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Growth potential heart valves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847254/vascular-calcification-in-ckd-mbd-roles-for-phosphate-fgf23-and-klotho
#1
REVIEW
Shunsuke Yamada, Cecilia M Giachelli
Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). VC is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the CKD population. Complex pathological mechanisms are involved in the development of VC, including osteochondrogenic differentiation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, instability and release of extracellular vesicles loaded calcium and phosphate, and elastin degradation. Elevated serum phosphate is a late manifestation of CKD, and has been shown to accelerate mineral deposition in both the vessel wall and heart valves...
November 12, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834758/current-status-of-tissue-engineering-heart-valve
#2
Toshiharu Shinoka, Hideki Miyachi
The development of surgically implantable heart valve prostheses has contributed to improved outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, there are drawbacks, such as risk of infection and lack of growth potential. Tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) holds great promise to address these drawbacks as the ideal TEHV is easily implanted, biocompatible, non-thrombogenic, durable, degradable, and ultimately remodels into native-like tissue. In general, three main components used in creating a tissue-engineered construct are (1) a scaffold material, (2) a cell type for seeding the scaffold, and (3) a subsequent remodeling process driven by cell accumulation and proliferation, and/or biochemical and mechanical signaling...
November 2016: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789941/nanopatterned-acellular-valve-conduits-drive-the-commitment-of-blood-derived-multipotent-cells
#3
Rosa Di Liddo, Paola Aguiari, Silvia Barbon, Thomas Bertalot, Amit Mandoli, Alessia Tasso, Sandra Schrenk, Laura Iop, Alessandro Gandaglia, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Maria Teresa Conconi, Gino Gerosa
Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the correlation among nanoscale topography, mechanical properties, and biological behavior of cardiac valve substitutes. Porcine TriCol scaffolds are promising valve tissue engineering matrices with demonstrated self-repopulation potentiality. In order to define an in vitro model for investigating the influence of extracellular matrix signaling on the growth pattern of colonizing blood-derived cells, we cultured circulating multipotent cells (CMC) on acellular aortic (AVL) and pulmonary (PVL) valve conduits prepared with TriCol method and under no-flow condition...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756541/growth-and-maturation-of-heart-valves-leads-to-changes-in-endothelial-cell-distribution-impaired-function-decreased-metabolism-and-reduced-cell-proliferation
#4
Lindsey J Anstine, Chris Bobba, Samir Ghadiali, Joy Lincoln
Risk factors of heart valve disease are well defined and prolonged exposure throughout life leads to degeneration and dysfunction in up to 33% of the population. While aortic valve replacement remains the most common need for cardiovascular surgery particularly in those aged over 65, the underlying mechanisms of progressive deterioration are unknown. In other cardiovascular systems, a decline in endothelial cell integrity and function play a major role in promoting pathological changes, and while similar mechanisms have been speculated in the valves, studies to support this are lacking...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692170/vitamin-d-regulates-the-production-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-triggering-cause-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#5
Subendu Sarkar, Seema Chopra, Manoj Kumar Rohit, Dibyajyoti Banerjee, Anuradha Chakraborti
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major cause of cardiac related mortality and morbidity in the developing countries due to poor diagnosis and lack of proper therapeutics. The definite reason of heart valve injury during RHD is poorly understood. Valvular endothelial cells play an important role in pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the regulation of vitamin D (calciferol) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) results in the functional changes in endothelial cells. However, the crosstalk between vitamin D and VEGF in the pathogenesis of RHD is not yet unfurled...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541486/promotion-of-adhesion-and-proliferation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-on-decellularized-valves-by-covalent-incorporation-of-rgd-peptide-and-vegf
#6
Jianliang Zhou, Jingli Ding, Bin'en Nie, Shidong Hu, Zhigang Zhu, Jia Chen, Jianjun Xu, Jiawei Shi, Nianguo Dong
Tissue engineered heart valve is a promising alternative to current heart valve surgery, for its capability of growth, repair, and remodeling. However, extensive development is needed to ensure tissue compatibility, durability and antithrombotic potential. This study aims to investigate the biological effects of multi-signal composite material of polyethyl glycol-cross-linked decellularized valve on adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells. Group A to E was decellularized valve leaflets, composite material of polyethyl glycol-cross-linked decellularized valves leaflets, vascular endothelial growth factor-composite materials, Arg-Gly-Asp peptide-composite materials and multi-signal modified materials of polyethyl glycol-cross-linked decellularized valve leaflets, respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508999/the-ross-procedure-in-adults-long-term-results-of-homografts-and-stentless-xenografts-for-pulmonary-valve-replacement
#7
Torsten Christ, Benjamin Claus, Nadine Woythal, Simon Dushe, Volkmar Falk, Herko Grubitzsch
Background The Ross procedure is an established method to treat aortic valve disease, offering excellent hemodynamic characteristics, growth potential, low risk of thromboembolism and no need for anticoagulation. Limitation of homograft quality and availability led to the use of different stentless xenografts. Long-term outcome and implications are yet to be addressed. Methods Forty five adult patients (mean age 38.8 ± 9.6 years) with aortic valve stenosis and/or insufficiency, who underwent the Ross procedure between 1995 and 2002 were identified for long-term evaluation...
