review of related underlying physical principles and validation articles analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Jamie Sharp, Tim Wgm Spitters, Patrick Vermette
Few studies report whole pancreatic tissue culture, as it is a difficult task using traditional culture methods. Here, a factorial design was used to investigate the singular and combinational effects of flow, dissolved oxygen concentration (D.O.) and pulsation on whole mechanically disrupted rat pancreata in a perfusion bioreactor. Whole rat pancreata were cultured for 72 h under defined bioreactor process conditions. Secreted insulin was measured and histological (haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)) as well as immunofluorescent insulin staining were performed and quantified...
November 29, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
E Halevas, O Tsave, M Yavropoulou, J G Yovos, A Hatzidimitriou, V Psycharis, A Salifoglou
The advent of Zn(II) metallodrugs in metabolic syndrome pathologies generates a strong challenge toward synthetic endeavors targeting well-defined, atoxic and biologically active binary/ternary species of Zn(II). Proper formulation of that metal ion's coordination sphere sets the stage for construction of appropriately configured Schiff ligands based on tromethamine and variably modified vanillin core components. The arising Schiff ligands react with Zn(II) in a defined stoichiometry, thereby delivering new binary Zn(II)-L species with defined physicochemical properties...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Yueshuang Xu, Huan Wang, Chengxin Luan, Yuxiao Liu, Baoan Chen, Yuanjin Zhao
Rapid and sensitive diagnosing hematological infections based on the separation and detection of pathogenic bacteria in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. To address this, we herein present a new barcodes technology that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of pathogenic bacteria from a complex sample. The barcodes are poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel inverse opal particles with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during bacteria capture on their surfaces...
September 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Gabriela Kania, Magdalena Sternak, Agnieszka Jasztal, Stefan Chlopicki, Agnieszka Błażejczyk, Anna Nasulewicz-Goldeman, Joanna Wietrzyk, Krzysztof Jasiński, Tomasz Skórka, Szczepan Zapotoczny, Maria Nowakowska
Bioreactivity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with thin layers of either cationic or anionic chitosan derivatives and serving as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was studied in vivo using BALB/c mouse model. Synthesized dual-modal fluorescing SPION were tracked in time using both fluorescent imaging and MRI. Although SPION started to be excreted by kidneys relatively shortly after administration they were uptaken by liver enhancing MRI contrast even up to 7 days...
September 19, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Wei Peng, Fei Ding
Chirality is a ubiquitous basic attribute of nature, which inseparably relates to the life activity of living organisms. However, enantiomeric differences have still failed to arouse enough attention during the biological evaluation and practical application of chiral substances, and this poses a large threat to human health. In the current study, we explore the enantioselective biorecognition of a chiral compound by an asymmetric biomolecule, and then decipher the molecular basis of such a biological phenomenon on the static and, in particular, the dynamic scale...
October 24, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Lukas Kohl, Michael Philben, Kate A Edwards, Frances A Podrebarac, Jamie Warren, Susan E Ziegler
Warmer climates have been associated with reduced bioreactivity of soil organic matter (SOM) typically attributed to increased diagenesis; the combined biological and physiochemical transformation of SOM. Additionally, cross site studies have indicated that ecosystem regime shifts, associated with long-term climate warming, can affect SOM properties through changes in vegetation and plant litter production thereby altering the composition of soil inputs. The relative importance of these two controls, diagenesis and inputs, on SOM properties as ecosystems experience climate warming, however, remains poorly understood...
September 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
Sophia Chao-Wei Huang, Chi-Hui Cheng, Yun Chiu, Yi-Ching Lin, Jui-Che Lin
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys possess mechanical properties that are desirable in many biomedical applications compared to other metals. Furthermore, the native metal oxide layer that prevents further oxidation is also known to be biocompatible. However, clinical findings have shown that titanium and its alloys are prone to adverse bioreactions such as platelet adhesion and activation which could lead to thrombogenic complications. It has been found that surfaces modified with fluorocarbons could reduce the degree of both platelet adhesion and activation...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Xin Zhou, Xuelian Zhou, Yong Xu
Oxygen supply for microbial cultures is often identified as a limiting factor for aerobic fermentation. Through implementation of an integrated oxygen control strategy, the high oxygen mass transfer rate satisfied cellular metabolic demands. Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 fermentation of xylose to xylonic acid was improved remarkably. Finally, the productivity of xylonic acid from xylose by biooxidation was markedly increased to 32.5±3.1g/L/h compared to production levels using conventional laboratory-scale bioreactors...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Tonny J Oyana, Slawomir M Lomnicki, Chuqi Guo, Stephania A Cormier
Stable, bioreactive, radicals known as environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found to exist on the surface of airborne PM2.5. These EPFRs have been found to form during many combustion processes, are present in vehicular exhaust, and persist in the environment for weeks and biological systems for up to 12 h. To measure EPFRs in PM samples, high volume samplers are required and measurements are less representative of community exposure; therefore, we developed a novel spatial phytosampling methodology to study the spatial patterns of EPFR concentrations using plants...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Andrea C Luongo Malavè, Debora Fino, Carlos E Gómez Camacho, Bernardo Ruggeri
Food stores can find themselves in the position of having to dispose of different types of products, such as snacks, confectionery, prepackaged food, drinks and others, Sweet Product Residue (SPR), which presents a great opportunity to produce energy through Anaerobic Digestion (AD), due to its high sugar, carbohidrate and fat contents. In order to valorise SPR, this paper takes into consideration the all necessary treatments; owing the fact that the refuses are constitute by an organic part and packaging (plastic, paper and their combinations), a pretreatment able to remove the latter is necessary...
January 2018: Waste Management
Nduka C Okwose, Shakir Chowdhury, David Houghton, Michael I Trenell, Christopher Eggett, Matthew Bates, Guy A MacGowan, Djordje G Jakovljevic
PURPOSE: This study assessed the agreement between cardiac output estimated by inert gas rebreathing and bioreactance methods at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Haemodynamic measurements were assessed in 20 healthy individuals (11 females, nine males; aged 32 ± 10 years) using inert gas rebreathing and bioreactance methods. Gas exchange and haemodynamic data were measured simultaneously under rest and different stages (i.e. 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 W) of progressive graded cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing using a bicycle ergometer...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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