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Hippocampus VTA Amygdala

P Abate, A C Reyes-Guzmán, K Hernández-Fonseca, M Méndez
Several studies suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) facilitates ethanol intake. Opioid peptides play a main role in ethanol reinforcement during infancy and adulthood. However, PEE effects upon motor responsiveness elicited by an ethanol challenge and the participation of opioids in these actions remain to be understood. This work assessed the susceptibility of adolescent rats to prenatal and/or postnatal ethanol exposure in terms of behavioral responses, as well as alcohol effects on Met-enk expression in brain areas related to drug reinforcement...
November 22, 2016: Neuropeptides
Carla Ferrada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Jorge Abarca, Katia Gysling
The mesocorticolimbic circuit projects to the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, among others, and it originates in the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA receives glutamatergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex and several subcortical regions. The glutamate released activates dopaminergic neurons and its action depends on the activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. VTA dopaminergic neurons release dopamine (DA) from axon terminals in the innervated regions and somatodendritically in the VTA itself...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
Hamdy Shaban, Rory O'Connor, Saak V Ovsepian, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
Hypothalamic neural circuits are recognised as primary sites of the neuromodulator effect of homeostatic food intake, whereas changes in ventral tegmental area (VTA), hippocampus and amygdala have been implicated in the hedonic, cognitive and emotional aspects of eating. Here, we discuss synaptic transmission and plasticity within brain circuits governing appetite and food intake behaviour, focusing on the metabolic hormones ghrelin and leptin. We discuss functional changes within these circuitries and critically assess the applicability of electrophysiological measurements using in vitro multielectrode array (MEA) systems to identify novel appetite modulators...
September 12, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Giuseppe Giannotti, Lucia Caffino, Francesca Mottarlini, Giorgio Racagni, Fabio Fumagalli
RATIONALE: Adolescence is a period of high vulnerability to drugs of abuse and alterations of the proper developmental trajectory via psychostimulant exposure might change the physiological brain homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: By microdissection of brain areas via punching, we investigated whether repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence (from postnatal day 28 [PND28] to PND42) has altered fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in selected brain subregions critical for the action of cocaine...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis, Philippe J Darius, Hong Wang, Joanne S Allard
The experience of early life stress can trigger complex neurochemical cascades that influence emotional and addictive behaviors later in life in both adolescents and adults. Recent evidence suggests that excessive alcohol drinking, and drug-seeking behavior in general, is co-morbid with depressive-like behavior. Both behaviors are reported in humans exposed to early life adversity, and are prominent features recapitulated in animal models of early life stress (ELS) exposure. Currently, little is known about whether or how ELS modulates reward system nuclei...
February 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Judit Zsuga, Klara Biro, Csaba Papp, Gabor Tajti, Rudolf Gesztelyi
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a powerful concept underlying forms of associative learning governed by the use of a scalar reward signal, with learning taking place if expectations are violated. RL may be assessed using model-based and model-free approaches. Model-based reinforcement learning involves the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The model-free system involves the pedunculopontine-tegmental nucleus (PPTgN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VS)...
February 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Y Li, S Ge, N Li, L Chen, S Zhang, J Wang, H Wu, X Wang, X Wang
Reactivation of consolidated memory initiates a memory reconsolidation process, during which the reactivated memory is susceptible to strengthening, weakening or updating. Therefore, effective interference with the memory reconsolidation process is expected to be an important treatment for drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been well recognized as a pathway component that can prevent drug relapse, although the mechanism underlying this function is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the regulatory role of the NAc in the cocaine memory reconsolidation process, by examining the effect of applying different pharmacological interventions to the NAc on Zif 268 and Fos B expression in the entire reward circuit after cocaine memory reactivation...
February 19, 2016: Neuroscience
Susana Mingote, Nao Chuhma, Sheila V Kusnoor, Bianca Field, Ariel Y Deutch, Stephen Rayport
UNLABELLED: In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subpopulation of dopamine neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and make glutamatergic connections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and olfactory tubercle (OT) neurons. However, their glutamatergic connections across the forebrain have not been explored systematically. To visualize dopamine neuron forebrain projections and to enable photostimulation of their axons independent of transmitter status, we virally transfected VTA neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (ChR2-EYFP) and used DAT(IREScre) mice to restrict expression to dopamine neurons...
December 9, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hanin M Alsaadi, Dean A Van Vugt
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of insulin sensitivity on the responsiveness of appetite regulatory brain regions to visual food cues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen participants diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were divided into insulin-sensitive (n=8) and insulin-resistant (n=11) groups based on the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing food pictures following water or dextrose consumption...
November 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Megan Dunbar Knowles, Patricia Barra de la Tremblaye, Idu Azogu, Hélène Plamondon
Global cerebral ischemia in rodents, which mimics cardiac arrest in humans, is associated with a surge in endocannabinoids and increased transmission of dopamine and glutamate leading to excitotoxic cell death. The current study assessed the role of CB1 receptor activation at the moment of an ischemic insult on ensuing regulation of stress and reward signaling molecules, neuronal injury and anxiety-like behavior. Male Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups (n=10/group); sham and ischemic rats administered the CB1 endocannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 (2mg/kg, i...