August 10, 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468412/denosumab-could-be-a-potential-inhibitor-of-valvular-interstitial-cells-calcification-in-vitro
#8
Daniel Alejandro Lerman, Sai Prasad, Nasri Alotti
OBJECTIVE: Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody and novel antiresorptive agent that works by binding receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) and inhibiting the signaling cascade that causes osteoclast maturation, activity, and survival. We aimed to elucidate the effect of Denosumab in the process of spontaneous and induced calcification in an in vitro porcine valvular interstitial cells (VICs) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VICs were extracted from fresh porcine hearts by serial collagenase digestion...
January 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369118/surgical-results-for-pulmonary-atresia-with-intact-ventricular-septum-a-single-centre-15-year-experience-and-medium-term-follow-up
#9
Jinghao Zheng, Botao Gao, Zhongqun Zhu, Guocheng Shi, Zhiwei Xu, Jinfen Liu, Xiaomin He
OBJECTIVES: The optimal surgical strategies for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) are still not well established. This study reviewed our 15-year experience in the management of PAIVS. METHODS: Between July 1999 and June 2014, 170 patients were treated for PAIVS in our heart centre. Based on the morphology of the right ventricle (RV), age and surgical approaches, the patients were divided into two groups: the one-stage surgery group (n = 33) and the staged surgery group (n = 137), in which patients received definitive repair, including biventricular repair, 1...
July 1, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167776/bioengineered-living-cardiac-and-venous-valve-replacements-current-status-and-future-prospects
#10
REVIEW
Debora Kehl, Benedikt Weber, Simon Philipp Hoerstrup
Valvular heart disease remains to be a major cause of death worldwide with increasing prevalence, mortality, and morbidity. Current heart valve replacements are associated with several limitations due to their nonviable nature. In this regard, heart valve tissue engineering has shown to represent a promising concept in order to overcome these limitations and replace diseased cardiac valves with living, autologous constructs. These bioengineered valves hold potential for in situ remodeling, growth, and repair throughout the patient's lifetime without the risk of thromboembolic complications and adverse immune responses...
July 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066787/implantation-of-a-tissue-engineered-tubular-heart-valve-in-growing-lambs
#11
Jay Reimer, Zeeshan Syedain, Bee Haynie, Matthew Lahti, James Berry, Robert Tranquillo
Current pediatric heart valve replacement options are suboptimal because they are incapable of somatic growth. Thus, children typically have multiple surgeries to replace outgrown valves. In this study, we present the in vivo function and growth potential of our tissue-engineered pediatric tubular valve. The valves were fabricated by sewing two decellularized engineered tissue tubes together in a prescribed pattern using degradable sutures and subsequently implanted into the main pulmonary artery of growing lambs...
April 11, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912574/small-intestinal-submucosa-extracellular-matrix-cormatrix%C3%A2-in-cardiovascular-surgery-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Zahra Mosala Nezhad, Alain Poncelet, Laurent de Kerchove, Pierre Gianello, Caroline Fervaille, Gebrine El Khoury
Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is widely used in clinical applications as a scaffold for tissue repair. Recently, CorMatrix® porcine SIS-ECM (CorMatrix Cardiovascular, Inc., Roswell, GA, USA) has gained popularity for 'next-generation' cardiovascular tissue engineering due to its ease of use, remodelling properties, lack of immunogenicity, absorbability and potential to promote native tissue growth. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of porcine SIS-ECM and systematically review the preclinical and clinical literature on its use in cardiovascular surgery...
June 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883434/the-fibrosis-cell-death-axis-in-heart-failure
#13
A Piek, R A de Boer, H H W Silljé
Cardiac stress can induce morphological, structural and functional changes of the heart, referred to as cardiac remodeling. Myocardial infarction or sustained overload as a result of pathological causes such as hypertension or valve insufficiency may result in progressive remodeling and finally lead to heart failure (HF). Whereas pathological and physiological (exercise, pregnancy) overload both stimulate cardiomyocyte growth (hypertrophy), only pathological remodeling is characterized by increased deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, termed fibrosis, and loss of cardiomyocytes by necrosis, apoptosis and/or phagocytosis...
March 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843026/natural-history-of-107-cases-of-fetal-aortic-stenosis-from-a-european-multicenter-retrospective-study
#14
H M Gardiner, A Kovacevic, G Tulzer, T Sarkola, U Herberg, J Dangel, A Öhman, J Bartrons, J S Carvalho, H Jicinska, V Fesslova, I Averiss, M Mellander
OBJECTIVES: Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FV) aims to prevent fetal aortic valve stenosis progressing into hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), which results in postnatal univentricular (UV) circulation. Despite increasing numbers of FVs performed worldwide, the natural history of the disease in fetal life remains poorly defined. The primary aim of this study was to describe the natural history of fetal aortic stenosis, and a secondary aim was to test previously published criteria designed to identify cases of emerging HLHS with the potential for a biventricular (BV) outcome after FV...
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26799729/engineering-natural-heart-valves-possibilities-and-challenges
#15
Mehrnaz Namiri, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Omid Mashinchian, Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi, Morteza Mahmoudi, Nasser Aghdami, Hossein Baharvand
Heart valve replacement is considered to be the most prevalent treatment approach for cardiac valve-related diseases. Among current solutions for heart valve replacement, e.g. mechanical and bioprosthetic valves, the main shortcoming is the lack of growth capability, repair and remodelling of the substitute valve. During the past three decades, tissue engineering-based approaches have shown tremendous potential to overcome these limitations by the development of a biodegradable scaffold, which provides biomechanical and biochemical properties of the native tissue...
January 22, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26733738/evaluation-of-growth-differentiation-factor-11-gdf11-levels-in-dogs-with-chronic-mitral-valve-insufficiency
#16
Sung-Taek Ahn, Sang-Il Suh, Hyeongsun Moon, Changbaig Hyun
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) regulates cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. Circulating GDF11 levels have recently been reported to be significantly lower in aging mice and restoration of GDF11 reversed age-related cardiac hypertrophy in old mice. Here, we evaluated the potential of serum levels of GDF11 as a circulating biomarker in dogs at different stages of heart failure, due to chronic mitral valve insufficiency (CMVI). We found no significant differences in serum GDF11 levels between dogs at different stages of CMVI-associated heart failure...
January 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26707568/melatonin-reverses-flow-shear-stress-induced-injury-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signaling
#17
Yang Yang, Chongxi Fan, Chao Deng, Lin Zhao, Wei Hu, Shouyin Di, Zhiqiang Ma, Yu Zhang, Zhigang Qin, Zhenxiao Jin, Xiaolong Yan, Shuai Jiang, Yang Sun, Wei Yi
Tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) are a promising treatment for valvular heart disease, although their application is limited by high flow shear stress (FSS). Melatonin has a wide range of physiological functions and is currently under clinical investigation for expanded applications; moreover, extensive protective effects on the cardiovascular system have been reported. In this study, we investigated the protection conferred by melatonin supplementation against FSS-induced injury in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and elucidated the potential mechanism in this process...
March 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656602/fibrous-scaffolds-for-building-hearts-and-heart-parts
#18
REVIEW
A K Capulli, L A MacQueen, Sean P Sheehy, K K Parker
Extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and biochemistry provide cell-instructive cues that promote and regulate tissue growth, function, and repair. From a structural perspective, the ECM is a scaffold that guides the self-assembly of cells into distinct functional tissues. The ECM promotes the interaction between individual cells and between different cell types, and increases the strength and resilience of the tissue in mechanically dynamic environments. From a biochemical perspective, factors regulating cell-ECM adhesion have been described and diverse aspects of cell-ECM interactions in health and disease continue to be clarified...
January 15, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26555371/biomechanical-conditioning-of-tissue-engineered-heart-valves-too-much-of-a-good-thing
#19
REVIEW
Shouka Parvin Nejad, Mark C Blaser, J Paul Santerre, Christopher A Caldarone, Craig A Simmons
Surgical replacement of dysfunctional valves is the primary option for the treatment of valvular disease and congenital defects. Existing mechanical and bioprosthetic replacement valves are far from ideal, requiring concomitant anticoagulation therapy or having limited durability, thus necessitating further surgical intervention. Heart valve tissue engineering (HVTE) is a promising alternative to existing replacement options, with the potential to synthesize mechanically robust tissue capable of growth, repair, and remodeling...
January 15, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536240/differentiation-and-distribution-of-marrow-stem-cells-in-flex-flow-environments-demonstrate-support-of-the-valvular-phenotype
#20
Sasmita Rath, Manuel Salinas, Ana G Villegas, Sharan Ramaswamy
For treatment of critical heart valve diseases, prosthetic valves perform fairly well in most adults; however, for pediatric patients, there is the added requirement that the replacement valve grows with the child, thus extremely limiting current treatment options. Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV), such as those derived from autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), have the potential to recapitulate native valve architecture and accommodate somatic growth. However, a fundamental pre-cursor in promoting directed integration with native tissues rather than random, uncontrolled growth requires an understanding of BMSC mechanobiological responses to valve-relevant mechanical environments...
2015: PloS One
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