April 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
A Alvarsson, D Caudal, A Björklund, P Svenningsson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with extensive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons originating in the substantia nigra pars compacta, but neuronal loss is also found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA projects to areas involved in cognitive and emotional processes, including hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and has thus been proposed to play a role in emotional memory impairments in PD. Since the formation of α-synuclein inclusions throughout the central nervous system is a pathological hallmark of PD, we studied the progressive effects of α-synuclein overexpression in the VTA on motor functions, emotional behaviour and emotional memory...
January 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Hossein Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar, Abbas Haghparast
The limbic dopaminergic reward system is the main target of morphine-like drugs which begins from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends its dopaminergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Cannabinoid receptors exist in afferent neurons from these areas to the NAc and can modulate glutamate synaptic transmission in the NAc. Cannabinoids can interact with the opiate system in reward-related behaviors; nevertheless these systems' interaction in extinction duration and reinstatement has not been shown...
October 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
Ozra Dehkordi, Jed E Rose, Sadegh Asadi, Kebreten F Manaye, Richard M Millis, Annapurni Jayam-Trouth
Direct actions of nicotine in the CNS appear to be essential for its reinforcing properties. However, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on afferent sensory nerve fibers is an important component of addiction to, and withdrawal from, cigarette smoking. The aim of the present study was to identify the neuroanatomical substrates activated by the peripheral actions of nicotine and to determine whether these sites overlap brain structures stimulated by direct actions of nicotine. Mouse brains were examined by immunohistochemistry for c-Fos protein after intraperitoneal injection of either nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (NIC; 30 and 40 μg/kg) or nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM; 20 and 30 μg/kg)...
February 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Research
P Abate, K Hernández-Fonseca, A C Reyes-Guzmán, I G Barbosa-Luna, M Méndez
The endogenous opioid system is involved in ethanol reinforcement. Ethanol-induced changes in opioidergic transmission have been extensively studied in adult organisms. However, the impact of ethanol exposure at low or moderate doses during early ontogeny has been barely explored. We investigated the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on alcohol intake and Methionine-enkephalin (Met-enk) content in rat offspring. Met-enk content was assessed in the ventral tegmental area [VTA], nucleus accumbens [NAcc], prefrontal cortex [PFC], substantia nigra [SN], caudate-putamen [CP], amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus...
November 1, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
Matthew F Lazenka, Bethany G David, Aron H Lichtman, Eric J Nestler, Dana E Selley, Laura J Sim-Selley
Repeated Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration produces cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB₁R) desensitization and downregulation, as well as tolerance to its in vivo pharmacological effects. However, the magnitude of CB₁R desensitization varies by brain region, with CB₁Rs in the striatum and its output nuclei undergoing less desensitization than other regions. A growing body of data indicates that regional differences in CB₁R desensitization are produced, in part, by THC-mediated induction of the stable transcription factor, ΔFosB, and subsequent regulation of CB₁Rs...
October 1, 2014: Biochemical Pharmacology
Mary H Patton, Brandon T Bizup, Anthony A Grace
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. One major regulator of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which makes direct and indirect connections to the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as directly to the VTA. The mPFC is comprised of two subregions: the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices (ilPFC and plPFC). However, the specific roles of these subregions in regulating VTA dopamine activity have remained unclear...
October 23, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Dean A Van Vugt, Alicja Krzemien, Hanin Alsaadi, Stephanie Palerme, Robert L Reid
OBJECTIVE: Insulin is one of several molecules that transmit information about energy balance to the brain. It has been hypothesized that insulin resistance fosters non-homeostatic eating. The objective of the current study was to characterize corticolimbic brain responses to appetitive stimuli in subjects with insulin sensitivities ranging from resistant to normal. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing pictures of high calorie (HC) foods, low calorie (LC) foods, and control (C) pictures...
June 2013: Obesity
Janine I Rossato, Andressa Radiske, Cristiano A Kohler, Carolina Gonzalez, Lia R Bevilaqua, Jorge H Medina, Martín Cammarota
The mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its projections to the amygdala (AMY), the hippocampus (HIP) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), among others. Object recognition (OR) long-term memory (LTM) processing requires dopaminergic activity but, although some of the brain regions mentioned above are necessary for OR LTM consolidation, their possible dopamine-mediated interplay remains to be analyzed. Using adult male Wistar rats, we found that posttraining microinjection of the dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 in mPFC or AMY, but not in HIP, impaired OR LTM...
November 2013: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Nadia S Corral-Frias, Ryan P Lahood, Kimberly E Edelman-Vogelsang, Edward D French, Jean-Marc Fellous
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder of considerable prevalence in individuals who have experienced a traumatic event. Studies of the neural substrate of this disorder have focused on the role of areas such as the hippocampus, the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. We show that the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which directly modulates these areas, is part of this circuitry. Using a rat model of PTSD, we show that a brief but intense foot shock followed by three brief reminders can cause long-term behavioral changes as shown by anxiety-like, nociception, and touch-sensitivity tests...
January 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ameneh Rezayof, Mahdieh Ghandipour, Farzaneh Nazari-Serenjeh
A combination of cannabis with even a small amount of ethanol can alter the brain function, more than either drug alone. To investigate the interacting effects of the co-administration of a low dose of ethanol and a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) on the conditioned place preference (CPP) test in male Wistar rats, ACPA was injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), basolateral amygdala (BLA) or ventral hippocampus (VH) in combination with ethanol during the conditioning or testing phase...
October 10, 2012: Physiology & Behavior
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